Other articles are below this table.

1.   Microchip sees 
       through walls
ABC News
2.   Electronic 
  Information Center
Banking-Fingerprints 98'
3.   Biometric Voting
4.   Communication 
   Assistance for Law 
    Enforcement Act 
F.R. Notice-FBI
5.   CALEA
FBI Report
6.   Cameras on 
NY Times article
7.   Police
Police Video Taping
8.   Chip Implants
For Children
9.   S.E.C.U.R.E.S.
System for the Effective Control of Urban Environment Security
10.  Devil's in the 
SSN Requirements
11.  Digital Signatures
Biometric Encryption
12.  Eye in the Sky
Satellite Spying
13.  F.R. 97'
Drug test, first drivers license
14.  F.R. CALEA
15.  Facial Scans
ATM's using them
16.  Fingerprints
Sexuality determined by fingerprints
17.  DMV
No Refusal Policy
18.  Big Brother Goes 
           High Tech
Many different examples
19.  IBM
Medical Implant with transponder marker
20.  666
The system
21.  Smart Gov
Java smart cards
22.  London Surveillance
Spying on citizens
23.  M.A.R.C. Card
Introduced in Senate
24.  Mexico
Dual citizenship
25.  Millions to be 
26.  Crimestake
More states to hold offenders after finishing their sentence
27.  National ID
Now Federal law
28.  Onstar
Vehicle tracking
29.  Outrunning the 
Road blocks
30.  Project L.U.C.I.D.
Universal ID system
31.  Public Eye
32.  Pulse Weapons
Police using them
Pulse weapons leave no evidence, period.
33.  Thumbprints
Required to cash checks
34.  Military
Soldiers to use the chip
35.  SSN & Drivers 
L.A. Judge rules in favor of religious opposition
36.  SSN
Background on SSN
37.  Techno Political 
38.  Viisage 
People Tracking
39.  SSN
40.  CALEA
Why your phone bills are going up
41.  CALEA
H.R. 4922
42.  Big Brother
Watching you
43.  Facial Recognition
Picks you out in a crowd
44.  Florida
Selling Drivers Licenses to retailers
45.  Know Your 
  Customer (KYC)
Global control
46.  KYC
47.  KYC
Federal regulation
48.  National 
 Healthcare Passport
National ID
49.  Global Positioning
Tracking people
50.  Smog II
51.  Novelle NetWare
Biometric ID for PC's
52.  Microsoft
Smart card for PC's
53.  Echelon
World wide wiretap
54.  Interstate Drivers
SSN & fingerprints
55.  Intel
Electronically to ID chips
56.  Drivers Licenses
Photos being sold
57.  B of A
Online fingerprinting
58.  GPS
All the better to see you with my dear
59.  KYC
Attorney General files suit
60.  KYC
61.  Check cashing
Checks you write go electronic
62. Sheriff’s Officers
Raid Constitutionalist meeting
63.  European Union
Wants to eavesdrop on Internet. . . 
64.  Washington Times
Article on KYC
65.  Ca. banks reveal 
  personal records for 
      welfare project
Detailed information about customers’ account records givento the Franchise Tax Board.
66.  Healthcare
Spying on Americans
67.  Defective 
Nationwide birth registry
68.  Quebec, Canada
Plans for ID database of all citizens
69.  Spying
Hotels asked to spy on guests by police
70. Mt. Weahter
Underground government, literally
71.  Chip Technology
72.  Trollyponder
The Next Generation of RFID transponders
73.  Microchip Based
New patients for . .

The following links are quite interesting and scary!
EM Mind Control Concepts:

Major Electromagnetic Mind Control Projects:

"Riot Control Ray Gun Worries Scientists"

CNet (07/20/05)

A less lethal riot control weapon called the Active Denial System releases a 95 GHz microwave beam at people, resulting in heating and unbearable pain in under 5 seconds. The intense pain is intended to encourage people to move away from the microwave beam and allow authorities to separate crowds and gain control. But New Scientist magazine recently reported that participants who tested the system at Kirtland Air Force Base in New Mexico were told to take off their eyeglasses and contact lenses to safeguard their eyes. In another test, participants were instructed to remove metal objects like coins to avoid creating hot spots on their skins. "What happens if someone in a crowd is unable for whatever reason to move away from the beam?" asks Neil Davison, coordinator of the nonlethal weapons research project at Bradford University. He also asks whether it is possible to guarantee that the weapon would not cross the threshold for permanent damage. The magazine said a version of the weapon called Sheriff, designed to be mounted on vehicles, will be used in Iraq in 2006. Law enforcement and U.S. Marines are developing portable versions of the weapon as well. http://news.cnet.co.uk/gadgets/0,39029672,39190989,00.htm

"The Power to Follow Your Every Move"

New Scientist (07/16/05); Graham-Rowe, Duncan

Later this year, the European Commission and the European Space Agency are launching the first four of what will be a fleet of 30 satellites in their Galileo project designed to compete with the Global Positioning System (GPS). Seeking to capitalize on the inconsistent and often inaccurate signals that GPS provides, Galileo will link its satellites to the 24 satellites GPS currently has in orbit to offer an array of strictly commercial applications. GPS frequently loses its signal in highly developed areas, and offers no service indoors; Galileo will solve both of those problems, as well as offer the reliability the U.S. military, which owns and operates GPS, cannot. Developers tout Galileo as a revolution on the order of the Internet or the cell phone, citing far-reaching applications in security, insurance, and transportation. Manufacturers could embed tracking devices in expensive electronics to catch thieves, and car insurance companies are considering basing premiums on the exact driving habits of customers. Governments could implant criminals with tracking devices that are currently only moderately effective, but Galileo's tracking potential raises some concerns among civil libertarians over an unwelcome and possibly dangerous encroachment into everyday life. Galileo's promoters counter that people who wish not to be seen can simply switch the tracking device off. They also cite the benefits of human tracking, such as planting a device on a toddler that would alert parents if it wandered too far away. http://www.newscientist.com/channel/info-tech/dn7679

  <>Computer Helps Translate Gap Between 'He Said, She Said'"
Toledo Blade (09/08/03); Woods, Michael

The Winnow computer program developed by researchers at the Illinois Institute of Technology can determine whether anonymous messages are written by men or women with over 80 percent accuracy, and such technology could be used to increase the effectiveness of textbooks, improve crime-solving techniques, or enhance commercial and workplace communications, among other things.  Project leader Dr.  Shlomo Argamon says the effort differs from other research initiatives into gender-specific communications in that it focuses on textual rather than oral exchanges.

Winnow studied over 600 documents in the British National Corpus, scanning for specific linguistic patterns or "determiners" culled from analysis of documents known to be written by male or female authors.  Determiners that Winnow relies on to categorize author gender include women's preference for pronouns such as "I," "you," "she," "her,""their," "myself," "herself," and "yourself," and men's tendency to use pronouns like "it," "this," "that," "these," "those," and "they." The program was able to correctly identify author gender in 73 percent of the scientific documents it analyzed, indicating that sex-related differences are apparent even in highly technical texts.

Argamon thinks that revelations about distinctive writing styles between men and women uncovered by Winnow could have a profound impact on education, paving the way for gender-specific textbooks, for example.  His team is attempting to refine the method to establish the age, educational level, or ethnicity of anonymous authors as well as their sex, a breakthrough that could help police identify writers of ransom notes.  Meanwhile, Georgetown University linguistics professor Dr.  Deborah Tannen believes Argamon's research could help bridge a sexual communications gap in the workplace.


"They Know Where You Are" U.S.  News & World Report (09/08/03) Vol.  135, No.  7, P. 32; LaGesse, David

New location-aware technologies such as smart cell phones, GPS chips, and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags promise many benefits, including more efficient inventory management, real-time driving directions, and more responsive emergency services; but there are concerns that such devices will also be used to infringe on people's privacy--a recent ACLU study warned that without strict regulation, these technologies "will allow corporations or the government to constantly monitor what individual Americans do every day." The safety advantages for wireless location technologies are undeniable, and the FCC has required all wireless carriers to set up systems that allow emergency dispatchers to pinpoint 911 calls to within a 50- to 150-meter radius by 2005.  Wireless carriers also see commercial prospects in location services such as Wherify, which allows parents to be kept apprised of their children's whereabouts through GPS bracelets.  Carriers insist that they will not trample on people's privacy: For one thing, the technical challenge of capturing the constantly fluctuating coordinates of 145 million U.S.  wireless subscribers is overwhelming, while Travis Larson of the Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association (CTIA) adds that customers who feel their privacy is threatened will stop using their cell phones.  The network-based approach for tracking 911 calls, which utilizes signal towers, is much more difficult to regulate, according to privacy proponents; CTIA general counsel Michael Altschul notes that law enforcement officials face fewer legal restraints to access location data than they do for tapping phone conversations.

RFID tags could support a lucrative industry, but their proliferation depends on a dramatic decline in cost and an overhaul of business infrastructure to accommodate them.

Likewise, the technology is raising privacy concerns.

However, location technology will not mature in any event until mapping and other myriad issues are resolved.

http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/030908/tech/8bigbro.htm "Second Chance"

"Brave New Skies" Salon.com (09/04/03); Manjoo, Farhad

The Transport Security Administration's (TSA) second-generation computer-assisted passenger prescreening system (CAPPS II) promises to protect air travelers from terrorists and reduce the scrutiny passengers face at airports, but critics charge that it threatens to support government monitoring of all citizens and will actually increase scrutiny for certain people.  CAPPS II aims to use the computerized reservation systems (CRSes) of Amadeus, Galileo International, Sabre Holdings, and Worldspan to keep tabs on virtually all passenger records, and critics hypothesize that these four corporations would seek to recoup their costs for overhauling their infrastructure for CAPPS II by selling passengers' travel data to outsiders.

San Francisco travel agent Edward Hasbrouck estimates that the travel industry will have to spend billions to integrate passenger data that is not normally captured--names, home addresses, phone numbers, and birth dates--but adds that "The key impact of the [CAPPS II] proposal would be that it would enable the CRS to correlate previously separate reservations for trips into a life-long history of your travel." Not only would this make it easy for CRSes to exploit travel histories for financial gain, but would give government easy access to those records.  The government's motivation for CAPPS II is to find a solution to the fear and frustration Americans feel toward air travel--one that has the high security standards of Israel's El Al airline, but is invisible, automatic, and interferes with only a small portion of travelers.  CAPPS II advocate Capt.  Steve Luckey says the system will devote most of its resources to the most likely terrorist threats, but critics counter that automated profiling can miss vital clues that allow true suspects to board without being detained, while focusing on less relevant clues that single out innocents for detention.

Even a 1 percent to 2 percent false positive rate would result in millions of people misidentified as possible terrorists annually.  The first proposed version of CAPPS II aroused so much anger for its vagueness that the TSA revised the proposal to quell critics, but the new draft, which detailed the system's data-mining procedures, only fueled further criticism.

"Department to Use Eye Scans in Keeping Track of Inmates" Fort Worth Star-Telegram (09/03/03) P.  3; Baker, Max B.

Tarrant County Commissioners approved a request from the Sheriff's Department to provide roughly $48,000 in funding to supply law enforcement officers with eye-scanning devices for identifying suspects.  SecuriMetrics is delivering three of the handheld devices, which are equipped with iris recognition technology, to Tarrant Country officers, who will use the technology for processing outgoing and incoming inmates at the local jail.  The department plans to expand applications for the system in the future.  Some $20,000 of the county funding will be allocated to developing a special database for containing up to 75,000 digitized records.  The remainder of the funds will pay for the combined $21,000 purchase cost of the devices and related expenses.  Rick Salazar of SecuriMetrics notes the human iris remains the same before an infant reaches 2 years old.  The devices can search the database for iris matches at a rate of 1.5 million records per minute.  The Tarrant County Sheriff's Department plans to use the system to facilitate quicker identification of inmates, who sometimes use aliases to conceal their identities.  However, the department will also continue using fingerprints during the identification process.  http://www.star-telegram.com

"Location Device Finds Stolen Car With Suspect Inside" Bangor Daily News (ME) (09/03/03) P.  B1; Kesseli, Doug

Sidney Dunton, convicted of burglary and theft, escaped from a prison work crew in Maine but was caught within days, thanks in part to technology.  After escaping, Dunton ended up with a stolen 2002 Mercedes-Benz coupe equipped with a satellite location device sold by ATX Technologies.  The owner of the car did not at first remember the existence of the device and then later told police that he had not purchased the service, according to Sgt.  Bill Coyle of the Spring Lake, N.J., police department, but authorities contacted ATX, which agreed to locate the vehicle.  Satellite technology placed the car within a mile of the location where it was found, and Dunton surrendered without resisting, according to Maj.  John Leyden.  Dunton claimed to be someone else and was later identified as the fugitive, and has been charged with being a fugitive from justice, obstruction of justice, and possession of a stolen vehicle while authorities see if he is linked with the New Jersey break-in where the car was stolen.  http://www.bangornews.com

"Offenders on GPS Monitors" Spokane Spokesman-Review (WA) (09/03/03) P.  B1; Blocker, Kevin

A pilot program in Spokane County, Wash., has enabled 13 convicted Level 3 sex offenders, who already served their sentences, to be monitored by global positioning satellite (GPS) systems provided by Florida-based Pro Tech Monitoring.

The offender is equipped with a device wrapped around his or her ankle that transmits a signal to a tracking device the offender carries.  The tracking device receives a satellite signal that records the location of the offender.  The GPS system is able to track the movements of offenders to within

50 feet.  It also alerts law enforcement if the offender has crossed into a prohibited area, such as a school.  The ankle bracelet can only be removed by law enforcement and sends a signal if it is tampered with.  The offender is also responsible for putting the device on a docking station once a day, so his movements during the past 24 hours are downloaded and recorded.  The results of the pilot program will be analyzed Jan.  31 by the Washington Association of Sheriffs and Police Chiefs.  The program is part of a $100,000 study the state legislature authorized to gain more insight about GPS tracking.  http://www.spokesmanreview.com

"Analytic Detective Work" eWeek (09/01/03) Vol.  20, No.  35, P.  31; Callaghan, Dennis

Police departments, banks, and other organizations are using software applications designed to extract meaningful information from compiled data.  These systems can be used to prevent or limit crimes by giving organizations the ability to forecast events, says Colleen McCue, crime analysis program manager at the Richmond, Va., Police Department.  The agency uses the Clementine data mining application from SPSS in Chicago, and recently used it to target illegal gun owners, including those who fired shots in the air on the Fourth of July.  McCue says Clementine has also been used to prevent additional potential crimes that could stem from property crimes, such as sex offenses or a violent act.  The tool can also help allocate resources more precisely since different aspects of crimes, such as area or type of offense, can be focused on.  Similarly, banks are turning to data mining software to detect the presence of illegally-obtained funds and financial schemes that might be supporting terrorists, as required by the USA Patriot Act.

Wachovia intends to launch software by SAS called Anti Money Laundering in 2004 to help detect suspicious banking activities, such as a small company handling unusually large sums of money.  The software will also help the bank identify patterns created by bank patrons across various transactions.


 "Syracuse Cops Go Wireless"

Federal Computer Week (08/26/03); Sarkar, Dibya Technology upgrades at the Syracuse, N.Y., Police Department, which include wireless access cards for laptops and access points throughout the city, are giving officers and civilian employees quick and easy access to important information.  Previously, officers were forced to type witness statements and conduct interviews from different rooms, but using wireless technology, officers can interview witnesses, type up the report, and access a wealth of information using a laptop in the same room.  Patrick Phelps, the information technology specialist at the department, believes switching to a wireless infrastructure is easier than revamping the department's network of wires.  The department is eventually moving towards a paperless reporting system, which will begin by establishing high-bandwidth hot spots near police stations and police sub-stations that will allow officers to receive daily bulletins and information.  In order to counter the expensive upgrade of police laptops, the department is seeking federal grants.


