Art and Science
Sculpture, Gravity and the Illusion of Expanding Universe
Created December 17, 1998 17:53:34
"Illusions" (all about U) sang by Marlene Dietrich
The most interesting page here is a page that explains why the universe looks as if it were expanding and why this expansion looks as if it were accelerating. The explanation is surprisingly simple (its whole math consists of only six lines of high school calculus) and is based only on Einstein's theory of gravity and on absolute validity of the principle of conservation of energy (there are neither any additional assumptions nor any adjustable parameters).
The derivation of Hubble's constant of the apparent expansion of the universe and of the (apparent) acceleration of the expansion is done with Newtonian Approximation of general relativity only. It has been possible because of the correspondence between the Newtonian potential and the gravitational time dilation. The apparent expansion of the universe comes out qualitatively and quantitatively roughly as it is observed in the real universe.
For mathematically oriented readers: Hubble's constant of this apparent expansion comes out as H = c / R, where c is speed of light and R is Einstein's radius of the universe, and the acceleration of this apparent expansion comes out as dH/dt = (c / R)^{2} / 2.
The derivation may by understood by anyone who knows high school calculus. For those who don't there is a page that explains calculus as well. If any explanation is not clear please ask the author. There is no magic in science and everything in science can be explained by reducing it to trivial truths that any reasonable person can understand and agree upon. If it can't be reduced it means it is not science yet and we just stumbled upon something that is not yet known, waiting to be discovered as it had been the case with explanation of Hubble's redshift for a long time despite that it could be easily explained with Einsteinian gravity.
The Einsteinian gravity is explained in a separate page that is meant for general public and for those physicists who still apply only Newtonian gravity in their thinking about the universe but would like to understand the 20th century gravity physics as well. This page contains a long introduction (too long?) that explains the difference between science and magic and presents a hypothesis why astrophysicists didn't find this simple explanation of Hubble's redshift despite that it was hinted at by Einstein already in 1950.
Of course the explanation of Hubble's redshift presented in this website may still contain a hidden error however no error has been found in it since February 1985 when the first paper about it was sent to Nature for evaluation and possible publication. Since that time about two dozens gravity physicists from various universities and referees from various scientific journals were asked to evaluate the paper. None of them reported any real error. All the referees recommended rejection of the paper on the basis of their firm belief that the expansion of the universe is real. Opinions of referees about the explanation of Hubble's redshift are presented here as well. They are interesting for the reasons with which the referees support their firm belief that the universe is expanding.
Site's Colored and White Pages:
Drawings and sculpture, figurative and realistic. WARNING: Don't look if you are offended by nudity. If you are it is safe to look at paintings of Janina Pisera, a contemporary American naive painter. No nudity there, only exceptionally good art, tough to find anywhere else. |
The Theory of Art for poets, art teachers, and all those who would like to understand why people enjoy, without any apparent reason, watching certain pieces of art. An explanation why Joe DiMaggio might be the better artist than Pablo Picasso, and why truth, life, and beauty make the difference between good and bad art. |
Calculus for poets and chemists. |
Einstein's Gravitation for poets, physicists, science teachers, astronomers, and all those who would like to know how gravity really works rather than how it was explained hundreds of years ago. |
Gravitational
energy in Einstein's gravitation. An article explaining
where the gravitational energy is located in Einstein's
gravitation and how gravitational force is generated as a
negative derivative of this energy with respect to distance.
PDF version. |
Surprise for Allan. A short story meant to explain why "simultaneous" is not absolute i.e. if it means two events happening at the same time it can't be the same two events for everybody in the universe (unless these two events happen not only at the same time but also at the same point in space, which than basically it is only one event). |
The General Time
Dilation. An article for general audience explaining why
there must be "general time dilation" ("Hubble's
redshift" a.k.a. "cosmological redshift" in
Newtonian terminology) in a homogeneous space despite that
corresponding redshift can't exist in Newtonian gravity with
its conservative "gravitational field". It explains why the
principle of conservation of energy demands that the universe
looks as if it were expanding with accelerating expansion. PDF version. Polish version: Ogolna Dylatacja Czasu. |
Illusion of Expanding Universe. An explanation for general public and astronomers why the expansion of the universe is an illusion caused by certain relativistic feature of gravity (general time dilation for physicists and asymmetry of metric tensor of spacetime for mathematicians, both describing the same effect) with the derivation of all the equations for those who suspect an error in the reasoning and either want to find it or be sure that there is none. |