Operation Desert Storm was not a "patriotic triumph" for many U.S. citizens.  Numerous Americans silently disapproved of the war, while others defiantly created a movement of Gulf War dissenters.  By the late 1990's the recognition of these protests had faded from the public's consciousness.  On top of this amnesia among the general citizenry, some insightful peace scholars have minimized the size of the protests.  For example, peace historian Charles Chatfield (1992) wrote, "So brief and militarily successful was the [Gulf] war . . .  that no significant opposition evolved" (p xi) and Sociologists Sam Marullo et. al. (1996) said that the Gulf War inspired only a brief "'minisurge' in peace activism." (p. 10). 
The purpose of this web-page is to give citizens and academics a list of empirical studies that counter these misconceptions.  In doing so, readers will get references to studies that describe different aspects of mobilization against 1991 Gulf War.  Since I am scholar who values academic integrity and sound research principles, I have only included works which pass a minimal level of academic rigor (clearly none of these works have perfect research designs, but even the best social scientific studies contain methodological limitations).  Moreover, I have only included original research that primarily limits its focus to Gulf War demonstrations (i.e., not general studies of peace movements). 
General Descriptions of the Gulf War Mobilization
Studies of Participants (Framing grievances, goals and tactics)
Media-Movement Interactions
Public Perceptions of Gulf War Protesters
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Created on Feb 15, 2003