 "Using the Web to Recover Stolen Goods"

Police and Security News (08/03) Vol.  19, No.  4, P.  56; Siuru, Bill Property crimes require a huge investment of time and investigative energy by law enforcement officials attempting to recover the stolen items.  Traditionally pawn shops cooperated with police officers, often filing several sets of detailed documents to various agencies interested in recovering the property.  The process also meant pawn shop owners and police officers had to sift through massive quantities of paper tickets, and some agencies even began entering the data into their individual computer databases.

With the introduction of Law Enforcement Automated Database Search (l.e.a.d.s.) online, police officers can access pawn shop records from around the country in order to locate a missing item.  Officers at national, state, and local levels can search the database, contact owners of the shops and visually confirm an items' identity, decreasing response time to a property crime which increases the chances of recovery.  Over 1,000 pawn shops and secondhand stores nationwide list 17.5 million items that can be accessed by more than 400 law enforcement agencies in 38 states. http://www.policeandsecuritynews.com

"Tap This"

Mobile Government (08/03) Vol.  16, No.  10, P.  22; Peterson, Shane Wireless networks allow users to quickly transmit a wide variety of information over a network in packets, which means law enforcement officials must develop new technology in order to maintain surveillance of criminals using these networks.  Under the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act, telecommunication carriers are responsible for providing law enforcement with electronic surveillance information, but the problem lies in officers analyzing that information in order to catch criminals, collecting information in the packet environment, and dealing with a significant growth in wireless subscribers.  Developing new technology to keep up with changes is expensive and becoming more so as complexity rises.  The FBI is currently working to develop standards for both law enforcement agencies and the telecommunications industry dealing with surveillance of wireless networks.  http://www.govtech.net



Technology automatically IDs consumers
'Smart shelf' innovation tracks customers as well as product sales

Posted: July 19, 2003
1:00 a.m. Eastern
By Jon Dougherty
© 2003 WorldNetDaily.com

A consumer-privacy advocate says the nation's largest shaving-products manufacturer, in conjunction with an umbrella research group, is developing "smart shelf" in-store technology that not only tracks products but also builds an identity profile of the consumer doing the buying.

According to published reports, the technology in question – Radio Frequency Identification, or RFID – uses a microchip with an antenna capable of sending out a signal that enables a computer to "see" the product. As WorldNetDaily has reported, RFID technology is being considered for use by companies such as Wal-Mart to track inventory in distribution centers.

Shaving-products maker Gillette and Wal-Mart had agreed to employ the smart-shelf technology at one of the retailer's stores in Brockton, Mass., this summer. The Gillette products would be equipped with tiny RFID chips that sent a radio signal to store personnel, alerting them when in-store stocks of merchandise were near empty. Wal-Mart, however, has decided not to use smart shelf for the time being.

But Katherine Albrecht, founder and director of Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering, or CASPIAN, says Gillette is getting ready to deploy the technology, which is being championed by the AutoID Center, on its products. And she says there is more involved than meets the eye.

Not only will the technology provide store managers with real-time in-store stock figures for Gillette products, but – via small cameras – it will also snap a picture of the consumer taking the product off the shelf, she told WorldNetDaily.

From that point, Albrecht said in a wide-ranging interview, "a reader device at the check-out also reads the presence of the chip and takes a second picture of that [consumer]."

Then, at the end of the day, "these pictures … are all printed out, and security sits down and goes through them, making sure that the person who picked up that Gillette product from the shelf actually paid for it at the check stand," she said.

"If they see any pictures where 'Camera A' took a picture but 'Camera B' did not take a picture of the payment, then that person's picture is blown up and becomes a sort of mug shot," she told WorldNetDaily. "And then the stores will have security personnel on the lookout for that person, I'm assuming through observation. If that person is spotted again, they are put under surveillance for their entire shopping trip."

In essence, Albrecht concluded, consumers will be guilty until proven innocent – even if all the shopper did was change his or her mind and set the product down in a different part of the store – and everyone will be photographed, under the guise of "security."

Information posted on the AutoID website gives an indication of the group's grand plans. The center, in combination with 100 global companies and five universities around the world, have formed a "unique partnership" in hopes of "creating the standards and assembling the building blocks needed to create an 'Internet of things.'"

"Put a tag … on a can of Coke or a car axle, and suddenly a computer can 'see' it. Put tags on every can of Coke and every car axle, and suddenly the world changes," says a description of the group posted on the center's website. "No more inventory counts. No more lost or misdirected shipments. No more guessing how much material is in the supply chain - or how much product is on the store shelves.

"Auto-ID Center is designing, building, testing and deploying a global infrastructure – a layer on top of the Internet – that will make it possible for computers to identify any object anywhere in the world instantly," said the description.

The center is attempting to develop standards that can identify products regardless of which company tags them.
Involved in the research is the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the U.S.; the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom; the University of Adelaide in Australia; Keio University in Japan; and the University of St. Gallen in Switzerland.

"Phase one, two and three testing has been completed, and now they're moving on to phase four," or deployment, Albrecht said.

In the first phase, developers were just making sure the technology actually worked. In phase two, the RFID technology was placed on warehouse pallets and crates, so companies could track inventory. Phase three, she says, is placing the technology on products.

The Economist, a Britain-based financial magazine, reported in February that smart shelf technology has been deployed on store shelves in Cambridge, England.

And in January, the magazine reported, "Gillette announced that it had put in an order for half a billion smart tags, signaling the start of their adoption by the consumer-goods industry.

"If they catch on, smart tags will soon be made in their trillions and will replace the bar-code on the packaging of almost everything that consumer-goods giants such as Procter & Gamble and Unilever make," said the magazine's report, which also said Gillette was buying its tags from a company called Alien Technology.  "Once you begin to track products, you begin to track people," Albrecht told WorldNetDaily.  Gillette could not be reached for comment.

The consumer-privacy advocate said some companies have expressed an interest in very elaborate tracking systems. She said such systems would photograph consumers and superimpose their pictures with an itemized receipt of goods purchased, along with any other credit card or related information that will help identify the person. With the photo identification aspect, even consumers who pay cash could be later identified.

"This technology is already out there," Albrecht said. "Eventually, I fear it can and will be made available to law enforcement."

© 2003 WorldNetDaily.com

Passengers who fly Southeast Airlines will be under the constant eye of digital video cameras providing a live feed and recordings of their faces and activities for security purposes.
Wired News said the Florida-based charter airline plans to store the video for up to 10 years and could use face-recognition software to match faces to names and personal records.

"One of the strong capabilities of the system is for the corporate office to be able to monitor what is going on at all times," said Scott Bacon, Southeast's vice president of planning, according to Wired. "From a security standpoint, this provides a great advantage to assure that there is a safe environment at all times."

Although such a measure is not required, Southeast believes it's only a matter of time before the Federal Aviation Administration and Homeland Security Department makes it mandatory for all airlines.

Privacy and consumer groups, meanwhile, are alarmed, Wired said, particularly with Southeast's plan to retain the video.

"What's the point of keeping track of everyone when nothing happens on the flight?" Lee Tien, senior staff attorney for the civil liberties group Electronic Frontier Foundation, told the news magazine.

Tien said along with tracking personal information, the airline would have a record of such things as conversations between spouses and books or magazines read by passengers.

Wired said privacy advocates are skeptical of the system's effectiveness and believe it will likely only cause anxiety for passengers.

The manufacturer of the video system, SkyWay Communications of Clearwater, Fla., acknowledged the system would not prevent determined terrorists, such as the 9-11 hijackers, from overpowering a plane.

But David Huy, SkyWay's vice president of sales and marketing, argues it would help law enforcement identify and track criminals, Wired reported.

Pilots could check the cabin before opening the cockpit door, he said, and airlines could use the records to defend themselves in lawsuits over situations like air rage.

SkyWay says up to 16 cameras can be installed throughout the plane, either covertly or overtly.

"It enables us to monitor the activity in the aircraft in real time," said Huy, according to Wired. "We feel this will be very important. The federal government is looking at mandating some camera security and surveillance."

Cameras will not be installed in restrooms, he said.

Michelle Petrovich, a spokeswoman for the Homeland Security department's science and technology bureau, said video cameras in flights, while not mandated, "are just a number of technologies out there that we are considering in reference to security."

"We haven't made a decision or awarded a contract yet," she told Wired.

In a move wireless industry analysts say will infringe on customers' privacy, clothing designer Benetton plans to weave radio frequency ID chips into its garments to track its clothes worldwide.

The chips will help the Italian clothing manufacturer cut costs by eliminating the need for workers to take inventory by manually scanning individual items of clothing.  It will also protect the garments against theft, analysts say.

By placing a radio frequency ID tag in the labels of its clothing items, Benetton hopes to tie customer information to purchases in their computer systems.The radio frequency ID tags are about the size of a grain of sand, but they can hold much more information than the washing instructions that are written on the labels themselves.Once a purchase is made, the buyer's personal information is linked to the item bought in Benetton's database.  It's only a matter of time before targeted products start appearing whenever that clothing item is worn.

On the Web, Everyone's a Pollster But analysts warn that the RFID chips could pose significant risks to customers' privacy because they would allow anyone with an RFID receiver to locate customers wearing Benetton clothes, including companies that want to sell them their products.

Mike Liard, an analyst with technology research and consulting firm Venture Development, said the more companies that embed RFID tags in their products, the more likely it is for someone to drive by a home and say, "'Look what we've got in there.  An HDTV is in there, and she wears Benetton.'"

"That's a huge concern," Liard said.

Privacy advocates fear that consumers will be bombarded with intrusive advertising since a history of customers' purchases and their identities would be linked with the tag even after they leave the store.

Richard Smith, an Internet privacy and security consultant said he is eerily reminded of a scene from the movie Minority Report, when Tom Cruise enters a department store and is welcomed by a billboard ad.  But instead of scanning his eyeballs as was done in Minority Report, his Benetton shirt would be scanned to identify him.

"It's extremely intrusive," Smith said of Benetton's proposed RFID system.  "The surveillance network would be initially built to sell clothes in the store but could be used for this other stuff.  You don't need to build anything new for that."

Among other businesses, luxury clothing retailer Prada already embeds RFID inventory tags into its clothing.  Procter & Gamble, Wal-Mart and British retailer Tesco are other companies mulling over using smart tags for restocking, anti-theft and anti-counterfeit purposes.

Royal Philips Electronics is shipping 15 million RFID chips, which are the size of a grain of sand, to Benetton this year.

Phillips claims the effort is "the world's largest and most comprehensive item-level tagging implementation of RFID technology in the fashion industry to date."

Benetton, which makes casual clothes and sportswear for men, women and children, said it would weave the technology into the collar tags of clothes that cost at least $15 to keep track of them as they ship.

"Benetton has thousands of retail outlets worldwide and therefore wanted to put in place a future-proof technology to bring clear cost benefits to the business, while seamlessly enabling garments to be tracked throughout their lifetime," Terry Phipps, electronic data processing director at the Benetton Group, said in a prepared statement.

The RFID technology offers Benetton a number of advantages, not the least of which is its ease of use.  Unlike a bar-code scanner, which must be held directly in front of the item being scanned, employees with RFID receivers or shelves with the technology can scan entire boxes of items from up to five feet away.

The technology would thus require fewer people to scan clothing items for inventory purposes.

It also lets business managers easily store detailed information about customers' buying habits that could spur further sales.  For example, when a Benetton customer makes a purchase, a sales clerk could pull up that client's history and say, "Last time you were here, you bought a black skirt.  We have a sweater that matches that skirt,"
Liard said.

The tagging system may also save the company money by reducing theft.  The RFID tags can be programmed to set off an alarm if someone leaves a store without paying for an item.

Similarly, the technology would make it harder for merchants to sell stolen or bootlegged versions of clothing in flea markets and other venues.  A retailer who spots an item that she suspects is either stolen or illegally manufactured could check its origin using the tagging system.

By placing a radio frequency ID tag in the labels of its clothing items, Benetton hopes to tie customer information to purchases in their computer systems.The radio frequency ID tags are about the size of a grain of sand, but they can hold much more information than the washing instructions that are written on the labels themselves.Once a purchase is made, the buyer's personal information is linked to the item bought in Benetton's database.  It's only a matter of time before targeted products start appearing whenever that clothing item is worn.

On the Web, Everyone's a Pollster "You can register (the garment) at the point of sale or register it through a computer,"
said Victor Chu, a fashion designer and technologist who runs his own company, MIL Digital Labeling.

Chu, who has designed apparel for fashion gurus Ralph Lauren and Tommy Hilfiger, said piracy of high-end clothing and accessories by Prada, Gucci and Louis Vuitton is a "big problem," for which RFID tags may be a solution.  He also wasn't alarmed by privacy concerns that may arise when customers leave retail stores with activated RFID tags.

"It's a very local signal," Chu said.  "You would have to have the equipment to use it.  It's not like it's a GPS tag.  A GPS tag would be totally different, and that's expensive for Benetton clothing."

However, Liard sees very few advantages of the tag for consumers.  It may help them find the clothes they want in the store and even make it easier for them to return items without a receipt since the store would have recorded the RFID tag.

"But once they walk out of the store, are they going to have questions in their head?" he asked.

Smith suspects that they will.  He could see police and government officials wanting to use this system to nab deadbeat dads, kidnappers and other fugitives of the law.

"It's going to be a really bad idea for a company to hide a small radio chip in its clothing," Smith said.  "Clearly, those tags need to be deactivated at the the cash registers."  

                           "Ins and Outs of Biometrics" USA Today (01/27/03) P.  3B; Swartz, Jon

More and more organizations such as schools, banks, airports, and federal agencies are using biometrics to boost security, cut costs, and conform to more rigid laws following the Sept.  11 terror attacks.  Biometrics-based security systems use physical characteristics such as fingerprints, eyes, and so on to identify who should and should not have access.  At ING Direct, CEO Arkadi Kuhlmann chose a digital fingerprint system for employees instead of the older ink and paper format.  Similarly, shippers such as the Liberian International Ship & Corporate Registry are also requiring seamen to provide digital fingerprints.
Meanwhile, firms such as Krispy Kreme are using hand-geometry systems to monitor employees' attendance.  And students at the Denver-based Johnson & Wales University need to place their hands on a metal plate to unlock doors to some dorms and educational building.  A small camera measures some 90 characteristics on a hand, such as knuckle size, within seconds.  In late 2002, the Chicago Housing Authority chose to use fingerprint scanning in lieu of user names/passwords for letting employees log on to their computers.  http://www.usatoday.com/

"A Silent Witness Hiding in your Car" Ottawa Sun (01/26/03) P.  18; Steinbachs, John

About the size of a videocassette and usually placed under the front passenger seat, the event data recorders (EDRs) installed in many new cars act something like airplanes' black boxes, giving law enforcement the potential to collect unbiased data after accidents, particularly those with no witnesses.  With EDRs increasingly becoming standard equipment on many cars in Canada--they are in all new GM cars, and there are similar devices in some Ford and Honda models--law enforcement in Canada has started to accept EDRs in accident reconstruction, says James Kerr of Vetronix, which makes the data-retrieval system for EDRs.  The Ontario Provincial Police are considered leaders in use of EDRs, which are part of the airbag deployment system and were developed as a way to verify that the vehicle performs in a crash the way the designers intended.  Police are not relying solely on EDRs in investigations, but instead using them to complement certain types of investigations, and a warrant is still needed for accessing EDR information.  According to Vetronix, Canada is adopting EDR-based reconstruction somewhat faster than the United States, with several Canadian accident reconstructionists and a few Canadian police agencies already owning the information retrieval software kit.  http://www.fyiottawa.com/ottsun.shtml

"Senate Votes to Curb Project to Search for Terrorists in Databases and Internet Mail"

New York Times (01/24/03) P.  A12; Clymer, Adam The Senate voted unanimously on Thursday to constrain the implementation of the Pentagon's Total Information Awareness (TIA) Program, an initiative to conduct searches for terrorists by mining Internet mail and online financial, health, and travel records.  The legislation gives a 60-day window for the Defense Department to furnish a report detailing the program's costs, motives, its prospective chances for successfully thwarting terrorists, and its impact on civil liberties and privacy; failing to do so after the deadline would result in the suspension of TIA research and development.  Meanwhile, use of the system would be restricted to legally sanctioned military and foreign intelligence operations, barring congressional authorization to employ the system within the United States.  The restrictions were bundled into a series of amendments to an omnibus spending bill, and authored by Sen.  Ron Wyden (D-Ore.), who attributed their swift passage to the dismay Republican senators felt over the project's implications for surveillance on innocent U.S.  citizens.  Included in his amendment was a statement that Congress should be consulted in matters whereby TIA programs could be used to develop technologies to monitor Americans.  "I hope that today's action demonstrated Congress' willingness to perform oversight of the executive branch and challenge attempts to undermine constitutional liberties," declared People for the American Way leader Ralph Neas following the vote.  Sens.
Charles E.  Grassley (R-Iowa) and Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.), both sponsors of Wyden's bill, agreed that the legislation ensures that the TIA program will balance civil liberties with efforts to protect Americans from terrorism. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/24/politics/24PRIV.html

"Vegas' High-Stakes Surveillance Lab"

Business Week (01/23/03); Black, Jane To prevent fraud and theft in Las Vegas' casinos, various establishments have installed high-tech surveillance systems which are continually upgraded.  Today's systems are digital-based, allowing continual monitoring of activity.
Digital systems also allow more efficient access to the recording and also add the exact data and time.  Users can use the computer system to target only cash drawers, for example, displaying every time one was opened.  Digital recordings are not vulnerable to degradation, and huge amounts of information can be stored on large hard drives or optical systems.  Casinos are also installing multiple surveillance systems as backup to ensure continual recording if, for instance, a customer demands to see the tape and recording is interrupted.  Casinos have also turned to face-recognition technology to match patrons' faces to those of confirmed offenders, but these do not work well among large groups of people.  Las Vegas experts say capable, well-trained people are the best defense against troublemakers since technology can be thwarted by determined criminals.

