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EXPLOSING WATER to RUN YOUR CAR : yes, water can burn and also explode !
(there is also hundreds pages about this concept to run a car with water, here I give you just a bit …)

# - 2005, a guy said he was running his car on water explosion, by adding a second source of electricity (a converter 12/110) to the basic ignition coil of his V8 car, to create a stronger spark, he was able to run it just on water sent to the carburetor, in place of petrol, and exploded with the plasma electric arc.

Official scientific studies confirm the possibility and strong power, and over unity of the exploding of water with an electric arc/spark. See papers from Pr. Peter Graneau University of Oxford, Gary Johnson Kansas State University, George Hathaway, Richard Hull, ...

- from : watercar synopsis.pdf: Kramer's Watercar Project Technology Synopsis Watercar Technology :

There are a number of ways to operate an internal combustion engine using only water as fuel. The traditional approach is to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen gas using electrolysis, however, this process is quite inefficient. To improve the efficiency of electrolysis, various inventors have sought to stimulate water at its resonance frequencies and thus get more gas production with less energy inputs. This approach works, however, problems have always been in making enough gas on demand as needed by an engine, noting that storing H2 and O2 is a highly explosive alternative that should be avoided.
There is also another group of inventors who make mono-atomic H and O gas, which is very nice as you get larger gas volumes and a more reactive fuel so you use less, but it still must be made on-demand...
Others have tried chemical reactions with water to produce hydrogen gas. The typical approach is with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and aluminum which will produce enough gas so long as you have empty aluminium cans to keep the car running. Sodium hydride (NaH) is even more reactive, but highly dangerous to handle unless properly encapsulated as a company called Powerballs, Inc. is proposing. There are many other chemical reduction reactions that can be used, however, the metals become more costly and re-refining or reprocessing the waste water will be a messy problem. Not such a good ecological approach.
A recently revised approach is to use a plasma arc to dissociate water. US Magnegas Inc. does this in reactors that recycle carbon-based liquid wastes like sewage, used cooking or automotive oils, soaps and cleaning solvents, and so on, to produce a stable and compressible "Magnegas" which has been very successfully combusted in ordinary vehicles and can be used for cooking, metal cutting or in various power generating technologies. This is a worthy approach for liquid waste disposal and generation of a limited amount of usable gas for running vehicles.

The latest watercar technique utilizes a little known "exploding water" technique. This is based on a high capacitance discharge in water or water vapor which causes a "cold fog jet" pressure pulse together with light flash and sonic concussion. This is basically a lightning and thunder reaction and is the approach that shows the most promise when applied to an internal combustion engine. This is the recommended approach as it requires less energy and produces a powerful result without consuming the water, which is simply recycled repeatedly in order to achieve 300 mpg or more.

S1r's Plasma Fog Jet Watercar:
An automotive mechanic who goes by the Internet name of s1r9a9m9 has the distinction of making the first plasma fog jet watercar. He did this somewhat by mistake using an old 1978 Chevrolet El Camino with a 350 cu in engine. His 'eureka event' happened when he accidentally dropped a 110v AC wire into a bucket of water. This resulted in an immediate explosion in the bucket. He thought that that was really cool so he did it again but with a board over the bucket this time. Well, the 2 x 4 imbedded itself in his shop ceiling so he concluded that that wasn't such a neat thing to do again, but if he could get the same explosion to happen in a car engine, now that would be something!
A year later and after a lot of tinkering S1r succeeded! He now has his 350 cu in running on only water and he gets over 300 miles per gallon of water…..and he has put over 30,000 miles on the car to prove that it works.

What did he do right?

He started with a stock ignition and carburetor system. This, however, did not deliver enough 'spark' to explode the water, so he added a 12v-110v inverter and wired the spark plug leads through a relay that had rectifying diodes inside so that the high voltage (low amp) spike from the coil would piggyback on the low voltage (110v) high amp (6.6amp) coming out of the inverter. This combined current was enough to trigger the water explosion reaction when the relays (one per plug) were wired to each plug. Both the inverter and relays were not grounded to the car except at the plug base…

The other thing he had to do was to increase the water flow to the cylinders. This he did by increasing the jet size in his carburetor to about 2 sizes larger. This allowed more water vapor into the cylinders for each firing and consequently gave a stronger reaction.

