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Why Java Sucks

A Critique of the most-hyped programming language in history

Updated: 2/17/2007

Java is probably the most-hyped programming language ever, and deserves almost none of its fame. All of it's promises can be fulfilled by existing languages or moved to standardized protocol design instead of a language. There is nothing really new that Java brings to the table. Sun is much better at marketing than at creating new languages. HP and IBM products are often technically superior or better deals, but those companies have not learned how to market the way Sun and Microsoft have.

Perhaps Java's only real claim to fame is being the first language designed for web applet usage; but even that niche is being filled by Flash players and others because Java didn't do applets very well. Now it is trying to remake itself as a server language. However, it is too slow and too unpredictable (GC) for systems work and too strong-typed for application database work. Java is in for a long struggle.

Just like the sinking dot-coms, Java is going to have to struggle on it's own merits (if it has any) when the hype runs out. Hype can knock you down just as fast as it bring you up. Hype is a two-edged sword.

Java's Flaws in a Nutshell

  • Cross-platform GUI's and networking should be API's or protocols that other languages can use as well. There are plenty of other cross-platform languages already (Perl, Lisp, Tcl, Pascal, Python, etc.). What is needed most are standard protocols that any language can use, not yet-another-language. Insufficient cross-platform protocols is the current bottleneck, not languages.

  • Case-sensitivity

    Dumb dumb Dumb dumb:

          Thingy thingy = new Thingy();
    Why does the Unix crowd hold on to case-sensitive tokens? It should have gone out with vacuum tubes. CPU speed? Come on! Make the machine be the slave, not the human programmers. How much speed does it buy? A 0.000001 increase?

  • Java does not make doing procedural programming very easy. Yes, it is doable to some extent, but it becomes clear that Java is not optimized for it. For example, some API's don't work with Static methods, at least not without contortions. At least C++ lets one easily do normal procedural programming if they wish. (Not that I like C++, but it is less doctrinaire about forcing paradigms down one's throat.) Even many OO fans agree that OO is not for every problem. However, the builders of Java appear to think it is. The irony of this is that Java is not even a very good OO language (see below). A language should lead, follow, or get out of the way. Java fits into the last category. (See also: OOP usage assessment.)

  • The strong typing model is not ideal for many types of applications, for example, applications that interface with many different systems and protocols. Some JDBC Java applications spend half their code converting types. This is not only a waste of code, making it cluttered and hard-to-read, but databases may change their field types, making a JDBC application fragile. A nice feature would be to make strong typing optional. This can be done by either a compiler switch or via optional type specifiers for declarations. (This may make operator overloading tougher, but there are many critics of operator overloading anyhow. I never was much for using "+" for string concatenation. Use another symbol.)

  • The "Break" clause in case statements. Another idiotic hold-over from C.

  • High protocol coupling. Using the Java libraries often requires one to know about protocol B even if one wants to use only protocol A features. Further, protocol B may require knowing how protocol C works, etc. (Note that "works" does not necessarily imply internal implementation, but knowing the protocol itself.) See "Casey Swings Foul Ball" below, and Black Boxes for more on this.

  • Most heavy OO fans agree that Java's OO is not up to snuff. There are languages like Smalltalk, Eiffel, Python, OO-Pascal, etc. that object fans find much more object-friendly. I am by no means an OO fan, but it seems that Java makes for a lousy procedural language and a lousy OO language. It is a jack-of-no-trades-and-a-master-of-none. It's strong-typing model does not even allow it to be a general-purpose (middle of the road) language.

  • Lousy reflection. Reflection, the ability to know and/or change information about run-time items or the application itself, was added to Java as an afterthought, and it shows.

  • Some of us are bothered by semi-colons. However, this is a subjective issue. (Some have suggested that the bloat of OO programming nearly requires it.) It would be nice to offer a choice of styles, and this includes curly-braces versus X/EndX blocking styles. In my opinion, a good X/EndX syntax is better documentation and debugging.

  • I find that programs are easier to read if the type declaration and other specificers come after variable names. The important stuff should come first on a line, and the details after. I search for specific variables much more often than I search for type names. Pascal sort of got this right.

  • Normal:
      print("Hello world");
      "Hello world".print()
      System.out.println("Hello world");
    The Java approach is a "Law of Demeter" sin. It hard-wires the "path" of the resource into the application code.

Casey Swings Foul Ball

I tried to include a Swing data grid in a little Java app the other day, and found the most bureaucratic claptrap thing ever seen since the Chernobyl computer. I've used grid widgets in other tools/languages, and they were far more approachable. For example, if you wanted to turn on scrollbars and change the color of the selected (current) cell, you'd do something like this:
  // A real kit, not Swing
  myGrid.scrollbars = True;
  myGrid.selectedColor = "#ffff00";
However, Java's Swing rarely makes things this easy. You have to embed the grid in a scroll-panel widget; and to change selected color, you have to create a "column model" object, and a couple of other screwy middle-men classes. I don't want to have to care about that kind of detail; I just want to drop the food in front of the tiger, not guide the food through its intestines via an Intestine Model and an Enzyme Timing Manager on through to some Excretion Model Coordinator Manager objects, one for each glistening log. Why make me care about those!?

Perhaps if you are a systems programmer designing a tool kit for mass sale or a GUI specialist for a huge project with lots of specialists, access to those kinds of details may matter. However, that's only a small portion of the programming audience and against the "easy to get going" kind of mantra that Sun wags all over the place.