"California Installs Wireless Surveillance"

Federal Computer Week (01/21/03); Sarkar, Dibya State-of-the-art wireless electronic surveillance systems are being installed at San Francisco's bridges and tunnels, following the California Department of Transportation's (Caltrans) announcement that it would boost security in December 2002.  Dave Brown, division manager with Royal Electric, one of the contractors working on the new Bay Area Security Enhancement system, says it provides more flexibility, and is more functional--particularly because it is easier to move the technology from one place to another, rather than rewiring the system.  Jeff Orr, product marketing manager for Proxim, which supplied the wireless technology, notes that the wireless technology is cheaper than laying down new fiber, and provides faster deployment.  He explains that, prior to the Caltrans project, most wireless applications were used for military projects.  "In terms of the state-funded level, Caltrans has been pretty early," he says.  RVision is providing the cameras that will be used to monitor the bridges and tunnels.  The system has entered the final phases of commissioning.

"Many Layers to Building a Super Soldier"

Washington Post (01/20/03) P.  A21; Ferdinand, Pamela The U.S.  Army is sponsoring a new Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies at the Massachusetts Institute for Technology (MIT) to foster research and development of future soldier uniforms that will make use of nanotechnology, or working structures engineered from microscopic particles.  Set to open in April, the new institute will have about 150 personnel organized in seven teams focused on three main areas: protection, human performance enhancement, and injury intervention and cure.
The conceptual uniforms will be made of layers of microscopic high technology--for example, sensor patches that could detect chemical and biological agents and respond with antidotes, or computer and communications technology that would be woven right into a lightweight uniform.
Conceivably, soft fabrics could be designed to quickly turn rigid to serve as splints, and lightweight fabrics could nonetheless resist bullets and treat wounds.  The military applications, thus developed, could translate into the civilian and aerospace arena later; for example, by making similar uniforms available for use by emergency personnel responding to terrorist threats.  Already, a certain amount of engineering progress has been made, such as the development of detection devices that can pick up the presence of anthrax in three minutes instead of 24 hours.
Working along with the army and MIT on the project are industry partners DuPont and Raytheon, as well as the Boston-based Massachusetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital.

"Smart Cameras Changing the Face of Security"

San Jose Mercury News (01/20/03); Takahashi, Dean Recent improvements to video surveillance include: digital technology that records hours of information on hard disk drives rather than tape; solar batteries that allow continuous running even without power; wireless data networks that permit information from the camera to be transferred to a company's hard-drive archives; crisp images for easier review; and software that analyzes facial analysis to spot known criminals or suspicious movements and alert authorities.  The new technology, in the wake of the Sept.  11, 2001, terrorist attacks, is being used by homeowners to protect their property; by the California Department of Transportation to monitor the Bay Area's transportation infrastructure and protect the state's bridges; and in airports to ensure security in the terminals and cargo areas.  Civil libertarians are adamantly opposed to the increase in surveillance in the name of national and personal security, because they believe such surveillance constitutes an illegal search of unsuspecting Americans.
California-based company Pixim offers a surveillance camera with the ability to make out figures in dark areas as well as figures obscured by sunlight, and the technology includes a Website where people can instantly view what the camera is recording.  http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/

"ACLU: Surveillance Devices Multiply"

ZDNet (01/16/03); Bowman, Lisa M. U.S.  citizens face increased monitoring by both public and private groups due to an influx of surveillance technologies, suggests a new report from the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU).  The report says "computers, cameras, sensors, wireless communications, GPS, biometrics, and other technologies" have been in use over the past 10 years as surveillance tools. The report also refers to other activities used to monitor Americans, such as video surveillance, the gathering and selling of personal data, and federal databases that hold information about individuals.  In addition, the ACLU report mentions emerging technologies such as radio frequency ID tags--minuscule chips that allow computer systems to identify items--as new tools that can be used by marketers to track people's movements.  The study also criticizes the proposed central database of personal transaction data called the Total Information Awareness project.  The report also features some theoretical situations that people could encounter in the future, such as an African-American being questioned about a crime as he attends a friend's party in the suburbs because face-recognition technology indicates that he is an outsider.  The study says people can counteract the trend toward surveillance by supporting the latest privacy laws and advocating the Fourth Amendment, which forbids unreasonable searches and seizures.

"Tracking Down Truants"

Government Technology (01/03) Vol.  16, No.  1, P.  24; Newcombe, Ted Students who skip school are more likely to get into trouble, suggests nationwide data.  For example, a Miami, Fla., study reveals that more than 71 percent of youths age 13 to 16 who were punished for criminal behavior had been skipping school.  The Boston school district recently implemented a test system to help truant officers reduce the number of students playing hooky.  Officers were equipped with Nextel Internet-ready cell phones that allow them to rapidly identify truants and inform the school or parents.  A truancy task force made up of a police officer, attendance manager, and probation officer then checks the students' identity and any outstanding warrants through the AirClic Mobile Information Platform.  Lew Taffer of AirClic North America says the phones are slated to be equipped with a bar scanner in the future for scanning students' ID cards; at present, officers must key in the names or ID numbers manually.  Boston Public Schools' director of alternative education, Phil Jackson, says eight officers currently use the phones while on duty.

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"Paedophiles Beware: The Digital Detectives Are Watching You" Glasgow Herald (Scotland) (01/18/03) P.  14; McQuillan, Rebecca

New technology is being used to find and charge suspected pedophiles who use the Internet.  For instance, special software and techniques help law enforcement agencies gather information from a computer's hard drive to detect online movements such as visited Web sites and deleted information.
"We're aware of software that can pick up everything you've done for five rewrites," says Frank Glen of the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF), referring to information that can still be captured even when computer files are written over.
And even if the hard disk is destroyed, information may still be recoverable from ISPs.  Moreover, police officers can gather information by entering online chartrooms similar to parking near a suspect's residence.  Officers involved in the Operation Ore project have been able to retrieve details about suspected pedophiles using credit card data in conjunction with the FBI.  The operation is currently investigating over 7,200 U.K.  individuals suspected of visiting a child pornography Web site, including musician Pete Townshend and a member of the London Assembly.  In addition, citizens are encouraged to report child pornography sites to IWF, which is an initiative of the U.K.
government, law enforcement, and ISPs. http://www.theherald.co.uk/

"Keeping Tabs: A Two-Way Street" New York Times (01/16/03) P.  G1; Wade, Will

Tracking technologies based on the global positioning system (GPS) are being used in more and more applications.  For example, a firm called Wherify Wireless is offering Personal Locators, or watch-like bracelets, that can help parents locate where their children are via a computer or by calling a company operator.  The bracelets are equipped with cell phone and GPS capabilities, allowing people to be tracked via the Internet.  Such tracking technology is also being included in mobile phones as part of FCC regulations (dubbed Enhanced 911) to help emergency departments pinpoint the location of people in danger.  The cell phones act like tracking units and identify the exact location of the call.
Marc Rotenberg of the Electronic Privacy Information Center says satellite-based tracking technology might also be used by police departments to find the locations of people at any given time, by a person to check on the activities of a suspected unfaithful spouse, or to see where employees are using corporate phones.  The system is already being used by law enforcement agencies to help monitor parolees and by shipping firms to locate their fleets. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/16/technology/circuits/16loca.html

"Imagis Technologies' ID-2000 Face Recognition Technology Implemented in Michigan State Police by DataWorks Plus" PRNewswire (01/13/03)

In a move to enhance investigative capabilities of the Michigan State Police and all Michigan law enforcement agencies, ID-2000, a software that uses biometric face-recognition technology, is being deployed.  With the help of Imagis Technologies, and DataWorks Plus--the two companies that developed and are implementing the technology--officers will be able to identify an individual using only a facial photo, video, or artist's composite drawing.  "The marriage of our ID-2000 facial recognition technology with the image and mug shot management capabilities of DataWorks will propel the Michigan State Police to the forefront of state-wide offender identification," says Imagis CEO Iain Drummond.  DataWorks is under contract to build a state-wide repository of mug shots and digital images, of which the ID-2000 deployment is one part.  DataWorks Plus General Managing Partner Gunnar Hildemann states, "We chose to partner with Imagis Technologies Inc.  because we believe Imagis' ID-2000...technology is accurate and effective while the company is accommodating and comfortable to work with."

"Resort Town: Any Familiar Faces?" Wired News (01/13/03)

Virginia Beach, Va., has become the second city in the United States to install controversial face-recognition surveillance cameras in public places. Tampa, Fla., was the first.  Facing criticisms of invasion of privacy, Virginia Beach deputy police chief Greg Mullen said that his police force undertook an extensive public education process which helped them write the policies they are currently using.  The cameras may only be used to catch some 1,500 people wanted by the city on outstanding felony warrants, and to find runaway children or missing persons.  The $197,000 system went live in September, but thus far has failed to produce a single arrest, though it has triggered false alarms.  Some critics say that the system can be tricked and is highly undependable.  While Mullen insists that the cameras are no different than a police officer standing on the corner monitoring the public, many observers fear that the technology will be used as a tool of social control.  Mullen predicts that the camera system could eventually be linked to other law enforcement databases, giving law enforcement officials a means of tracking terrorists and criminals. http://www.wired.com/news/privacy/0,1848,57189,00.html

"Security Cameras are Getting Smart--and Scary" San Jose Mercury News Online (01/06/03); Takahashi, Dean

The fallout from the Sept.  11 terrorist attacks has prompted technology specialists to develop new security cameras that have the potential to transform the world of video surveillance.  This new type of technology allows data to be recorded in a digital format on hard disk drives so that the examination of hours of recorded images is made much easier.
With these cameras, solar batteries kick in to keep the camera running, should someone cut the electric power.  Data from the cameras can be sent over the Internet, via wireless data networks, or directly to hard drives of companies and law enforcement organizations.  However, some civil libertarians are seriously concerned that such constant surveillance amounts to an illegal search of anyone who passes within a camera's view.  Nevertheless, the surveillance business keeps growing, and the closed-circuit TV camera market produced nearly $1.5 billion in revenue in 2002, according to JP Freeman, a Connecticut-based market research firm.  While highly sophisticated cameras account for only 10 percent of today's market, they are growing at a rate of 30 percent per year--double the rate of standard security cameras, according to JP Freeman President Joe Freeman.  Hoover Institute research fellow Nick Imearato predicts that federal airport-security rules eventually will require cameras to be installed every 400 feet throughout all airport areas.  http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/

"Smart Guns, A Clever Bit of Legislating" New York Times (01/12/03) P.  14NJ1; Pearce, Jeremy

On Dec.  23, New Jersey's Gov.  McGreevey signed the "smart gun" measure into law.  The measure calls for handgun vendors in the state to sell only state-sanctioned guns when smart gun technology is commercially implemented.  The aim is to reduce gun accidents by children and prevent people from misusing a police officer's weapon.  Officials hope that only the intended users will be able to operate a gun using such means as optical scanners, fingerprint sensors, and ultrasonic receptors.  Meanwhile, some gun manufactures are struggling to create the new technology while others have stopped trying altogether.  The New Jersey Institute of Technology in Newark says it is five to 10 years away from developing a gun-safety grip concept.  Other states that are mulling similar laws are New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Wisconsin, Illinois, Washington, and California.  And starting from this month, all new handguns sold in Maryland must carry a trigger lock, which is not as easy to remove as the former locks.  http://www.nytimes.com/

"Taking License: ID Machines Target Underage Drinking But Raise Questions of Invading Privacy" Sacramento Bee (01/09/03) P.  E1; Evans, Will

Law enforcement officers, businesses, and state groups say age-checking devices may be an effective way to curb underage drinking, but many people are concerned that the machines record much more than just age.  The devices work by reading the magnetic strip on driver's licenses, and a variety of software programs allow the machines to record the time a person arrives, the license number, or almost anything that is on the license.  Justin Risley of the Sacramento Police Department says such devices have helped him investigate several assault cases: club data lets him know who was in the club at a certain time.  At the 7440 Club, the data from the age-checking machines, along with that of 14 surveillance cameras, is recorded on a hard drive.  The machines have been around since the 1990s, and their use continues to grow despite privacy concerns. http://www.sacbee.com/

"Developing On Alert Technology Could Provide Cops on the Beat Gunshot Info Immediately via Hand Held Devices" Business Wire (01/08/03)

Law enforcement officers will soon be able to quickly gather and share detailed information about gunshots with the help of the On Alert Gunshot Detection System (GDS), designed by Proxity Digital Networks.  The new technology can detect the type of gun used, the number of shots fired, and pinpoint the location where the shots originated.  Once the GDS collects the information, it can send it instantly to dispatch officers and via handheld devices.  The device can be attached to power lines, light poles, or tall buildings in areas plagued by gang violence.  Since the sensors deliver the information in real time, police response time can be decreased significantly.  Future versions of the system could detect screams in parking lots, or natural disaster emergencies such as tornados and seismic events. http://www.businesswire.com/

THE POWER TO DESTROY Big Brother eyes taxes by the mile State considers space-based technology to collect revenue Posted: December 31, 2002 1:00 a.m.  Eastern © 2002 WorldNetDaily.com The latest proposal by government to collect tax revenue may seem out of this world – that's because it is.

The state of Oregon is considering the use of satellite technology to charge taxes based on how much mileage you drive your car.

The Road User Fee Task Force set up by lawmakers last year plans to ask the 2003 session to authorize testing of a vehicle-mileage tax, reports the Associated Press.

Oregon was the first state back in 1919 to adopt a gas tax, and today officials expect revenues to flatten as gas mileage improves and more hybrid cars come on line.

Jim Whitty, the task force administrator, says his group is looking at a per-mile charge of up to
1.25 cents to generate funds comparable to the current gas tax.

"We also have to have a way to track mileage only within the state," Whitty told the AP.  This rules out basing the fee on odometer readings, which would include out-of-state driving.