A better design is to first rectify the AC through a single diode (half wave rectified) or through a bridge rectifier (4 diodes) to give 110v (or 220v) DC and merge this with the HV DC through a HV diode and then to the plug arc ground.

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Scientists explode water : and measure over unity :

# - from : Prof.Graneau.pdf, University of Oxford http://rhull.home.infionline.net/highenergy007.htm

History of Water Arc Explosions :
The unusual strength of explosions caused by a pulsed current flowing through water plasma was first noticed in 1907 by Trowbridge (1) in his early high voltage laboratory at Harvard University. When he passed an arc through a spray of water, the resulting explosion was louder than in ordinary laboratory air. During the second world war, Frungel measured the strength of water arc explosions and published his results in 1948 (2). He concluded that they were not caused by heat and steam and freely admitted that he was unable to explain the phenomenon. Soon after Frungel's publications, water arc explosions found applications in electrohydraulic metal forming(3) and underwater pulse echo sounding (4). In 1969, the US Bureau of Mines issued a long report on their investigation into using water arc explosions for rock fragmentation (5). In one experiment the investigators at the Twin City Mining Research Center noticed that the energy output was apparently 156% of the input.

Not until the mid-1980s was the scientific basis of the puzzling explosions more extensively researched. At MIT (6,7). It was shown that the discharge of 3.6 kJ of stored capacitor energy would create pressures in excess of 20.000 atm. In 7 ml of water. 3.6 gm of water was ejected from an accelerator barrel at a velocity of the order of 1000m/s, sufficient to penetrate a ผ" thick aluminium plate (8).

While not in all, but in many discharges under differing experimental conditions of varying capacitance, initial voltage and water volume, the kinetic energy of the water jet was larger than the electrical energy that had been stored in the capacitor bank.

The data shown in figure 2 reveals both the over unity performance of the water accelerator and as well further evidence that the amount of energy released depends on the energy stored in the hydrogen bonds. It can be seen that the temperature of the water which is directly related to the extra vibrational energy in the hydrogen bonding network has a direct effect on the energy of the fog jet.

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# - Electrically Induced Explosions in Water by Gary Johnson Kansas State University.
Abstracts :

… A 2 mf capacitor was charged to voltages in the 1-10 kV range and discharged into a water column through a 38 mH inductor. At voltages up to about 6 kV, the water acted as a relatively high resistance and the circuit decayed as an overdamped RLC circuit.
Resistance decreased with time. When the resistance dropped below about 10 W, the water would explode if the capacitor still had sufficient energy. The loudness was distinctly greater than an equivalent amount of gunpowder.

… Conclusions : Electrically induced explosions in water are relatively easy to produce with a 2 uF capacitor charged to 10 kV. Expanding steam does not seem to be the main cause. Similar explosions are obtained with significantly different peak currents, which raises questions about the longitudinal Ampere forces being the primary cause. It is therefore conceivable that we are tapping a new energy source.

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# - from POWERLABS : http://www.powerlabs.org/waterarc.html

Water Atomization by High Magnitude Electrical Impulses: A study.
After several discharges the pressure inside the box remained at 1ATM. If the water was being vaporized by the discharge a phase change expansion would be expected and hence some pressure increase should be observed. Similarly, if the water was being split up into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis, an even higher pressure increase should be observed. More importantly, there was no "fogging" inside the box, further refuting any steam condensation claims, and the temperature change was consistent with my theory that the water is not being vaporized. If only a small amount of Hydrogen and Oxygen was being produced, it could diffuse into the liquid and remain there in gaseous phase. In fact, analyzing the light emitted by a silent arc inside the atmosphere of the box with a chromatograph after 20 discharges showed the characteristic red line of hydrogen, as well as all usual signature produced by nitrogen and oxygen in air.
But how can a shock wave be produced when the net pressure change is zero? Conventionally, shock waves are produced by explosives, such as nitroglycerine, which upon being struck or heated above 280C, decomposes to give 10 000 times its original volume in gas. This tremendous expansion gives rise to a shock wave traveling at 4500 M/sec[3]. The shock wave can be thought off as a sound wave, or, more accurately, as a pulse traveling through a medium of some sort. In an explosive this pulse is provided by the initial expansion, which pushed air molecules outwards at a very fast rate. Because gases are produced, a net pressure increase is observed.