If it's a bureaucratic gizmo that only a mainframe administrator's mother could love, then Sun should say so. I've seen the light with real widgets, and Java's bloated API's ain't it. (Related: protocol coupling)

Sun should release a more streamlined kit that hides such spaghetti. (The existing API's don't need to go away.) However, it usually takes them at least 5 years to get the kinks out, so don't expect anything usable anytime soon.

(And, why the hell is the default selected cell color medium-dark purple when current-row color is medium-purple? That stands out about as well as milk in a snow storm. Did they hire Stevie Wonder to design the color scheme?)

Event Manglers

Another annoyance is how GUI events are handled in Java. Good GUI kits use "on-X" methods to be defined for each widget object. For example, a button object would have an "onClick()" method. To add activity to a widget, you simply fill in the related on-X event's method. That's too simple for Sun I guess. Whenever the simple route presented itself, Sun avoided it. The developers were paid by the number of classes they could invent, it seems, coming up with the round-about "listener" doodads to add to their class count.

Java Proponents Can Be Very Wrong

An article on the JavaWorld website about Java and GUI design by Allen Holub made some strong claims about procedural/relational programming that are misleading or wrong.

"The main reason to heed the rules in the previous section is that they make your code easier to maintain, because all the changes that typically need to be done to fix a problem or add a feature tend to be concentrated in one place."

Changes come in many different forms. Optimizing a grouping for one type of change often disadvantages a different kind of change. OO often emphasizes "noun-oriented" changes at the expense of "verb-oriented" changes. It is no free lunch and verb-orientation is just as important an aspect as noun-centricity in my opinion. See Shapes Example and Aspects for more on this.

"If anything, good object-oriented systems are more complex than procedural ones, but in such systems the program is better organized and thus easier to maintain."

While I personally agree with the first part of this sentence, the second remains largely unproven.

"Consider a system designed to get names from users. You might be tempted to use a TextField from which you extract a String, but that just won't work in a robust application. What if the system needs to run in China? (Unicode comes nowhere near representing all the idiographs that comprise written Chinese.) What if a user wants to enter a name using a pen (or speech recognition) rather than a keyboard? What if the database you're using to store the names can't store Unicode? What if you need to change the program a year from now to add employee IDs everywhere names are entered or displayed? In a procedural system, the solutions you come up with to answer these questions usually highlight enormous maintenance problems inherent to these systems. There's just no easy way to solve even the smallest problem, and a vast effort is often required to make simple changes.

An object-oriented solution tries to encapsulate those things that are likely to change in such a way that a change to one part of the program won't impact the rest of the program at all. For example, an object-oriented solution to the problems I just discussed requires a Name class, objects of which know how to both display and initialize themselves. You would display the name by saying "display yourself over there," passing in a Graphics object, or perhaps a Container to which the name could drop in a JPanel that displayed the name. You would create a UI for a name by telling an empty Name object to "initialize yourself using this piece of this window." The Name object might choose to create a TextField for this purpose, but that's its business. You, as a programmer, simply don't care how the name goes about initializing itself, as long as it is initialized. (The implementation might not create a UI at all -- it might get the initial value by getting the required information from a database or from across a network.)"

First of all, there is no law that says procedural frameworks cannot have a "name" subroutine and/or type. I can envision a NamePrompt(x) routine that can also "hide" all the stuff listed. Hiding details is what subroutines are all about.

However, trying to engineer for every pre-conceived change into a system before the requirements even happen is often not wise. For one, to prepare for all of the potential options, such a component may require a large interface. As programmers come and go (or forget), they will have to slosh through this interface to know what is relevant and what to ignore for the moment.

"In the simple example above, you're tasked with adding an employee ID to every name in every screen that displays employee names. In the RAD-style architecture, you'll have to modify every one of these screens by hand, modifying or adding widgets to accommodate the new ID field."
What the author is proposing is being able to add this change to one place and have the new ID field automatically propagate to all screens which display the name. It is an intellectually interesting idea, until you think a little deeper.

This is frankly a bad idea! What if you don't want ID to appear on every screen? For example, on some screens there might not be enough room without manual re-arrangment of fields (automated esthetic adjustment is not something computers currently do very well). Or, perhaps some viewers are not to have access to see Employee ID. For example, external (B-to-B or B-to-C) clients may be limited to just seeing a name. The author is risking the exposure of internal information to the outside world.

Such blunt propagation of changes could be done just as easily with a procedural approach (assuming a well-designed GUI protocol), but I won't risk endorsing the idea by describing how.

He Does It Again

The author evens brags about similar techniques in an article titled The Incredible Transmogrifying Widget. An excerpt:
"...looking at a widget that I use all the time: a wrapper around a Collection capable of creating a visual proxy that automatically changes its appearance. By examining the amount of screen real estate available to it, the widget displays the Collection as a combo box, a list, or a button that pops up a frame containing the list when pressed. This sort of dynamic adaptability is essential when implementing user interfaces for object-oriented systems, since the context in which a particular attribute will be displayed is often unknown at compile time." [Emphasis added]
Imagine how a user would feel if one time they come to a screen to be faced with a pull-down list, and then later a button that says "see list...." after selecting a few different options or shuffling screens around a bit. Consistency is an important trait in user interface design. Lack of consistency tends to confuse and/or distract the user. The user may pause to think, "Hmmm, why did that pull-down list change into a button? Am I in the right screen?" One should not make the screen keep morphing around unless it is the only practical option left. I would have to look at a specific case to weigh and present the tradeoffs involved. However, morphing widgets and layouts should be a last resort only.

More Java BS-Busting to come . . .

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