"Technology has improved to the degree that this can be done, with an electronic device," he said.

The device in each car would be linked to a Global Positioning Satellite system, or GPS, which allows pinpoint navigation by bouncing signals off satellites.

The task force hopes to organize a test of this system if lawmakers approve, checking to see if the system even works, then conducting a yearlong evaluation.

There are several options for actually collecting fees.  One is to send vehicle owners a monthly bill, another is to outfit gas stations so they can read vehicle transponders and collect the tax at fueling stops.

If you think the new method would do away with the tax on fuel, think again.  In assessing the new levy, drivers would get credit for gas tax already paid.

To protect drivers' privacy, using the system to track cars in real time would be illegal.  New cars would be required to have the GPS technology.  Owners of older cars would be allowed to take part by retrofitting them.

A final decision on the proposal is not expected to come until the 2005 legislative session at the earliest.

High-tech billboards tune in to drivers' tastes Roadside signs coming to Bay Area listen to car radios, then adjust pitch Robert Salladay, Chronicle Staff Writer Sunday, December 22, 2002 The billboard is listening.

In an advertising ploy right out of Steven Spielberg's "Minority Report," electronic billboards in the Bay Area and Sacramento are being equipped to profile commuters as they whiz by -- and then instantly personalize freeway ads based on the wealth and habits of those drivers.

For example, if the freeway were packed with country music listeners, the billboards might make a pitch for casinos.  If National Public Radio were on, the billboards could change to ads for a high-quality car or a gourmet grocery.

The billboards -- in Palo Alto, Daly City and Fremont
-- will pick up which radio stations are being played and then instantly access a vast databank of information about the people who typically listen to those stations.  The electronic ads will then change to fit listener profiles.

In the buzzy hum of 21st century commercialism, it's the latest way for businesses to target consumers without wasting money on scattershot appeals.  Many auto dealerships already use a similar system to identify the stations people are listening to as they pull into a car lot -- and then place ads on those stations.

"You know what this is about?  Accountability," said Tom Langeland, president of the Sacramento firm Alaris Media Network, which owns the 10 video screen billboards in California.  "People are struggling, the world is becoming a more competitive place, and advertising dollars have been a huge, misplaced factor.  Advertisers don't know where their money is going."

Langeland said the technology should be in place within a few weeks on electronic billboards off Interstate 280 at Serramonte Shopping Center and off Interstate 880 at Southland Mall near Fremont.
Another sign on Highway 101 in Palo Alto also is being outfitted.  Billboards in Sacramento, nearby Roseville (Placer County) and Los Angeles also will use the technology.

In Spielberg's "Minority Report," Tom Cruise's character makes his way through city streets as billboard advertisements scan his retina and then personalize ads for products.

BIG BROTHER WORLD Several of the Bay Area residents contacted by The Chronicle said they were mostly resigned to a Big Brother world where government and corporations collect large amounts of information on citizens, often without permission.

Many worried about the distraction of the large, video-screen billboards.  Vernon Burton of San Leandro called it "junk capitalism" motivated by shameless greed.  Lowell Young of Mariposa said, "Everyone should turn off their radios until they let us have our privacy back."

"What's next?" asked Rob Blackwelder of Oakland.  "
.  .  .  It would be as if someone knocked on your front door and said, 'I couldn't help notice through your window that you're watching Fox News.  .  .  .  Could I interest you in a subscription to (the conservative magazine) National Review?' "

The California system uses a "consumer monitoring system" developed by Mobiltrak of Chandler, Ariz., to pick up radio waves "leaked" from the antennas of up to 90 percent of all cars passing by and pinpoint the stations being played.

Each station has a typical listener profile derived from detailed consumer surveys.  The system will assess the most popular radio station during a given hour and target the ads to those drivers.

"I can tell you how much money they spent on fast food in the last week.  I can tell you where they are shopping," said Phyllis Neill, chief operating officer of Mobiltrak.  "I can tell you what percentage of them were married and shop at Petsmart and made more than $100,000 a year and potentially could come to Office Max in the next six months."

DATA COLLECTED AND PASSED ON Neill envisions a system of Mobiltrak-equipped billboards along, say, a six- mile stretch of freeway.
The first billboard's receiver would collect data on a block of cars and send it to the billboards farther on, which would then switch to the appropriate ads.

"We have only just begun to scratch the surface of what the technology can do," Neill said.

Privacy experts are not particularly worried about the new billboards, as long as society continues to allow people to remain anonymous.  But they do notice a shift in focus: Where the big concern used to be Internet privacy, now it's physical space, from closed-circuit monitoring to red-light cameras.

"I don't think it's really so much about stopping technology or pulling the shades a little tighter," said Marc Rotenberg, executive director of the nonprofit Electronic Privacy Information Center in Washington, D.C.  "It's about making sure there are safeguards on the personal information that businesses collect."

Neill said the technology doesn't have the ability to listen to people's conversations or CD players, nor would advertisers even care about such things.

The technology is designed to be anonymous and passive, she said, and relies on information about large numbers of drivers.

Hollywood already is installing similar technology in movie theater ads -- electronic "posters" that interact with customers to show moving digital images.  Walk by an electronic poster of Jennifer Lopez, and she might wink at you.

"Minority Report" producer Bonnie Curtis, in a recent New York Times article about the new medium, said she could envision interactive posters that talk to moviegoers, perhaps in Spielberg's voice.

"When I hear him say, 'Hey, Bonnie, I like that blouse.  Why haven't you come to see my movie yet?' " Curtis told the Times, "then I'd say we are getting very close."

S.F. Chronicle-Page A - 1

New Tools for Domestic Spying, and Qualms

By MICHAEL MOSS and FORD FESSENDEN hen the Federal Bureau of Investigation grew concerned this spring that terrorists might attack using scuba gear, it set out to identify every person who had taken diving lessons in the previous three years.

Hundreds of dive shops and organizations gladly turned over their records, giving agents contact information for several million people.

"It certainly made sense to help them out," said Alison Matherly, marketing manager for the National Association of Underwater Instructors Worldwide.
"We're all in this together."

But just as the effort was wrapping up in July, the F.B.I.  ran into a two-man revolt.  The owners of the Reef Seekers Dive Company in Beverly Hills, Calif., balked at turning over the records of their clients, who include Tom Cruise and Tommy Lee Jones — even when officials came back with a subpoena asking for "any and all documents and other records relating to all noncertified divers and referrals from July 1, 1999, through July 16, 2002."

Faced with defending the request before a judge, the prosecutor handling the matter notified Reef Seekers' lawyer that he was withdrawing the subpoena.
The company's records stayed put.

"We're just a small business trying to make a living, and I do not relish the idea of standing up against the F.B.I.," said Ken Kurtis, one of the owners of Reef Seekers.  "But I think somebody's got to do it."

In this case, the government took a tiny step back.  But across the country, sometimes to the dismay of civil libertarians, law enforcement officials are maneuvering to seize the information-gathering weapons they say they desperately need to thwart terrorist attacks.

From New York City to Seattle, police officials are looking to do away with rules that block them from spying on people and groups without evidence that a crime has been committed.  They say these rules, forced on them in the
1970's and 80's to halt abuses, now prevent them from infiltrating mosques and other settings where terrorists might plot.

At the same time, federal and local police agencies are looking for systematic, high-tech ways to root out terrorists before they strike.  In a sense, the scuba dragnet was cumbersome, old-fashioned police work, albeit on a vast scale.
Now officials are hatching elaborate plans for dumping gigabytes of delicate information into big computers, where it would be blended with public records and stirred with sophisticated software.

In recent days, federal law enforcement officials have spoken ambitiously and often about their plans to remake the F.B.I.  as a domestic counterterrorism agency.  But the spy story has been unfolding, quietly and sometimes haltingly, for more than a year now, since the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.

Some people in law enforcement remain unconvinced that all these new tools are needed, and some experts are skeptical that high-tech data mining will bring much of value to light.

Still, civil libertarians increasingly worry about how law enforcement might wield its new powers.  They say the nation is putting at risk the very thing it is fighting for: the personal freedoms and rights embodied in the Constitution.
Moreover, they say, authorities with powerful technology will inevitably blunder, as became evident in October when an audit revealed that the Navy had lost nearly two dozen computers authorized to process classified information.

What perhaps angers the privacy advocates most is that so much of this revolution in police work is taking place in secret, said Cindy Cohn, legal director of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, which represented Reef Seekers.

"If we are going to decide as a country that because of our worry about terrorism that we are willing to give up our basic privacy, we need an open and full debate on whether we want to make such a fundamental change,"
Ms. Cohn said.

But some intelligence experts say that in a changed world, the game is already up for those who would value civil liberties over the war on terrorism.  "It's the end of a nice, comfortable set of assumptions that allowed us to keep ourselves protected from some kinds of intrusions," said Stewart A.  Baker, the National Security Agency's general counsel under President Bill Clinton.

Tearing Down a Wall The most aggressive effort to give local police departments unfettered spying powers is taking place in New York City.

It was there 22 years ago that the police, stung by revelations of widespread abuse, agreed to stop spying on people not suspected of a crime.  The agreement was part of a containment wall of laws, regulations, court decisions and ordinances erected federally and in many parts of the country in the
70's and 80's.

The F.B.I.'s spying authority was restricted, and the United States' foreign intelligence agencies got out of the business of domestic spying altogether. States passed their own laws.  On the local level, ordinances and consent decrees were enacted not just in New York but also in Los Angeles, Chicago, San Francisco and Seattle.  In the years since, these strictures have "become part of the culture," Mr.  Baker said.

But the wall is under attack.  Last month, a special appeals court ruled that the sweeping antiterrorism legislation known as the U.S.A.  Patriot Act, enacted shortly after the September 2001 attacks to give the government expanded terror-fighting capacity, freed federal prosecutors to seek wiretap and surveillance authority in the absence of criminal activity.  In Chicago last year, a federal appeals court threw out the agreement that restricted police surveillance.  Some officials in Seattle would like to follow suit, saying they are effectively sidelined in the terrorism war.

In New York, the Police Department has sued in federal court in Manhattan to end the consent decree the department signed in 1980 to end a civil rights lawsuit over the infiltration of political groups.

Attorney General John Ashcroft and New York's police commissioner, Raymond W.  Kelly, say the wall is a relic — unnecessary and, worse, dangerous.  David Cohen, the former deputy director of central intelligence who is now the Police Department's deputy commissioner for intelligence, argues that the consent decree's requirement of a suspicion of criminal activity prevents officers from infiltrating mosques.

"In the last decade, we have seen how the mosque and Islamic institutes have been used to shield the work of terrorists from law enforcement scrutiny by taking advantage of restrictions on the investigation of First Amendment activity," Mr.  Cohen said in an affidavit.

The police in other cities cite the same need.  "We're prohibited from collecting things that will make us a safer city," said Lt.  Ron Leavell, commander of the criminal intelligence division of the Seattle police.

Mr.  Cohen did not argue in his affidavit that the authorities, if unshackled, could have prevented the Sept.  11 attacks.  But he did suggest that the F.B.I.'s failure to dig more deeply into the information it had before the attacks turned on agents' fears that they could not climb the wall.

"The recent disclosure that F.B.I.  field agents were blocked from pursuing an investigation of Zacarias Moussaoui because officials in Washington did not believe there was sufficient evidence of criminal activity to support a warrant points out how one person's judgment in applying an imprecise test may result in the costly loss of critical intelligence," Mr.  Cohen said.

Mr.  Cohen has also asked that his testimony before the federal court be given in secret, unheard even by opposing lawyers.  Last week, a judge told New York City that it needed to present better arguments to justify such extraordinary secrecy.

Civil libertarians, frustrated that they cannot draw the other side into a debate, argue that questions about the need for such expanded powers are critical, and far from answered.  "Who said you have to destroy a village in order to save it?" asked Jethro Eisenstein, one of the lawyers who negotiated the original consent decree.  "We're protecting freedom and democracy, but unfortunately freedom and democracy have to be sacrificed."

Even the police are far from unanimous about how intrusive they must be. The Chicago police, who have been free from their consent decree for nearly two years, say they have yet to use the new power.  The Los Angeles police have made no effort to change their guidelines.

"I have not heard complaints that the antiterrorist division has been inhibited in its work," said Joe Gunn, executive director of the Los Angeles Police Commission.

A joint Congressional inquiry into intelligence failures before Sept.  11 concluded that the failures had less to do with the inability of authorities to gather information than with their inability to analyze, understand, share and act on it.

"The lesson of Moussaoui was that F.B.I.  headquarters was telling the field office the wrong advice," said Eleanor Hill, staff director of the inquiry. "Fixing what happened in this case is not inconsistent with preserving civil liberties."

`It Smacks of Big Brother' The Congressional inquiry's lingering criticism has added impetus to a movement within government to equip terror fighters with better computer technology.  If humans missed the clues, the reasoning goes, perhaps a computer will not.

Clearly, the F.B.I.  is operating in the dark ages of technology.  For instance, when agents in San Diego want to check out new leads, they walk across the street to the Joint Terrorism Task Force offices, where suspect names must be run through two dozen federal and local databases.

Using filters from the Navy's space warfare project, Spawar, the agents are now dumping all that data into one big computer so that with one mouse click they can find everything from traffic fines to immigration law violations.  A test run is expected early next year.  Similar efforts to consolidate and share information are under way in Baltimore; Seattle; St.  Louis; Portland, Ore.; and Norfolk, Va.

"It smacks of Big Brother, and I understand people's concern," said William D.  Gore, a special agent in charge at the San Diego office.  "But somehow I'd rather have the F.B.I.  have access to this data than some telemarketer who is intent on ripping you off."

Civil libertarians worry that centralized data will be more susceptible to theft. But they are scared even more by the next step officials want to take: mining that data to divine the next terrorist strike.

The Defense Department has embarked on a five-year effort to create a superprogram called Total Information Awareness, led by Adm.  John M.  Poindexter, who was national security adviser in the Reagan administration.  But as soon as next year, the new Transportation Security Administration hopes to begin using a more sophisticated system of profiling airline passengers to identify high-risk fliers.  The system in place on Sept.
11, 2001, flagged only a handful of unusual behaviors, like buying one-way tickets with cash.

Like Admiral Poindexter, the transportation agency is drawing from companies that help private industry better market their products.  Among them is the Acxiom Corporation of Little Rock, Ark., whose tool, Personicx, sorts consumers into 70 categories — like Group 16M, or "Aging Upscale" — based on an array of financial data and behavioral factors.

Experts on consumer profiling say law enforcement officials face two big problems.  Some commercial databases have high error rates, and so little is known about terrorists that it could be very difficult to distinguish them from other people.

"The idea that data mining of some vast collection of databases of consumer activity is going to deliver usable alerts of terrorist activities is sheer credulity on a massive scale," said Jason Catlett of the Junkbusters Corporation, a privacy advocacy business.  The data mining companies, Mr.  Catlett added, are "mostly selling good old-fashioned snake oil."

Libraries and Scuba Schools As it waits for the future, the F.B.I.  is being pressed to gather and share much more intelligence, and that has left some potential informants uneasy and confused about their legal rights and obligations.

Just how far the F.B.I.  has gone is not clear.  The Justice Department told a House panel in June that it had used its new antiterrorism powers in 40 instances to share terror information from grand jury investigations with other government authorities.  It said it had twice handed over terror leads from wiretaps.

But that was as far as Justice officials were willing to go, declining to answer publicly most of the committee's questions about terror-related inquiries.
Civil libertarians have sued under the Freedom of Information Act to get the withheld information, including how often prosecutors have used Section 215 of the 2001 antiterror law to require bookstores or librarians to turn over patron records.

The secrecy enshrouding the counterterrorism campaign runs so deep that Section 215 makes it a crime for people merely to divulge whether the F.B.I. has demanded their records, deepening the mystery — and the uneasiness among groups that could be required to turn over information they had considered private.