In the water atomization experiment, the shock wave implies that there must be an initial pulse, or expansion, but the zero pressure increase tells us that this change is non permanent and very quick. We can therefore rule out vaporization, and electrolysis, as both would result in a permanent pressure change.

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# - See also :
- http://www.amasci.com/amateur/capexpt.html
- http://www.rialian.com/rnboyd/powergain.htm
- http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd

# - also :

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# - From Ronald CLASSEN :

before (normal spark) = >> >> = after modification (plasma spark)

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# - from Tero @ egas forum: Many different diagrams/solution proposed to create THE plasma spark that can explode water:

One of them:

- Snaps from Tero 'water1' video :

steps 1 (arc ignition)------------- 2 (explosion)

3 (very bright flash)------------- 4 (water splash)

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SUPER SPARK PLUGS and HOT WIRE systems, on the market, to save fuel or may be Explode water:

- 1996, Robert Krupa , Farmington Hills, Michigan, Firestorm Plasma Spark Plug, US patents US5936332 and US6060822, http://www.robertstanley.biz/firestorm.htm

- Interview with Firestorm inventor, Robert Krupa, by Robert Stanley ฉ October 2004, Email: rstanley@socal.rr.com, abstract:

STANLEY: Regarding your FireStorm spark plugs, because you are changing the air-fuel ratio to one that is much more lean... doesn't that increase the temperature inside the combustion chamber?
KRUPA: Yes when using regular spark plugs it does. But with FireStorm spark plugs the temperature actually goes down.

… I had the car running at 40 to 1 air-to-fuel ratio.

KRUPA: Well, I got some good words from Bosch out of Stuttgart, Germany. I had a chance to meet with some of their people here in Farmington, Michigan. And I gave them a set of FireStorm plugs to test and almost ten weeks later they came back and said, "This is unbelievable. We have never seen this since we have been building spark plugs"

KRUPA: Correct. When spark plugs fire for a long time, the gap grows larger. The ground burns up and the center electrode burns down. Bosch conducted an eight-week long durability test of my FireStorm plugs against their best and they said that the FireStorm plugs produced zero percent gap growth. And so they predicted that it will never wear out.

… I went through a 55-gallon drum full of used grimy spark plugs. I went through all of them very carefully and found that the older the plug the more the center electrode of the plug was worn all around so there was no edge. It took the shape of a small ball A half a ball to be exact - a dome.

…And don't forget increased fuel economy. On this Chevy, Suburban that I towed a 32-foot Airstream trailer from Detroit to Tampa... I got a 50% increase in fuel economy. And I had disconnected the EGR and the recirculation system on that truck. It was over 8,500 pounds gross weight. It wasn't required to meet exhaust emissions standards. But I still met emissions standards with it using FireStorm plugs.

KRUPA: They tried running lean but the spark plugs will not fire when the mixture is too lean.
STANLEY: Right. I was told that if you try to run an engine too lean the temperature goes way up and causes a loss of power, premature wear and other problems.
KRUPA: It does if you use regular plugs, but my plugs produce a plasma and for some reason the temperature goes down. That's the amazing part!
STANLEY: You mentioned earlier something about eliminating RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) - the noise you hear from your engine when your AM radio is on and you drive under an overpass?
KRUPA: To reduce RFI the spark plug companies put resistors in the spark plugs and the spark plug wires. They are built in 3 pieces. The lower electrode is separated from the upper electrode by carbon - that's your resistor.
STANLEY: But doesn't that reduce the volume of the potential spark?
KRUPA: Oh yeah! Big time! When you are putting a resistor in there you are depleting from what ever spark you can normally develop in the combustion chamber.

… The important thing to understand is that automotive companies have been trying to discover a way to run their engines lean for many years now. And I was able to lean an engine all the way out to 40 to 1 using my FireStorm plugs.
KRUPA: Yeah! Forty parts of air to one part fuel is extremely lean.

KRUPA: Yes. A 14.7 to 1 air-fuel ratio is always going to be incomplete combustion. That's the rule. FireStorm is the exception. It burns everything in the combustion chamber. It burns it clean.
… KRUPA: When I was doing some of the early testing, I hooked up an emissions analyzer to the car and I had equipment in the car to change air-fuel ratio and idle speeds. I was doing this at an automotive after market speed shop. The guys were coming over to see what I was doing. I had my test vehicle running at 250 RPM.

STANLEY: What did the engine run like at that ultra-low idle?
KRUPA: It just loped along really smooth, but it was constant. No hesitation or misfires. It's a sound like you have never heard before.
Anyone that heard an engine before would turn their head to see where the sound was coming from.
STANLEY: Wouldn't that also save a lot of fuel, if you could tune an engine's idle down that low?
KRUPA: Oh, absolutely! When I did that test on a T-Bird and got a 44% increase in fuel economy I was using the air conditioner at the time.

KRUPA: I can pull more RPMs and power out of an engine and still deliver better fuel economy.

KRUPA: Yes. Because even at extremely high speeds of operation the FireStorm plugs still produce plasma that burns all the fuel in the internal combustion chamber. A regular plug, with its tiny little spark, is not going to fire well in a combustion chamber that's running at high speed.
KRUPA: Everyone I have been involved with, when they see this thing running, they can't believe their eyes. It completely revamps what everyone thought about internal combustion engines.
In fact, I met Smokey Yunick … He came around the corner and sniffed again. Then he came up to where the plug was firing and sniffed again, and said, "Now I know how you are running less throttle and getting the same speed. You're producing ozone!"
One of his tricks was to blow compressed air over a test plug to see if it would flame out. Anyway, I asked him for a compressed air hose and nozzle. I plugged the nozzle in and aimed it at the FireStorm plug. I pulled the trigger on the air hose and a spray of water came shooting out.
KRUPA: But the amazing thing was that the FireStorm plug was firing through the water and then when the air hit it the damn thing grew to the size of a golf ball.
STANLEY: Wait, the air stream made it grow bigger?
KRUPA: Yeah! It looked bigger then like a blow torch.

STANLEY: In your video of the FireStorm spark plugs firing on a test stand I noticed that the electric plasma swirls around the combustion chamber like a little tornado. Why is that?
KRUPA: I have coined the term, "Residual Ionization" to address the effect of the firing of the FireStorm spark plug. When a generic spark plug fires in a pressure chamber or your vehicle, it will fire six to eight times and then misfire once. The misfire is caused by the "Residual-Ionization" left around the plug proper. When the charge comes down the center electrode, it sees a high impedance and cannot jump the gap, hence a "Misfire".
There is also "Residual Ionization" left over in the "FireStorm" spark plug. However, because of the Huge Surface Area in the configuration of the "BALL", and the triaxial ground system, when the "Residual-Ionization" rears it's ugly head, the charge coming down the center electrode sees it and moves to the next area under the Triaxial Ground System. That's why the plasma appears to move around the ball in a circular motion.

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- THE REVOLUTIONARY FIRESTORM SPARK PLUG, Nexus magazine, Volume 12, Number 2 (February - March 2005) http://www.nexusmagazine.com/articles/Firestorm.html

FireStorm's Capabilities. First, let's look at what Krupa's FireStorm spark plugs give an internal combustion engine:
... More horsepower;
... 44-50% increase in mpg;
... Dramatic decrease in emissions.