"I've been on panel discussions since the Patriot Act, and I don't think I've been to one without someone willing to stand up and say, `Isn't the F.B.I. checking up on everything we do?' " said John A.  Danaher III, deputy United States attorney in Connecticut.

Several weeks ago, the F.B.I.  in Connecticut took the unusual step of revealing information about an investigation to dispute a newspaper report that it had "bugged" the Hartford Public Library's computers.

Michael J.  Wolf, the special agent in charge, said the agency had taken only information from the hard drive of a computer at the library that had been used to hack into a California business.  "The computer was never removed from the library, nor was any software installed on this or any other computer in the Hartford Public Library by the F.B.I.  to monitor computer use," Mr.  Wolf said in a letter to The Hartford Courant, which retracted its report.

Nevertheless, Connecticut librarians have been in an uproar over the possibility that their computers with Internet access would be monitored without their being able to say anything.  They have considered posting signs warning patrons that the F.B.I.  could be snooping on their keystrokes.

"I want people to know under what legal provisions they are living," said Louise Blalock, the chief librarian in Hartford.

In Fairfield, the town librarian, Tom Geoffino, turned over computer log-in sheets to the F.B.I.  last January after information emerged that some of the Sept.  11 hijackers had visited the area, but he said he would demand a court order before turning over anything else.  Agents have not been back asking for more, Mr.  Geoffino said.

"We're not just librarians, we're Americans, and we want to see the people who did this caught," he said.  "But we also have a role in protecting the institution and the attitudes people have about it."

The F.B.I.'s interest in scuba divers began shortly before Memorial Day, when United States officials received information from Afghan war detainees that suggested an interest in underwater attacks.

An F.B.I.  spokesman said the agency would not confirm even that it had sought any diver names, and would not say how it might use any such information.

The owners of Reef Seekers say they had lots of reasons to turn down the F.B.I.  The name-gathering made little sense to begin with, they say, because terrorists would need training far beyond recreational scuba lessons.  They also worried that the new law would allow the F.B.I.  to pass its client records to other agencies.

When word of their revolt got around, said Bill Wright, one of the owners, one man called Reef Seekers to applaud it, saying, "My 15-year-old daughter has taken diving lessons, and I don't want her records going to the F.B.I."

He was in a distinct minority, Mr.  Wright said.  Several other callers said they hoped the shop would be the next target of a terrorist bombing.

"Prison to Start Recording Calls" Associated Press (12/01/02)

A new software by Qwest will allow jail officials at Jackson County, Ore., to record the phone calls inmates make from jail.  Jim Warren, Jackson County Jail Commander, said inmates are known to speak about the crimes they have committed, as well as crimes they plan to commit.  The new software will also help jail officials know if a prisoner is being threatened by another; conversations with lawyers, however, will not be recorded.  Warren added that all prisoners, and anyone who calls in to speak to an inmate, will be notified that their calls could be monitored. http://www.ap.org/

"Officers Train to Use Shock Tool" Atlanta Journal-Constitution (11/28/02) P.  13JM; Brunks, Abby G.

Fayetteville Police Department officers received training, led by Detective Steve Crawshaw, on the use of D.G.G.
Taser's M-26 advanced taser gun, which works similar to a stun gun but with different technology and costs $500 each; the department currently has nine taser guns.  The officers practiced using the guns on targets and then on themselves; officer Derek Brown reports pain associated with the gun but mostly just tense muscles.  With "less lethal" forms of law enforcement increasing in popularity, the M-26 taser is 100 percent effective and reduces injuries to both suspects and officers by about 80 percent, says D.G.G.  Taser president Russel Stender.

"Say Cheese, It's the Heat: Cops Get Help From Thermal Camera" Halifax Daily News (11/27/02) P.  8; Redwood, David

Law enforcement agents in Halifax , Nova Scotia, last week learned how to use thermographic cameras to find bodies, fugitives, stolen property, drugs, and even invisible skid marks.  The camera resembles an large camcorder, but the "lens" is made out of metal, rather than glass.  The metal is able to detect heat level on surfaces up to 400 meters away; other models made for helicopters are able to detect heat at a range of three kilometers.  While Nova Scotia already had some officers trained to use thermographic cameras, only a few knew how to interpret the images.  Following a workshop with Charlie Stowell, the first law enforcement agent to obtain a criminal conviction with thermographic camera evidence, 40 more officers are now able to decipher the thermal images.  http://www.canada.com/halifax/dailynews/

"Thailand to Microchip Early-Release Convicts" Agence France Presse (11/27/02)

In an effort to improve overcrowded prison conditions, Thailand is planning to outfit well-behaved inmates with a microchip bracelet that monitors their whereabouts, and release them.  Nathee Jitsawang, corrections department deputy director general, said, "The bracelets would sound an alarm if convicts tried to escape" from the approved perimeter around their home.  According to Justice permanent secretary Sonchai Wongsawasdi, Thailand's prison capacity is 150,743 inmates; however, there are currently 253,370 in the prison system; the Justice department wants to reduce that number by 40 percent.  The new microchip technology may be the way to achieve that goal. http://www.afp.com/english/home/

"Now Showing: Court Motions Done Via Video Hookups" Associated Press (11/26/02); Hill, Michael

Videoconferencing technology has finally advanced far enough from its early-1970s origins to be used in courtrooms of at least 29 states and dozens of federal districts.  Court administrators laud the technology for saving money on transport costs as well as time, but some attorneys are concerned the human element gets lost in transmission.
Criminal defense lawyer Bruce Lyons is worried about such instances where a juvenile defendant might start talking heedlessly to his detriment and his lawyer is unable to stop him because he is not in the room with the defendant.
However, videoconferencing is expected to become more prevalent in courtrooms, with last year's ruling from a federal appeals court that said a defendant was not deprived of his constitutional right to confront witnesses if they testified by a video hook-up.  http://www.ap.org/

"TSA Preps Smart ID Programs" Federal Computer Week (11/20/02); O'Hara, Colleen

In an effort to enable frequent travelers and transportation workers to get through airports faster, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is boosting its smart card-based initiatives.  TSA will soon launch two programs, the Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) program and the Registered Traveler Program (RTP).  The TWIC program will provide all transportation workers--including those in airports, railways, and ports--secure access to buildings and systems with an ID card that can be used across all modes of transportation.  Technologies being tested for the program include digital photographs and holographic images, optical media stripes, memory-microprocessor ICC chips, magnetic stripes, 2-D bar codes, and linear bar codes.  Also to be assessed will be the TWIC enrollment center, personalization and issuance, a regional database, and regional card production, according to TWIC program manager Elaine Charney.  She said that the Philadelphia/Wilmington area has been selected as the site of the TWIC pilot program, which will be planned over an interval of three months.  The RTP will enable pre-screened passenger to quickly move through security checkpoints in airports, allowing security personnel to focus on passengers who may be a greater security risk, said RTP manager Michael Barrett.

"Digital Crimes Lead Investigators to Use Drive-Scanning Software"
Government Computer News (11/18/02) Vol.  21, No.  33, P.  50; Bhambhani, Dipka

During the recent Computer and Enterprise Investigations Conference: 2002 in Chantilly, Va., Sgt.  James Doyle, a retired New York Police Department investigator and a member of NYPD's Computer and Investigation Technology Unit, told the audience only advanced technology can gather the needed evidence in computer crimes.  For example, in most computer crimes scanning IP addresses is crucial, and he cited a case in which a man created a false ID online to lease a car, and police traced his ID falsification to his IP addresses.
Another useful tool Doyle mentioned is the computer forensic applications from Guidance Software, such as EnCase Forensic and EnCase Enterprise.  EnCase allows investigators to copy a suspect's system's files and drive contents onto a virtual drive without being invasive, according to Guidance President John Patzakis.  Otherwise, he said, "you're trampling all over the investigation scene." This software has also proven effective in child pornography and abduction cases, noted Doyle.  Investigators can copy and analyze the contents of a hard drive as long as it is in working condition.  http://www.gcn.com/21_33/tech-report/20468-1.html

"Georgia May Require Visual 'Fingerprint' of a Person's Face on Driver's Licenses" Macon Telegraph (11/25/02); Peters, Andy

The Georgia Department of Motor Vehicle Safety has hired Viisage Technology under a six-year, $20 million contract to produce driver's licenses for the state, and Viisage uses biometric software to take a visual fingerprint-equivalent of someone's face.  "Our technology creates a numeric value that represents a person's face," says Viisage spokesperson Cameron Queeno.  "That becomes a part of a state's documentation of who you are." The number then could be listed as a bar code on the back of licenses.  However, Georgia's general assembly must approve any changes to the driver's license format, and so whether biometric technology will be incorporated is undecided, says Georgia Motor Vehicle Safety commissioner Tim Burgess.  Georgia legislator Rep.  Bobby Parham (D-Milledgeville) says that adding fingerprinting to Georgia licenses caused a raucous debate in the general assembly before being passed, and that any biometric technology will be judged both from the perspective of public safety and protecting people's privacy.  To date, Viisage produces driver's licenses for 17 states, and according to GCN.com, Viisage has sold its biometric technology to five states, including Illinois.
Illinois uses the technology to comb databases to identify people holding multiple driver's licenses, often from different government entities and sometimes each one listing different names.

"Grocery Stores Checking Out Fingerprints" Los Angeles Times (11/25/02) P.  2; Fulmer, Melinda

Small urban grocery chains and mom-and-pop stores have been among the quickest to embrace biometric technology in an effort to combat check-cashing fraud, which is a particularly important issue for such small stores because many customers in low-income neighborhoods lack bank accounts and rely on the local stores to cash their checks.
One of the competing systems on the market is BioPay, used in about 30 locations across the country, under which customers must initially register by scanning a driver's license or other ID card and a fingerprint; after that, each time the customer cashes a check, the customer also touches an index finger to an electronic "reader" so that the identification data can be retrieved.  The cashier then swipes the check to pick up its magnetic ink, takes a picture of the check, verifies the bank information and matches it against previous checks that the customer has used.  Though BioPay does not cross-reference this information with law-enforcement or government databases, the system does flag problem checks and share the information with other stores if needed.  Though the technology has caught on in smaller stores, larger grocers have been more reluctant to use it for credit and debit cards, in part because of concerns that the customers will find it to be intrusive.  In addition, privacy expert Lee Tien of the Electronic Frontier Foundation warns that the technology could potentially pose privacy issues if used by more businesses, which could in turn begin sharing customers' personal data, although BioPay President Tim Robinson points out that many consumers regularly give away greater amounts of personal information in order to conduct such transactions as renting cars.

"DNA Databank a Victim of Success" Washington Post (11/24/02) P.  PW6; Shear, Michael D.

Virginia police and prosecutors are calling for greater funding to take advantage of the state's DNA databank, the largest in the country, which contains the genetic markers of nearly 200,000 violent criminals.  The tool has assisted law enforcement in solving more than 1,000 cases long abandoned, including 109 murders and 241 rapes, but officials say the system is still underused because of the limited abilities of the laboratory to process genetic matches; scheduled funding cuts may hamper the lab even more.  Furthermore, the Virginia Supreme Court will consider whether DNA evidence could be used to clear convicted felons, which would make the lab's job all the harder.  The databank was first created 13 years ago with the genetic samples of individuals convicted of sexual crimes and then expanded to include all adult felons.  In 1994, it was again enlarged to include all violent criminals over the age of 14.  Starting next January, those arrested but not yet convicted of a violent crime will also have their DNA samples submitted.  These will be retained only upon conviction; if someone is acquitted, the sample is erased from the databank.  "Think of the value a tool like this would have to law enforcement if they were to get more timely results," postulates Alexandria Commonwealth's attorney S.  Randolph Sengel. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A31705-2002Nov23.html

"Robot Is Security Guard of Future" Birmingham Post (UK) (11/18/02) P.  4; Naqvi, Shahid

The Birmingham, England-based Technology Innovation Centre says it needs just two more years to develop a robot security guard that will be capable of chasing trespassers, putting out fires, and learning the layout of buildings, thus allowing it to replace humans.  These units will have the advantage of being able to work nonstop, see in the dark, and perform their duties in inclement conditions. http://www.virtualbirmingham.co.uk/internal/post/

"White House Plans a 'Network of Networks'" Government Computer News (11/18/02); Miller, Jason

The Bush administration is interested in developing a super communications network to facilitate information sharing between law enforcement, emergency services, and Defense Department agencies.  The administration plans to provide roughly $3 million during the fiscal 2004 budget to evaluate the proposal.  Homeland Security Office CIO Steve Cooper indicated the office needs the participation of industry representatives as well as local and state government officials to develop the plan.  The administration is interested in using the Army National Guard's network as the backbone of the super network because of its extensive reach.  Cooper said the system could share data between agencies as needed and may not need an actual pooling capability to do so effectively.  He also said the study will take between 3 and 6 months to complete at a cost of roughly $1 million.  "We need to figure out what it would take to make the network happen, what infrastructure is out there and what the policy issues are surrounding this concept,"
Cooper explained.  "We want to see what it would take to transmit voice and data.  We think we can make it work."http://www.gcn.com/21_33/news/20493-1.html

"Bush Signs Homeland Security Bill" CNet (11/25/02); McCullagh, Declan

Bush signed the Department of Homeland Security bill into law on Monday, thus authorizing the consolidation of 22 federal agencies into a single body tasked with protecting the nation's critical infrastructure.  The law has civil liberties groups worried about last-minute provisions that expand the authority of law enforcement to eavesdrop on citizens' Internet activity or telephone conversations without court orders, allow Internet providers to reveal information about subscribers to police in times of emergency, and impose stiffer penalties on people convicted of malicious cybercrimes, including life imprisonment.
Another late provision decrees that critical infrastructure information companies disclose to the department will not be subject to the Freedom of Information Act.  Also generating concern is a huge database funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) designed to profile almost every American's behavior and spending habits.  The Total Information Awareness (TIA) program is headed by former admiral John Poindexter, who Electronic Privacy Information Center director Marc Rotenberg deems inappropriate.  The homeland security law also apportions $500 million for technology research, calls for the establishment of an office that will concentrate on law enforcement technology and finance tools that will help state and local police fight cybercrimes, and sets up a Directorate for Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection.  White House advisor Tom Ridge was nominated by the president to run the Department of Homeland Security. http://news.com.com/2100-1023-975305.html

"NY Tries Biometric Kiosks for Probationers" Government Computer News (11/12/02); Bhambhani, Dipka

Nearly 11,000 low-risk offenders on probation in New York City now have the option of checking in monthly with their probation officers through 14 new biometric-enabled kiosks at offices in various boroughs, instead of having to make an appointment to see an officer.  All the individual has to do is place his hand on a hand-geometry reader, and answer a few questions; the system can automatically let a designated probation officer know if the offender has not done his of her monthly check-in.  The kiosk links directly to the department's Adult Restructuring Tracking System database.
The new system provides many advantages, such as reducing human error, and giving probation officers more time to deal with higher-risk criminals in person.  Kael Goodman, the Probation Department's assistant commissioner and CIO, said that since hand-geometry readers could block access if the individual is wearing jewelry, has longer fingernails, or has changed in body weight, voice-recognition technology may soon be deployed as well. http://www.gcn.com/vol1_no1/daily-updates/20443-1.html

"Legal Minded: Building a Better Way to Book Prisoners" InformationWeek (11/11/02); Chabrow, Eric

The Justice Department continues to streamline its process for moving prisoners through the system.  More than two years ago, the agency started implementing the Joint Automated Booking System (Jabs) to manage prisoner booking by its five law enforcement groups.  Developed in Visual Basic, Jabs is more than just a finger-printing system.  It includes 75 data components, ranging from crime descriptions to mug shots.
The Jabs system runs on Windows NT, with users able to access it with Windows 2000 and XP clients through a Web browser.  The system usually responds within two hours after a prisoner's finger is electronically scanned and transmitted to the FBI's Automated Fingerprint Identification System.  The Secret Service and the Transportation Security Administration could also establish connections to the Jabs system, while Justice Department CIO Van Hitch notes that the tool's use could be extended beyond law enforcement, given the similarity between prisoner booking procedure and the processing of security-conscious government jobs.