Second, let's see what FireStorm plugs eliminate:
... Smog pump;
... Catalytic converter;
... Radio frequency interference (RFI) and the use of resistors in the centre electrode;
... Gap growth;
... Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems;
... Misfire/hesitation/detonation/stutter and stumble.

The revolutionary design of FireStorm spark plugs creates an electric plasma that fills the entire combustion chamber like a firestorm. It allows you to take an internal combustion engine from the standard 14.7:1 air-to-fuel ratio to an incredibly lean 24:1. At this ratio, all the air/fuel mixture is burned much more efficiently without increasing heat, thus giving an engine more power and fuel economy while creating much less pollution.

Performance and Testing:
When I asked Krupa if there were ny other advantages to using FireStorm spark plugs, he explained: "If there is a vehicle that requires premium fuel and they install FireStorm plugs and perform the modifications I suggest...they could run regular fuel in the engine and it won't detonate, hesitate, ping or misfire. The only reason you need higher octane fuel is for higher compression engines. And if an engine is pulling a heavy load, it has a tendency to go into detonation with a regular spark plug."

Acclaim and Potential:
Krupa's new FireStorm spark plug is in a league all of its own. It has received rave reviews from a major spark plug company. Krupa explained: "Bosch conducted an eight-week-long durability test of my FireStorm plugs against their best, and they said that the FireStorm plugs produced zero per cent gap growth. And they predicted that [the plugs] will never wear out."
That might be one reason spark plug companies are not interested in manufacturing the FireStorm. Another big reason is that the currently used standard design of spark plugs would rapidly become obsolete.
Consider this: annually, there are over six billion spark plugs made and sold worldwide. Krupa's team at CDI Limited estimates that the FireStorm spark plug will cost US$1.50 per unit initially to manufacture. The team also estimates that once FireStorm spark plugs become available, they will quickly capture 80% of the market share-even if they cost $10.00 or more per plug. That equals a lot of money.

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- see also internet forum : http://www.icubenetwork.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=277

Posted: Wed Oct 26, 2005 10:50 am :
To All . Looks like the key to water cars is plasma, by whatever means produced (B-gas, plasma ignitions, sparkplugs, sparkplug wires etc).
See http://stanleymeyer.com/userupload/2/instant_water_explosion.pdf and videos

A typical PRODUCTION 2-liter car requires about 200 liters of H-gas plus Air per minute. If it was running on B-gas it would require 6-10 times less gas per minute and elaborate setup.
Gasoline engine requires modifications so that B-gas could be forced into cylinders otherwise engine's full rated hp will not be realized (w/o modifications V4 car will need V8 engine).

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- From : The Key to the Firestorm Plugs.pdf :

Firestorm Plugs: Design Suggestions
It is entirely possible that the easiest solution for making a Firestorm type plug would be to just knock off the ground electrode(s) from a normal plug. This would allow the 'ground' side to be equidistant from the center electrode, BUT there is still a problem because there would still be a central POINT at the center electrode where there will occur the residual ionization. Therefore, at the least, for the knocking off of the ground electrode(s) to even work the center electrode would have to be either hammered down or have material added to it so that there is more SURFACE AREA for the 'ground' sides of the plug to arc to, and this would allow for a Firestorm type operation.
The main problem will making a Firestorm is in making the center electrode EQUIDISTANT from the ground electrode(s). If there isn't a large equidistant surface areas for the arcs, or is part of the plug's electrodes are closer then other parts, then the arcs will most likely only arcs in those regions.
The idea and solution to making a Firestorm type plug is this: Take a normal plug and increase the AREA of the center electrode and make sure the ground electrode(s), be them on the sides or above the center electrode, are equidistant from that center electrode. This is the whole key to the Firestorm plugs.