Feds track patients' drug use Police keep list of who gets painkillers and other addictive medications By R.  Joseph Gelarden / Indianapolis Star WASHINGTON

In 17 states, including Michigan, police keep lists of everyone who buys high-powered painkillers and other potentially addictive drugs prescribed by doctors.
They collect the information with the permission of a little-known law that requires pharmacists to send them patients' names, the drug they are taking, the name of their doctors and even the number of pills they receive.
This means that whenever you have a prescription filled for Schedule II drugs, such as Percodan, Vicodin or Lorcet -- and in some states Schedule III drugs such as anabolic steroids or Ketamine, or familiar Schedule IV drugs like Xanax, Valium, or the "date rape"
drug Rohypnol, plus needles and syringes -- a record with your name on it is created and shared with a number of agencies.
It is all part of a computerized electronic tracking system used by the states in a federal program to help police and medical licensing agencies bust prescription drug abuses.
Schedule II drugs also include familiar painkillers such as Demerol, Percocet and the powerful OxyContin; street drugs such as cocaine and meth; and even Ritalin.
Nationally, the program is called the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program.  California was the first state to implement the program, in 1940; Kentucky was the most recent to join, in 1999.  Police say the program is one of the key tools used to catch drug abusers and the doctors and pharmacists who provide the drugs.
In Indiana, the program is being used in the Drug Enforcement Administration's ongoing investigation of local physicians and pharmacies suspected of providing excessive prescriptions for painkillers.  Indianapolis Colts owner Jim Irsay and a handful of his associates are expected to be questioned in the investigation -- even though the National Football League and Irsay's lawyer said they don't believe the team's owner is a target.  Irsay has said he sought treatment for addiction to prescription painkillers.
John Krull, Indiana Civil Liberties Union executive director, said the system could put citizens' privacy at risk.
"Anytime people's privacy is violated, especially on a systemic basis, it is a concern," he said.  "What if you are battling cancer and have beaten the odds and survived, but are in constant pain?  Does your legitimate use of painkillers cause you to become the object of an investigation?  In a free society, government should be accountable to the citizenry.  More and more, the citizen is being held accountable to the government."
Les Miller, special counsel for Indiana State Police Superintendent Mel Carraway, said the monitoring program helps stop prescription drug abuse.  "We need a means of tracking prescriptions for Schedule II drugs because they are subject to abuse," he said.
"We could use it to build a case, to look at trends, to catch information about a doctor, a pharmacy or an individual.  It is another piece of information that goes into the mix."
The information collected in the database includes:
The patient's name.
His or her date of birth.
Date the drug is dispensed.
Quantity of the drug.
Number of days supply dispensed.
Whether the prescription was phoned in or presented in writing.
The law allows public access to statistical reports only.
A Web site for the Diversion Control Program (www.deadiversion .usdoj.gov), of which the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program is a part, is packed with information about national and local cases, though names of suspected drug abusers are not included.
(Investigators can track a case if needed.)
In one report on the site, the DEA reported that one Indiana woman was so addicted to hydrocodone (codeine) that she had all her teeth pulled just so she could get prescriptions filled at different Indiana pharmacies.
In another case, troopers found one patient was receiving 2,500 doses of a high-powered painkiller per month from one doctor.
Before the case was completed, the drug abuser was killed.

"Secret U.S.  Court OKs Electronic Spying" CNet (11/18/02); McCullagh, Declan

An earlier ruling from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court declaring that domestic police agencies and spy agencies must be separated in order to protect Americans' privacy was overturned by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review, thus widening law enforcement's authority to conduct electronic surveillance, wiretapping, and secret searches against people suspected of espionage and terrorism.  When the lower court made its ruling in May, Justice Department lawyers argued that the enactment of the USA Patriot Act nullified the need for a wall between local and federal law enforcement, and also established that the types of monitoring authorized by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) could now be carried out if terrorist or espionage acts represented a "significant purpose" of investigations rather than the primary purpose.  U.S.  Attorney General John Ashcroft, who requested the extension of powers, said the reversal will help usher in a new period of collaboration between police and federal agencies, and called it a "victory for liberty, safety, and the security of the American people." The ACLU and the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers responded to the decision by filing friend-of-the-court briefs recommending that the appeals court support the lower court's ruling.  "Because the FISA now applies to ordinary criminal matters if they are dressed up as national security inquiries, the new rules could open the door to circumvention of the Fourth Amendment's warrant requirements," warned Robert Levy of the Cato Institute.
"The result: rubber-stamp judicial consent to phone and Internet surveillance, even in regular criminal cases, and FBI access to medical, educational and other business records that conceivably relate to foreign intelligence probes." http://news.com.com/2100-1023-966311.html

"Drugged-Up Drivers Hard to Convict" Salt Lake Tribune (11/15/02) P.  B4; Neff, Elizabeth

In Utah and seven other states with strict drugged-driving laws, drivers can be punished for even the slightest amount of drugs in their system, according to a new study funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.  However, prosecutors in the remaining 42 states must prove that drug use caused driving impairment.  But drug use has no standard similar to the .08 blood alcohol-level for drunk driving.  According to a report by The Walsh Group and the American Bar Association's Standing Committee on Substance Abuse, Utah, Arizona, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, and Rhode Island have "zero-tolerance" drugged-driving laws.  For the remaining states, prosecutors may be helped by new drug testing technology that offers results within minutes.  The tests can use urine, blood, or saliva samples.  Furthermore, Utah highway patrols received two weeks of training to make it easier for them to detect signs of drug use.  "People are driving with drugs in their system who shouldn't be, and under many laws, cannot be held accountable," says Jerry Landau, a prosecutor for Maricopa County, AZ.

"Catching Auto Thieves in the Act" San Diego Union-Tribune (11/14/02) P.  B1; Hughes, Joe
Police in San Diego are leaving cars across the city that are rigged with electronic devices that alert police when someone breaks into them.  After the thieves drive away, remote control turns the car's engine off, doing away with the chance of a dangerous pursuit.  In addition, police can lock the car's doors by remote, sealing thieves inside the vehicle.  A dozen individuals have been arrested to date this year using these tools.  As part of the anti-auto-thief program, San Diego police work with technicians from Satellite Security Systems, a private firm, in a 24-hour, seven-days-a-week command facility in Hillcrest that is equipped with computers, scanners, and electronic maps.  The decoy cars are rigged with an electronic tracing device, known as the GlobalGuard, which is hooked onto the undercarriage.  After the car is broken into, the device sends a silent signal to Hillcrest, and a satellite is employed to follow the car, whose route is projected on a color-coded street map.  Police are then sent to catch the thief.

"With a Foot in Every Cellblock and a Hand on Every File" New York Times (11/14/02) P.  G6; Morris, Bonnie Rothman

Some officers at the Middleton, Mass.-based Essex County Correctional Facility wear a 2.5-pound, $4,500 computer with a foldable screen around their waists; the computer is linked to the prison's new video system and allows officers to view fights or other disruptions at the facility before they arrive on the scene, enabling them to better prepare and more effectively control the situation.  Wearable computers are currently used by FedEx airplane mechanics for easy access to repair manuals and by military personnel.
Essex County officials say they are the first prison to implement the technology, which was designed by manufacturer Xybernaut, to improve safety and maintain order.
Correctional officers also use the computers to quickly write and wirelessly file "use of force" reports, and they could soon use the technology to download prisoners' medical records and record "forced moves." The recording can later be used in court if the prisoner were to file a complaint about the use of force or as a training video for new personnel. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/11/14/technology/circuits/14pris.html

"St.  Johns Sheriff's Office Upgrades its Technology" Florida Times-Union (11/13/02) P.  B1; Sundin, Shawna

A $1.7 million two-part technology upgrade at the St.  Johns County Sheriff's Office included a tracing system that can track emergency phone calls to within about 140 yards of the caller's location, and a mapping grid and history of incidents that pops up after the computer displays the phone number and address of the call.  Computers have also been installed in patrol cars so that officers can check information first-hand on a suspect, while a new cell phone tracking system will allow police to pinpoint the location of wireless callers to within 55 yards.  Maj.  Herbert Greenleaf, deputy director of operations for support services in the St.  Johns County Sheriff's Office, says he anticipates that the technology upgrades will decrease the average emergency response time to just four minutes.  The office hopes to have all patrol cars equipped with computers by February, and to have transitioned to a silent dispatch system by June.  Deputies will receive calls through their computers rather than over scanners, and also receive maps of call locations and tapes of emergency calls.

"DU Research Could Help DNA Testing in Criminal Cases" Associated Press (11/12/02)

Robby Shelton, a first-year doctoral candidate at the University of Denver, and his mentor, Phil Danielson, are collaborating with along with Denver police crime-lab scientists to develop a new process that uses mitochondrial DNA--DNA samples that are smaller and older than current methods use--to identify suspects.  In addition, since mitochondrial DNA occurs more frequently in the cell than other DNA types, the chances of finding a reliable sample are much greater.  The process could significantly reduce the time and cost of analyzing DNA evidence in criminal investigations, and could potentially find trace evidence in almost every crime scene.  "This really is probably the next generation of forensic application of DNA and DNA technology," declares Troy Kenning of the Denver National Law Enforcement and Correction Technology Center.

"New Crime Database" Columbus Dispatch (11/11/02) P.  01B; Futty, John

Ohio hopes to expand the number of state law-enforcement agencies using the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) to 90 percent by 2005.  The system currently only covers about 30 percent of the state's population, but Columbus, Canton, Cleveland, Toledo, and Youngstown are expected to join Akron, Cincinnati, and Dayton in adopting NIBRS next year.  The FBI created the new reporting system more than 10 years ago to replace the Uniform Crime Report program, which has been in use since 1930.  NIBRS keeps statistics for 22 criminal offences compared to the Uniform Crime Report, which tracks only eight offenses and only the worse offense in cases involving multiple offences.  The new system also provides more detailed information related to criminal incidents, such as the time crimes occurred and the names of assailants and victims.  Columbus Police Department Deputy Chief Antone Lanata said state law enforcement agencies can assign officers based on the data's findings.
However, NIBRS remains a voluntary system, so it is unclear how many agencies will participate.  The state used federal grants to pay for most of the $1.3 million cost to implement the system, according to Lanata. http://www.cd.columbus.oh.us/

"Gwinnett County, Georgia Department of Corrections Decides on Inmate Management Biometrics From SENSE Holdings, Inc." PRNewswire (11/11/02)

The Department of Corrections of Gwinnett County, Ga., has installed SENSE's CheckPrint Work Release imaging system at its regional correctional complex in Lawrenceville, Ga.  The system can be used to identify and track the facility's non-violent inmates and work-release prisoners.  SENSE's CheckPrint system uses biometrics and video capture technologies, card printers, a customized computer, and a database solution for storing inmates' features.  Image captures or user-defined inmate data are sources for the database.  Data can include, for example, scars, marks, tattoos, fingerprints, and so on.  SENSE's CheckPrint system provides a "better way to authenticate, identify, manage, and process correctional prisoners," says SENSE's CEO and President Dore Perler.  He added that the system can be custom-tailored to different security levels and inmate populations.  "Our mission is to provide a safe, secure, and humane environment for inmates, staff, and the community,"
says warden of the correctional facility James Kraus.
"Through the application of modern technologies, correctional management, and supervision techniques, this certainly assists us in achieving our mission." http://www.prnewswire.com/

"N.O.  Area Highways to Get Smarter" New Orleans Times-Picayune (11/10/02) P.  1; Grissett, Sheila

The first phase of New Orleans' new three-pronged $50 million "smart highway" system called TRANSJAZZ will be operational by next spring, according to the Louisiana highway department.  Hardware for the system has been installed bit by bit since 1999 and will be integrated during the next phase of the project, though the entire system won't be completed until the end of the decade.  When completed, TRANSJAZZ will monitor all major bridges and about 50 miles of interstate highway with closed circuit video cameras.  It will also feature vehicle speed sensors and message boards to warn drivers of adverse weather or road conditions and detours.  The State Police plan to use the message boards to spread "Amber alerts" quickly to let drivers know that a child is missing and to broadcast vehicle descriptions and license numbers as well.
Construction on the permanent $6.5 million TRANSJAZZ regional Intelligent Transportation Systems operational center is slated to begin in 2004, which will also house transportation department traffic operations, the Regional Planning Commission, and provide crisis working space for emergency management, mass transit, motorist assistance patrols, local government, law enforcement, and toll authorities.  http://www.timespicayune.com/

"Online Communities Improve Neighborhood Policing" Washington Post (11/10/02) P.  C3; Dvorak, Petula

Police departments across the country are looking to leverage the power of neighborhood online communities to improve policing.  After learning from the experience of working with community activists who would use the Internet to provide tips and leads to police officers, police departments are starting to roll out their own interactive Web sites to share information and communicate with local residents.  For example, the Washington, D.C., police departments plans to roll out interactive Web sites for the city's 83 patrol areas, offering online access to neighborhood crime statistics and maps, crime records, chat forums, and bulletin boards.  City police officials say the interactive Web sites will allow the police department to put out mass information, and lessen its reliance on phone calls to handle questions.  However, some Internet, savvy police officers question whether department-run sites will have the same type of impact that neighborhood online communities have had on policing.  "I think if it was run by police, instead of individual groups, people who don't want to be known won't use it," says D.C.  police Officer Todd Mattingly.  Some observers also express concern that a lack of computer access in certain neighborhoods will have a negative impact on the quality of police service they receive.

"Computers to Help Cops Check for Insurance" Atlanta Journal-Constitution (11/02/02); McCosh, John

A new computer system designed to help police ascertain whether drivers are covered by insurance is being tested in Georgia.  The system will undergo testing by the Department of Motor Vehicles until January, when it is supposed to be ready for use by police officers.  It is meant to replace the presence of an insurance card as proof of insurance.
Authorities are gathering state vehicle identification numbers and other vehicle information from insurance companies to compile a database that includes about 1.9 million of the state's roughly 8 million vehicles.  Of the 22 states that use some kind of electronic monitoring to verify insurance, Georgia's new system will be the only one that will be able to absolutely verify whether drivers who are pulled over are covered.  The system is designed to target the estimated 15 percent of drivers in the state that do not have liability coverage.  Motor Vehicle Safety Department Director Tim Burgess says he expects the new computer system to be operational by Feb.  1.  The director of the Georgia Insurance Information Office, David Colmans, says computer glitches in the new system could cause problems for drivers who present an insurance card but are not in the system. http://www.accessatlanta.com/ajc/metro/1102/02carins.html

"Can Computers Read Your Mind?" Tech TV (10/28/02); Mercer, Brandon

Computers that can read a person's emotional states have many potential applications, but also raise issues about the technology's accuracy and privacy.  Teradata of NCR and the University of Southern California's Integrated Media Systems Center are developing emotionally-aware machines that could be incorporated into ATMs: Such devices would capture an image of the person's face via camera, and software would map out probable emotional states by measuring facial features, and then compare them to a database of facial expressions; the ATM would then refine the visual presentation to suit the customer, enlarging the font of the display for anyone having trouble reading, or eliminating ads that seem to cause irritation, for example.  USC psychologist Dr.  Skip Rizzo says the technology could be especially useful for therapeutic purposes, while Teradata engineer Dave Schrader believes that it could also aid the war on terrorism.  It could be used as a lie detector designed to spot terrorists by scanning their emotional reactions to questions, he notes.  However, there are technical limitations--reading an emotional state with a wide range of expression, such as depression, is difficult.
Accuracy is another issue, especially if the technology is to be used for security.  But perhaps the most critical concern is how the technology can maintain privacy.  Sonia Arrison of the Pacific Research Institute's Center for Freedom and Technology notes that many people may feel such scanning technology threatens their dignity or comfort level, and there is also the question of whether anonymity can be upheld.

Thursday, November 21, 2002 By Major Garrett WASHINGTON

A massive database that the government will use to monitor every purchase made by every American citizen is a necessary tool in the war on terror, the Pentagon said Wednesday.

Edward Aldridge, undersecretary of Acquisitions and Technology, told reporters that the Pentagon is developing a prototype database to seek "patterns indicative of terrorist activity." Aldridge said the database would collect and use software to analyze consumer purchases in hopes of catching terrorists before it's too late.

"The bottom line is this is an important research project to determine the feasibility of using certain transactions and events to discover and respond to terrorists before they act," he said.

Aldridge said the database, which he called another "tool" in the war on terror, would look for telltale signs of suspicious consumer behavior.

Examples he cited were: sudden and large cash withdrawals, one-way air or rail travel, rental car transactions and purchases of firearms, chemicals or agents that could be used to produce biological or chemical weapons.

It would also combine consumer information with visa records, passports, arrest records or reports of suspicious activity given to law enforcement or intelligence services.

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is home to the Pentagon's brightest thinkers -- the ones who built the Internet.
DARPA will be in charge of trying to make the system work technically.

Rear Adm.  John Poindexter, former national security adviser to President Reagan, is developing the database under the Total Information Awareness Program.  Poindexter was convicted on five counts of misleading Congress and making false statements during the Iran-Contra investigation.  Those convictions were later overturned, but critics note that his is a dubious resume for someone entrusted with so sensitive a task.

Aldridge said Poindexter will only "develop the tool, he will not be exercising the tool." He said Poindexter brought the database idea to the Pentagon and persuaded Aldridge and others to pursue it.

"John has a real passion for this project," Aldridge said.

TIAF's office logo is now one eye scanning the globe.  The translation of the Latin motto: knowledge is power.  Some say, possibly too much power.  "What this is talking about is making us a nation of suspects and I am sorry, the United States citizens should not have to live in fear of their own government and that is exactly what this is going to turn out to be," said Chuck Pena, senior defense policy analyst at the Cato Institute.

Pena and others say the database is an even greater violation of privacy rights than Attorney General John Ashcroft's nixed proposal to turn postal workers and delivery men into government tipsters.  No matter what protections Congress requires, Pena fears a database big enough and nimble enough to track the entire nation's spending habits is ripe for abuse.

"I don't think once you put something like this in place, you can ever create enough checks and balances and oversight," Pena said.

But proponents say big business already has access to most of this data, but don't do anything with it to fight terrorism.

"I find it somewhat counter intuitive that people are not concerned that telemarketers and insurance companies can acquire this data but feel tremendous trepidation if a government ventures into this arena.  To me it just smacks of paranoia," said David Rivkin, an attorney for Baker & Hostetler LLP.

The database is not yet ready and Aldridge said it will not be available for several years.  Fake consumer data will be used in development of the database, he said.

When it's ready, Aldridge said individual privacy rights will be protected.  But he could not explain how the data would be accessed.  In some cases, specific warrants would give law enforcement agencies access, he said.  But in other cases the database might flag suspicious activity absent a specific request or warrant, and that suspicious activity could well be relayed to law enforcement or intelligence agencies.

"I don't know what the scope of this is going to be," Aldridge said.  "We are in a war on terrorism.  We are trying to find out if this technology can work."

Public Protest Over Pentagon Surveillance System Mounts

The Pentagon's proposed "Total Information Awareness" (TIA) surveillance system is coming under increasing attack.  In an open letter sent yesterday, a coalition of over 30 civil liberties groups urged Senators Thomas Daschle (D-SD) and Trent Lott (R-MS) to "act immediately to stop the development of this unconstitutional system of public surveillance."  Newspapers across the country have written editorials castigating the program.  The New York Times has said that "Congress should shut down the program pending a thorough investigation."  The Washington Post wrote, "The defense secretary should appoint an outside committee to oversee it before it proceeds."
William Safire's recent column, which played a major role in igniting the public outcry, called the surveillance system "a supersnooper's dream."

The TIA project is part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)'s Information Awareness Office, headed by John Poindexter.  The surveillance system purports to capture a person's "information signature" so that the government can track potential terrorists and criminals involved in "low-intensity/low-density"
forms of warfare and crime.  The goal of the system is to track individuals by collecting as much information about them as possible and using computer algorithms and human analysis to detect potential activity.  The project calls for the development of "revolutionary technology for ultra-large all-source information repositories," which would contain information from multiple sources to create a "virtual, centralized, grand database."  This database would be populated by transaction data contained in current databases, such as financial records, medical records, communication records, and travel records, as well as new sources of information.  Intelligence data would also be fed into the database.

A key component of the project is the development of data mining or knowledge discovery tools that will sift through the massive amount of information to find patterns and associations.  The surveillance plan will also improve the power of search tools such as Project Genoa, which Poindexter's former employer Syntek Technologies assisted in developing.  The Defense Department aims to fund the development of more such tools and data mining technology to help analysts understand and even "preempt" future action.  A further crucial component is the development of biometric technology to enable the identification and tracking of individuals.  DARPA has already funded its "Human ID at a Distance" program, which aims to positively identify people from a distance through technologies such as face recognition and gait recognition.  A nationwide identification system might also be of great assistance to such a project by providing an easy means to track individuals across multiple information sources.

The initial plan calls for a five year research project into these various technologies.  According to the announcement soliciting industry proposals, the interim goal is to build "leave-behind prototypes with a limited number of proof-of-concept demonstrations in extremely high risk, high payoff areas."  The FBI and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) are also working on data mining projects that will merge commercial databases, public databases, and intelligence data.  Documents obtained by EPIC through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) show that the developers of the new passenger profiling system in the TSA held meetings with Poindexter's team earlier this year.  EPIC is currently involved in a FOIA lawsuit to obtain documents from the Information Awareness Office.

The coalition's letter to Senators Daschle and Lott is available at:

EPIC's Total Information Awareness Page:

Information Awareness Office's Total Information Awareness project description:

[2] Appeals Court Permits Broader Electronic Surveillance

The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review issued an opinion this week broadly expanding the Justice Department's surveillance authority.  The Court held that the Department of Justice could use looser foreign intelligence standards to conduct criminal investigations in the United States.

The Court of Review convened in September for the first time in its 23 year existence to hear the Justice Department's appeal of an unprecedented decision by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC), a special panel of federal judges that oversees implementation of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA).  The extraordinary ruling, issued by the FISC in May, revealed a pattern of FBI misrepresentations to the FISC and cast serious doubt on the veracity and accuracy of claims made by the Justice Department and the FBI in support of requests for approval of national security and anti-terrorism surveillance.  The court found that DOJ and FBI officials had submitted erroneous information in more than 75 applications for search warrants and wiretaps and had improperly shared intelligence information with agents and prosecutors handling criminal cases on at least four occasions.

As a result of these problems, the court refused to give DOJ the broad new surveillance powers it sought to employ after the September 11 terrorist attacks.  Specifically, the FISC ruled that new procedures proposed by Attorney General John Ashcroft earlier this year would give DOJ prosecutors too much control over national security investigations and would allow the government to improperly use intelligence information for criminal cases, without the requisite showing of "probable cause."  The court noted that it was rejecting the new DOJ procedures "to protect the privacy of Americans in these highly intrusive surveillances and searches."

The government argued in its appeal that the FISC failed to properly apply changes to FISA that were contained in the USA PATRIOT Act, which Congress enacted in the wake of the September 11 attacks.  EPIC joined the American Civil Liberties Union, Center for Democracy and Technology, Center for National Security Studies, Electronic Frontier Foundation, and Open Society Institute in submitting an amicus brief that argued that expanding the executive branch's powers would jeopardize fundamental constitutional interests, "including the First Amendment right to engage in lawful public dissent, and the warrant, notice, and judicial review rights guaranteed by the Fourth and Fifth Amendments." (See EPIC Alert 9.17.)

The Court of Review's decision, released yesterday, permits the government to remove the separation that has long existed between officials conducting surveillance on suspected foreign agents and criminal prosecutors investigating crimes.  The Court of Review concluded that the FISC read into FISA limitations on the Act's scope of FISA that never existed and appear nowhere in the statute.  The court concluded that the changes to FISA under the USA PATRIOT Act are constitutional, although just barely:

Our case may well involve the most serious threat our country faces.  Even without taking into account the President's inherent constitutional authority to conduct warrantless foreign intelligence surveillance, we think the procedures and government showings required under FISA, if they do not meet the minimum Fourth Amendment warrant standards, certainly come close.

Attorney General Ashcroft has announced that he intends to use FISA to sharply increase the number of domestic wiretaps.

EPIC and its coalition partners are considering a number of options in the wake of the appellate decision, including a potential request for the Supreme Court to review the decision, and urging Congress to amend FISA to reflect the opinion of the lower court that the Justice Department is not authorized to use FISA's looser surveillance standards in ordinary criminal cases.

The FISC Review Court is a special three-judge panel appointed by Chief Justice William H.  Rehnquist in accordance with provisions of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.  The judges are: Hon.
Laurence H.  Silberman of the U.S.  Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit; Hon.  Edward Leavy, U.S.  Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit and Hon.  Ralph B.  Guy, Jr., U.S.  Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit.  All three judges were appointed by President Ronald Reagan.

The Court of Review's ruling is available at:http://www.cadc.uscourts.gov/common/newsroom/02-001.pdf

The civil liberties amicus brief is available at:http://www.epic.org/privacy/terrorism/fisa/FISCR_amicus_brief.pdf

Background information on the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, including information on the current controversy, the government's brief and the FISC's May 2002 Memorandum Opinion and Order, is available at:

Surgical tags plan for sex offenders Silicon chip to be inserted under skin Martin Bright, home affairs editor Sunday November 17, 2002 The Observer

Britain is considering a controversial scheme to implant surgically electronic tags in convicted paedophiles amid fears that the extent of the abuse of children has been massively underestimated.

Documents obtained by The Observer reveal the Government could track paedophiles by satellite, with a system similar to that used to locate stolen cars.

The tags can be put beneath the skin under local anaesthetic and would also be able to monitor the heart rate and blood pressure of the abuser, alerting staff to the possibility that another attack was imminent.

A letter from Hilary Benn, the Minister responsible for the supervision of sex offenders in the community, reveals the Home Office's electronic monitoring team is already developing technology to track paedophiles constantly.  The team is now investigating the 'implant tag' after it was alerted to its capabilities by a campaign group for victims of paedophiles.

Tracker, the company which runs Britain's largest stolen vehicle monitoring network, has already been approached about paedophile monitoring and computer company Compaq has been asked to develop the software.

Compaq Software Solutions has developed similar technology for Nasa to monitor remotely the bodily functions of astronauts.
In the case of paedophiles, the technology would not measure sexual excitement, but would monitor the offender's state of nervousness and fear.

Technology currently used can tell only whether an offender is where he is supposed to be, which is usually a curfew address.
New 'reverse tags' can also monitor whether an offender is approaching a former victim's house or a high-risk area such as a school, but it can not track every movement.

In a letter to Labour MP Andrew Mackinley, Benn wrote: 'The Electronic Monitoring Team is...  looking actively at the possibilities for using tracking technology to monitor offenders' whereabouts as they move from one place to another.  To date...
the team is unaware of any available technology which uses bodily implants to track offenders' movements or which can measure bodily functions to predict likely criminal activity.  Such future improvements are, however, worthy of consideration if it can be demonstrated to be feasible and reliable in delivering improvements in public protection.' Ministers would need to pass new legislation to oblige offenders to be surgically fitted with the tags.

Civil liberties groups expressed horror at the proposals last night.  'Implanting tracking devices provides a very frightening vision for the future.  We already know that the rules protecting our privacy are inadequate.  Where would this stop?' said John Wadham, director of Liberty.  'This would be used initially for sex offenders, but we would soon find that other marginalised groups, such as asylum seekers, would find they were forced to have implants.' The implant tag has been proposed by Phoenix Survivors, a group of child abuse victims who were traded as child prostitutes in the north-west of England.  Their name is taken from Operation Phoenix, an investigation into the activities of 72-year-old Stanley Claridge.

Claridge's stepdaughter and Phoenix Survivors' spokeswoman Shy Keenan said: 'I am sick to death of it being acceptable that I am a victim because these people have to have their human rights.  These people live outside the law and cannot be controlled, so you have to know what they are doing all the time.' The news of the implant tags comes after the first wave of arrests from a list of 7,000 suspected British paedophiles was passed to British police by investigators from the US Postal Inspection Service.

Credit card details had been traced to British customers of a portal on the internet, which gave access to hundreds of child porn sites.  An investigation by Northumbria police as part of the nationwide Operation Ore led to the seizure of hard drives from more than 100 computers.  Police in the North East had been given around 70 names from the list of 7,000 to arrest.  In all, 56 men and four women were arrested.  They were not picked up by the usual vetting procedures because most had no previous criminal record.

The computer files seized included the scenes of the rape of children as young as two.  One man had 12,000 images of child abuse on his computer.  As a result, Northumbria Police has estimated that the numbers of people on the Sex Offenders' Register in the area will increase by 10 per cent.  If the hit-rate of the Northumbria investigation is replicated across the country, it could lead to as many as 5,000 arrests.

Implantable-chip seminar in D.C.  today Manufacturer of Digital Angel, VeriChip meets with FDA, policy analysts Posted: November 15, 2002 4:46 p.m.  Eastern By Sherrie Gossett © 2002 WorldNetDaily.com

A seminar on implantable ID and tracking chips for humans has been convened at the National Academies today in Washington, D.C.

Participating in the seminar are officials from Applied Digital Solutions (maker of Digital Angel and VeriChip), the Cato Institute, the Electronic Information Privacy Center and the FDA.

The seminar, open to the public, was announced under the Policy and Global Affairs arm of the National Academy of Science, and was organized by Science and Technology Policy interns.

The program is titled, "Human Microchip Implantation – It's More than Skin Deep."

The following issues were slated for discussion:

What are the possible applications of this technology?
Under what circumstances can a microchip device be used?
Which applications are beneficial and which may have negative consequences to the general public?
What information can be collected and by whom?
Can this technology endanger the bearer?

The event follows the FDA's recent decision not to regulate the implantable VeriChip (a radio-frequency identification chip) when used for security, financial and personal identification or safety applications.  The decision ended a five-month investigation into the company and its representations of the product.

FDA officials had previously made strong statements to the press concerning the investigation.

Wired magazine called the governmental green light "sudden," a "surprise," and "controversial."

Wally Pellerite of the FDA's office of compliance told WND that securing approval to market the VeriChip also as a medical record device was not likely to be a difficult or involved process, although trials would probably be required for the upcoming GPS-trackable implant.  He also indicated that no fines or penalties had been levied against the company.

Meanwhile, Marc Rotenberg of the Electronic Information Privacy Center has filed a Freedom of Information Act request to learn more details of the FDA's approval of VeriChip.

Controversy over denials Controversy is also growing over the company's previous denials that it was not planning on creating or developing implants.  Some feel the denials short-circuited the opportunity for adequate public debate and media analysis.

Denials similar to those given to WND were issued also to the Politech website, a politics and technology e-forum run by Declan McCullagh, former Washington bureau chief for Wired magazine, and currently chief political correspondent for CNET.

Recently Nathan Cochrane, deputy IT editor for The Age and the Sydney Morning Herald addressed the controversy in a piece on McCullagh's site..

"ADS' bald-faced lies to you and the members of your list about its plans in the past should send off warning flares about its intentions and the ethical foundation of its culture," he wrote.