- See also : http://www.empirenet.com/pkelley2/sparkplugreading.html

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# - Testing Spark Plug Wires, David Kucharczyk, ssr@netcom.com, http://www.mr2.com/TEXT/DavidKucharczyk/ignition.html

There has been much discussion of aftermarket ignition systems and wires on the mailing list, particularly with respect to the aftermarket Nology wires. People who have used them had varying results. Everything from massive EM interference that caused the ECU failures to cars running high boost who's owners had excellent results. Nology's print ads make claims about increased horsepower, stronger spark including numbers for arc temperature and current. The makers of the wires claim that a capacitor integrated into the wire is the secret.

I collected 4 different wires and conducted several tests and measurements on them to try and have some scientific and reproducible data. The results are surprising. The Nology wires do produce a stronger spark than a stock wire and the capacitor does have an effect. One reason that the Nology wires make a stronger spark is that they have a lower resistance than any other wire tested. With the capacitor portion of the wire disabled the wires still had the strongest spark. Grounding the capacitor wire did make the spark even stronger.

… A stronger spark does not always equal more HP. If your stock ignition is reliably lighting the mixture, you can add as much spark energy as you want, but it won't make any more horsepower. To date no independent dynamometer test I know of has shown any increase in horsepower over stock wires that were working properly.

Spark Ignition Requirements
To ignite a stoichiometric air-fuel mixture (14:1) approximately 0.2 milliJoules of spark energy are required. Very rich or lean mixtures can require as much as 3 mJ. Most coils are capable of storing 60 to 120 mJ of energy and will produce an output voltage of over 30 kilovolts. Spark duration for a coil storage ignition (where the spark energy is generated by the collapse of a built up magnetic field of the primary coil winding) runs between 1 and 3 milliseconds. Capacitive discharge systems tend to have shorter spark duration.
The energy generated by the coil must be delivered to the spark plug gap with enough energy to still ignite the mixture. Power is lost across the distributor gap, via leakage of the wires insulators and any in-line resistances such as the wires and resistors inside the spark plugs themselves.

Longer spark duration and larger spark distance both increase the probability that a given mixture will be ignited by the spark. Turbulence in the mixture itself also helps ignition, although too much airflow can blow out a spark or prevent it's formation.

… In a spark plug, gas (air and vaporized gasoline) provides the insulator which is broken down. Generally, the initial breakdown voltage is higher in gases with higher molecular weights, so adding gasoline to the mixture increases the breakdown voltage. Increased pressure also increases the breakdown voltage. The relationship of pressure vs. breakdown voltage is also affected by the distance between the two electrodes and a combined pressure X spacing number is used. At pressure X spacing values over 1 (N/m^2)m the relationship is nearly linear, ie a 10 X increase in pressure will yield almost a 10 X increase in breakdown voltage. Air has a breakdown voltage of 1000 volts at a pressure spacing value of 10.

What all the above means with regard to igniting the mixture in a motor is; The higher the cylinder pressure and the more fuel there is, the higher the voltage needs to be to start a spark.
Once the arc is started, any airflow over the electrodes has a tendency to carry the ionized (conducting) gas away and blow the arc out. As soon as the arc breaks apart, the voltage rises gain and the arc may re-form. If the airflow is high enough to carry the partially ionized gas away faster than it can re-form, the spark will blow out.

Spark Plug Wires
Spark plug wires are made of a conductive core and typically silicone rubber insulation. The core is usually a carbon impregnated fiber or wire. The conducting core is bent over at the wire end and the boot metal is crimped over the core/insulation of the wire. Many aftermarket wires come with no boots, which allows one to add the boots of choice and cut the wires to the desired length.
Most OEM wires use a carbon fiber as this produces minimal RF noise. The down side of carbon fibers is high resistance and thus reduced spark energy. Solid wires have very low resistance, but typically produce unacceptable amounts of RF interference, frequently causing interference in radios (in the installed vehicle as well as nearby radios). This interference can also produce problems with any electronic equipment used inside the car such as fuel injection, panel meters and ABS systems. Spectral output from ignition wires can be anywhere from 10kHz to over 10GHz. Some wires use a solid metal core that is helically wound to cause the wire to look inductive at high frequencies and minimize EM radiation.
Silicones have a resistivity of 10^9 to 10^11 ohms per meter (between 1 and 100M ohms per mm). Given a core diameter of 2mm and insulation diameter of 7mm that's only 2.5mm of insulation from the core to the outside world and most wires actually leak a considerable amount of energy to their outer shell.

… The Nology wires capacitors are formed by simply wrapping a wire braid around a segment of the wire and then grounding it. Construction is very similar to coaxial cable. This braid forms one side of the capacitor plate and the center conductor forms the other. Nology uses a carbon fiber type center conductor, but it has a much lower resistance than the other fiber wires tested. The braid also acts as a shield to prevent EM radiation. The capacitance is evenly distributed along the length of the braid and the center conductors resistance is distributed along it's length.
The capacitors become charged during the initial voltage rise. When the gas breaks down and current starts to flow across the spark gap, the coil energy must flow through the coil wire resistance, the distributor gap and the resistance of the individual spark plug wire. The capacitors however, discharge directly through the gap, with only a short piece of the plug wire providing resistance in their path.
The measured value of 35pF of capacitence is misleading in the fact that although the wires have 35pF of capacitence at the 2 volts that the capacitence meter measures them with, as the voltage increases, the wires leak more, thus decreasing the effective capacitance as the voltage rises. The calculated value of energy storage for a 35pF capacitor at 15kV is 1/2CV^2 or about 4 J, well in excess of the storage capacity of the coil itself. Although one might expect the capacitors to absorb a significant part of the coil energy and cause considerable voltage droop, they don't. As the picture above show, the Nology wires could develop a spark across a 20mm gap.
Permission is granted to reprint in any form for non-profit organizations only on the condition that copyright notice is retained.

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# - NOLOGY, HOTWIRES, $144.95 : http://www.nology.com or http://www.rx-7parts.com

If you're not using HotWires, you're not going as fast as you could be.

HotWires create a tremendously powerful plasma discharge that ignites every fuel mixture, rich or lean, much better than a conventional spark. Combustion is more complete, resulting in increased horsepower and lower exhaust emissions.

HotWires are engineered with a special built-in capacitor, exclusive only to HotWires. This revolutionary design allows spark energy to accumulate in the capacitor until the voltage reaches the ionization point. At that split second, the entire power of the stored spark is discharged at once. The resulting spark is up to 300 times more powerful. Combustion is faster and more complete, resulting in increased horsepower and a cleaner burn. Replacing conventional ignition wires with HotWires is the easiest way to increase the performance of any engine. HotWires can be custom-made to fit nearly any application.

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# - DIRECT HITS Plasma Spark System: http://www.directhits.com

Question: How long does DirectHits last?
Answer: DirectHits is expected to last the life of the vehicle.

Question: What kind of improvement will I see in the performance or operation of my car after installation of DirectHits?
Answer: DirectHits will improve the entire combustion process. Your results will depend on your vehicle's age and type as well as your driving habits. However, our test vehicles report fuel economy gains of up to 30%, easier starting, improved throttle response, greater acceleration, smoothness of operation, elimination of ignition delay and a reduction of emissions.

Question: Do I need to make any modifications to my engine to use DirectHits?
Answer: No. DirectHits adapts to all engines and operates within the operating specifications of all currently available ignition systems, whether from the factory or aftermarket. You will need to reset the engine computer before operating the vehicle once DirectHits is installed.

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# - Extreme spark: http://www.torquemaster.com/ . The New Location of Torque Master Spark Plugs.

The world's only spark plug capable of increasing your performance!
The Torque Master spark plug has been designed, engineered and manufactured to provide maximum horsepower, torque, fuel economy and reduced emissions. Our unique, patented "Field Effect" design also gives the Torque Master spark plug the ability to last many times longer than conventional spark plugs.

Regarding spark plug gap, we only make two sizes. Our standard size, which has an equivalent gap of about .120" and the "S" plug, which has an equivalent gap of about .090". The standard plug requires between 21,000 to 25,000 volts to fire under full pressure. Our "S" plugs require between 16,000 to 18,000 volts to fire under full pressure. The "S" plugs are designed for high compression racing applications, turbocharged, supercharged, NOS, etc. The gap on a Torque Master spark plug cannot be changed as it is an integral part of the overall design.

… Many factors contribute to the foregoing, such as: compression ration, combustion chamber shape, spark plug location, spark plug type, ignition system and ignition coil, intake fuel and air temperature, and the temperature of the engine itself.
The last, engine temperature, is of extreme importance.

Why Delayed burn is BAD?
If the ignition point of combustion is weak, as with "Delayed Burn", the crankshaft can actually rotate to to 20 degrees past TC. Having done so, the piston can't take full advantage of all the available expanding gases created by combustion. The result is a big loss of power and torque.

Why Torque Master Spark Plugs?
We don't believe that "Delayed Burn" can be completely cured because nothing is perfect. We do believe that with the installation of a new set of Torque Master spark plugs, "Delayed Burn" can be held to a minimum. Torque Master spark plugs make horsepower and torque on their own, no other spark plug can match this kind of combustion efficiency. The Torque Master spark plug will deliver 100% to 200% more spark exposure to the combustion mixture.

Field Effect
Our spark plugs are the only spark plugs that utilize a patented ultra-wide gap with 360 degrees of fire power supported by our exclusive "Field Effect" design. The "Field Effect" principle helps propagate the spark across an unprecedented .120" to .140" gap. Additionally, our plugs operate using the same voltage as would be required from conventional spark plugs gapped at.045" to .060".

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# - HALOPLUG : http://www.haloplug.com/

The Quenching Effect is Lessened with HaloTM Plugs.
Quenching Effect - The amount of spark which is absorbed (blocked) by the center and ground electrode is referred to as the quenching effect. The HALO™ spark plug is designed to allow the flame kernel to go through the halo shape of the ground electrode rather than blocking its natural growth pattern. Thus, the quenching effect is virtually eliminated, resulting in quicker, more complete and more effective combustion.

More miles per gallon with Halot Plug


… The U.S. Patent Office specifically requested performance comparison tests between the Halo and two other patents, the Wang and Lara spark plug designs. These tests revealed significant improvements in both horsepower and torque to the satisfaction of patent examiners.

… Halo Plug has a quicker initiation of the combustion process by increasing the fuel access to the spark. This quicker initiation of combustion results in more complete burning of the fuel inside the combustion chamber. This yields more power from a given volume of fuel due to more efficient consumption. This also leads to improved horsepower output for the engine.

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# - SmartFireฎ, PLASMA IGNITION SYSTEM . An exotic ignition system that can:

- Vary spark energy (1 amp to 100 amps)
- Real time individual cylinder knock detection (every cylinder every time)
- Real time individual cylinder misfire detection (every cylinder every time)
- Operate one to twelve cylinders
- Log or display combustion information on your PC
- Provide individual cylinder timing offsets

Ignition Process :
A spark is formed by discharging a 600 volt capacitor into a coil primary. The coil steps this voltage up to several thousand volts within 1 uS. This causes the spark to jump the gap, similar to a typical CD ignition. The spark reaches 1 amp and then decays for approx 40 microseconds. Additional current can be achieved by previously biasing the extra capacitor, located inside each coil's secondary. If this extra capacitor is not biased, then the CD ignition is not disturbed. If this extra capacitor is biased, then the added energy will discharge into the spark gap. This discharge will occur as soon as the spark is created. Since this energy delivery does not have to go through the ignition coil it delivers up to 100 amps to the spark gap, only for a couple microseconds. Therefore the remaining 38 microseconds only consist of the 1 amp decay.

Remarque : I think this Smart Fire System is the solution for THE WATER EXPLOSION CAR, because it can deliver 100Amp on the spark, more than enough to reproduce the effect of s1r9a9m9 Watercar ... to be tested...

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