"With any decision as controversial and of such profound significance as this, it is beholden on a federal government department in a liberal, transparent and open democracy to release the full details of its deliberations, including any conversations of both a formal and informal nature," he wrote.  "That includes intra-governmental and interdepartmental transactions.  There can be no confidence in the decision until this is done and scrutinized."

Cochrane added: "But it further begs the question I also asked back then of 'How much longer before implants are mandatory by law for all American citizens, and those in the rest of the world?'"

Cochrane also praised WorldNetDaily’s coverage of the company, noting that "WorldNetDaily broke the Digital Angel story" and "has done an excellent job of tracking this implant tracking company's machinations."

Towards the ubiquitous data-grid The capital seminar on implantable microchips also comes on the heels of news of the Defense Department's Total Information Awareness program, dubbed by critics a "super-snoop's dream," whereby the government would be authorized to collect every type of available public and private data in what the Pentagon describes as one "centralized grand database."

In addition, as reported by the Washington Times, a congressional leadership memo outlining the legislation says the project will "help identify promising technologies and quickly get them into the hands of people who need them."

The seminar also follows the initiation of biometric identification (iris scans) for employees at JFK International airport.  ADS has previously suggested that government use its implants for employees at airports and nuclear power plants.
They have also suggested the possibility of using the implants in conjunction with biometric scans, for "foolproof" identification.

"Always on Camera" New York Newsday (10/28/02) P.  B6; Bruning, Fred

Since the Sept.  11 terrorist attacks and the more recent serial sniper shootings in the Washington, D.C., suburbs, crime prevention has become an obsession, resulting in a massive increase in public and private surveillance.  With citizens being constantly watched--at the bank, the mall, parking lots, the workplace, the campus, apartment lobbies, on the street, and more--privacy advocates such as Donna Lieberman, executive director of the New York Civil Liberties Union, are concerned that surveillance will run rampant within society, to the point where at least half the populace is monitored by the other half.  Nevertheless, most civil libertarians agree that society needs to shield itself and that video surveillance is useful and necessary in some instances.  However, New York privacy proponent Bill Brown insists that Americans must be aware that this method of crime prevention comes with a potential for abuse.  Concerns about the effects of security technology motivated Sen. Charles Schumer (D-N.Y.) and Sen.  John Edwards (D-N.C.) to urge Congress to set up establish a commission to study privacy issues.  Also, New York Assemblyman Steve Levy (D-Holbrook) has introduced legislation requiring that government officials hold hearings and vote on any effort to set up video monitoring systems in public areas.  Most agree that some surveillance is necessary, but also that someone needs to monitor the "watchers" so that civil rights do not get violated.

"Sheriff's Department to Implement GPS Next Year" Associated Press (10/24/02)

The Fond du Lac County, Wis., Sheriff's department will use a new inmate-tracking system starting in 2003 for work-release inmates that will allow work-release inmates to reside outside of jail.  The department will use a Global Positioning System (GPS) to track work-release inmates through a GPS wristband; only those court-designated for this GPS program will be eligible.  The county board has transferred $11,350 from a jail reserve fund to purchase wrist bands and computer equipment.  The GPS will be able to track inmate location, alert the police if an inmate leaves his or her designated area, and one new corrections officer position will be created in 2003 to oversee and process the GPS program.  http://www.ap.org/

"St.  Louis Internet Site Tracks Crime Data" St.  Louis Post-Dispatch (10/24/02) P.  B1; Bryan, Bill

"Safe City", a new Internet site recently launched by St. Louis Mayor Francis Slay and Police Chief Joe Mokwa through a $125,000 federal grant, is said to provide the most comprehensive safety and crime information of any city in the nation.  Users can access a daily updated chart providing the locations of murders, burglaries, traffic accidents, drug arrests, and other criminal activity going back as far as the most recent four-month period.  Slay says "Safe City" provides police and public users with an effective way to track and prevent crimes, and is possibly the first crime mapping Web site to provide the public with complete and current information on the safety of their own neighborhoods.  He anticipates the site becoming a national model--other cities like New York, San Diego and Portland are currently using mapping technology as well--but believes "Safe City" may be unique in its comprehensiveness and accessibility.  Safe City has been up and running "unofficially" for a month already and has recorded about 400,000 hits in just a one-week period.
http://home.post-dispatch.com/channel/pdweb.nsf/text/86256A0 E0068FE5086256C5C00459A25

"Eyes Have It for Identification" Philadelphia Inquirer (10/23/02) P.  C1; Cooper, Porus P.

Moorestown, Pa.-based Iridian Technologies provides its iris-recognition technology to the United Nations (UN) in an attempt to reduce the number of Afghan and Pakistani refugees straining UN resources by returning for multiple aid offerings rather than returning home.  The technology works by taking a close-up picture of an iris, digitally coding the unique texture, and storing data that is searchable in the future.  The technology, which is set to be installed in airports and other locations around the world to aid in identification, helped the UN realize that about
20 percent of refugees at a refugee camp outside Peshawar, Pakistan, were improperly seeking benefits.  However, implementation of the technology in the United States and Europe is slow due to concerns about privacy, but in one instance in Saudi Arabia, privacy of hajj pilgrims was protected by not combining the scans with any other personal information.  Iris-recognition is just one of many biometric technologies clamoring for attention; other technologies emphasize fingerprints, hand geometry, facial recognition, and voice recognition.  http://www.philly.com

"Finding a Face in the Crowd" Police (10/02) Vol.  26, No.  10, P.  24; Hamilton, Melanie

Facial recognition technology compares the distance between facial features of a person with the facial measurements of criminals housed in a database.  The system can scan the face of anyone walking through a public area, such as an airport lobby, and complete a search for a match within seconds.
Developers of facial recognition technology often use different approaches to map a person's face.  For instance, Identix's Face-It Argus application records distances between peaks and valleys of a face, while Viisage uses a template of 128 facial measurements focused on the area between the chin and forehead and from ear to ear.  Police departments need not have compatible facial recognition systems to search the photo database of a neighboring department.  Facial recognition technology can also help officers determine a suspect's identity if he/she gives a false name or refuses to cooperate by searching the department's database of mug shots.  Imagis Technologies is developing facial recognition technology to search for children forced in child pornography rings.

"An Electronic Cop That Plays Hunches" New York Times (11/02/02) P.  B9; Sink, Mindy

Coplink, an Internet-based system for law enforcement, enables police departments to quickly link their own files with those of other law enforcement agencies.  Designed by Hsinchun Chen, the director of the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at the University of Arizona, Coplink can quickly link and compare data from new and existing law enforcement files.  The program, which can cost anywhere from $40,000 to over $200,000, enables users to scan lists of data and build graphs and charts showing affiliations among different criminals, among other features.  Coplink is raising a number of privacy issues, however.  The technology can extend to many different types of crimes "or into information other than law enforcement," according James X.  Dempsey, deputy director of the Center for Democracy and Technology, a Washington-based advocacy group dealing with issues of privacy on the Internet.  About six other cities have started to deploy Coplink into their existing computer systems.  The tool's development was partially financed by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute of Justice.
Coplink will help compare the accumulated data relating to the case of John Muhammad and John Lee Malvo, the suspected Washington-area snipers. http://www.nytimes.com/

"Panel Calls for More Nonlethal Weapons" Washington Post (11/05/02) P.  A8

Fueled by Russia's use of a lethal gas that killed at least 118 hostages being detained by Chechen rebels inside a Moscow theater last month, the U.S.  National Research Council on Monday called for the need to research more "non-lethal" methods that can be used to control crowds in non-wartime situations, such as when terrorists mix in with civilians when conducting their operations.  In 1996, the Pentagon began a study of new types of rubber bullets, undersea systems to protect vessels, energy beams to stop vehicles, and other technologies that can be used to stop people or objects in a non-lethal manner when an intent has not yet been determined.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A5393-2002Nov4 .html

"Sniper Case Puts Fingerprint Technology in Spotlight"

New Orleans Times-Picayune (11/01/02) P.  1; McCutcheon, Chuck Following the arrest of the two suspected Washington-area snipers, many state police departments are focusing on the use of fingerprint databases to search for suspects.  The FBI's John Iannarelli reports that only 19 states are currently linked to the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS), the FBI's online fingerprint database.  The $640 million IAFIS database stores more than 44 million prints and is available to all state law enforcement agencies.  But states must pay between $3 million to $15 million, depending on a state's population, for storing and sending data.  Moreover, joining IAFIS means officers need to be trained, and many states are using their databases to effectively solve local cases, says FBI retiree Peter Higgins.  To encourage more states to join the system, the FBI is providing free software, computers, and training to police departments.  States that search for fingerprints electronically can get results within two hours, but states that are unconnected to IAFIS must mail in fingerprints and get results in several days.  Authorities were able to find the fingerprints of suspected sniper John Lee Malvo, an immigrant from Jamaica, on file with the FBI and Immigration and Naturalization Service.  Southern California Association of Fingerprint Officers President Steven Tillmann notes that agencies' need to upgrade fingerprint databases is being diluted by the rising use of DNA technology to connect suspects to criminal activity.  http://www.timespicayune.com/

"Sheriff Wants to Centralize Records"

Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (10/31/02) P.  3B; Benson, Dan Ozaukee County Sheriff Maury Straub and other local police chiefs want the county board to support development of a centralized records management system to provide instantaneous information sharing between departments.  The system would eliminate rebooking of suspects, which would cut down on paperwork requirements.  In addition, Straub said the system will allow officers to perform routine background checks faster, while providing more information on suspicious people.  Mequon Police Department is the only department thus far that has agreed to share databases with the Sheriff's department, but Mequon Chief E.  Doyle Barker is optimistic more departments will participate in the future.  The information sharing initiative is expected to cost the Mequon Police Department less than $200,000, which is cheaper than replacing the department's current system, according to Barker.  Cedarburg Police Chief Tom Frank also supports a countywide information sharing system, especially with the department's contract with its provider set to expire at the end of next year.  Frank said a countywide system can provide notable savings for all participants.
Straub said implementation of such a system would cost less than $500,000 and require a full-time administrator and staff to oversee operation.

"U.S.  Military Building Database of Terror Suspects' Fingerprints, Faces and Voices"Associated Press (10/30/02) P.  07;

Krane, Jim U.S.  intelligence agencies and the military are building a database containing the fingerprints, photos, and voices of suspected terrorists to help in the war against terrorism and protect border security.  The Biometrics Automated Toolset (BAT) has been used since January to store biometrics data of Afghan prisoners and could be used extensively in Iraq, if the United States launches an invasion.  Biometrics data has also been shared with the FBI and the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) to assist both agencies in identifying potential terrorists attempting to enter the country or arrested within U.S. borders.  Officials can search the database, which provides a trillion bytes of storage space, via roughly 50 laptop computers equipped with special scanners.  A U.S.  immigration official, who requested anonymity, said that BAT is already in use at U.S.  points of entry, Border Patrol Stations, and INS field offices.  The system focuses on providing global surveillance of suspected terrorists, which can supply investigators with important information, such as links with other suspected terrorists and personal history.
Investigators need only have a single picture or fingerprint to search the database.  Federal law prohibits military and intelligence agents from using the system to develop dossiers on U.S.  citizens. http://www.govtech.net/news/news.phtml?docid=2002.10.30-3030000000027372

"Program Aids Police in Identification"

Clarion Ledger (10/29/02) P.  1B; Bland, Thyrie To help identify people whose faces have become excessively disfigured, police in Jackson, Miss., have been trained to use a new facial imaging software.  The software helps police reconstruct a person's face by eliminating the injury.  The $5,000 computer program can also be used to make composite sketches based on eyewitnesses' accounts.  Furthermore, officers can change eye color and skin tone, add scars, or place a hood to the composite, says Greg Given, who works as a forensic software specialist at Sirchie Fingerprint Laboratories, the developer of the program.  "In some cases you actually wouldn't be able to tell the difference between the actual composite and the mug shot," he notes.  Given who trained 11 Jackson Police Dept.  officers and a civilian employee to use the program on Oct.  28.  The program will help officers assign a face to a suspect when the victim does not know the suspect, says Detective Tony Davis.  Given adds that unlike hand sketching, users need only a mouse to draw a face. http://www.clarionledger.com/

"Jail Will Use the Latest Facial-Recognition Technology"

Boston Globe (10/31/02) P.  4; Bushnell, Davis The Middlesex House of Corrections in Middlesex, Mass., will use facial-recognition technology to ensure construction workers working on the jail can be identified and are not infiltrated by the prisoner population.  Middlesex is launching a $43 million jail construction project to create
264 new cells and numerous facilities by late 2004, and all 200 construction workers will carry special photo IDs that work with Viisage Technology-pioneered facial-recognition tools.  Middlesex Sheriff James DiPaola says the technology will give law enforcement "a much better handle for identifying people coming and going." He adds that his office is the first sheriff's office in the state to use facial-recognition technology.  Viisage, IBM, and Metatomix are working together to create the Middlesex jail system under a $430,000 contract.  Next year, Viisage will create a system for the Cambridge, Mass., Superior Courthouse.
Viisage is a stand-alone subsidiary of publicly traded Lau Technologies. http://www.boston.com/globe/

"New Generation of Security" Arizona Republic (10/31/02) P.  4; Scott, Luci

Forouzan Golshani, a professor at Arizona State University, has created a 3-D identification system that can recognize anyone regardless of light, angle, or facial hair, and he is testing it at a water-treatment plant in Glendale.  The new video recognition system can tell whether cameras see something unusual and can send an alarm.  Both a major financial institution and the Tucson airport have asked to give the system a try, and it may get used at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station.  Various media companies, law enforcement agencies, and others have expressed interest in the system, which is being marketed by ASSI Security.  The company intends to officially launch the video content analysis technology at a March trade show.  The technology uses 1,156 measurements and allows searching for content, according to Art Lawida, who is managing the sales and marketing of the software.  http://www.arizonarepublic.com/

"High-Tech ID Eyed for Global Seafarers"

Washington Times Online (10/30/02); Zarocostas, John The Bush administration is pushing the 175 nations of the International Labor Organization to agree to a standardized identity document for the world's 1.2 million merchant mariners in an effort to prevent acts of terrorism.  The use of biometrics--including retinal and fingerprint scans--digital photos, and other technologies that would facilitate verification are being discussed.  U.S.  officials want an agreement to be reached by a June 2003 conference; by October 2004, all U.S.  visas will have to integrate biometric templates.  It is hoped that a group of high-tech manufacturers can be assembled to produce standardized products for use in the project.  http://www.washtimes.com/

"Smart Paint Creates Chameleon Tanks" BBC News Online (11/04/02)

A team of researchers located at the New Jersey Institute of Technology and the U.S.  Army's Armament Research and Development Center are developing microscopic electromechanical machines called nanomachines that will be embedded in the paint that covers military vehicles.  This paint will alert Army personnel if the coating has been damaged, and will be capable of self-repair.  It will also reduce the vehicle's sensitivity to explosions, and enable vehicles to change color and become instantly camouflaged and invisible on the battlefield.  Army leaders reckon that it costs $10 billion annually to repair vehicle surfaces, with painting and scraping accounting for $2 billion.  "Smart coatings technology will make armed forces more hi-tech and more effective," said New Jersey Congressman Rodney Frelinghuysen. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/2386731.stm

"Sniper Leaves Mark"

Federal Computer Week Online (10/28/02); Matthews, William Electronic fingerprint databases operated by the FBI and the INS appear to have been the keys that cracked the Washington, D.C., sniper case.  The databases were initially used by Montgomery, Ala., police who were investigating a liquor store murder where they lifted a fingerprint that was handed over to the FBI.  The FBI then compared the print to other prints in the FBI's Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) and got a hit when it was discovered that John Lee Malvo and his mother, Uma James, had once been arrested by the INS' Border Patrol in Bellingham, Wash., for breaking immigration laws.  The Border Patrol entered the prints into the IDENT database, which holds fingerprints of more than 10 million foreigners who have been arrested by the INS in the United States, and then the FBI digitized the fingerprints and added them to the 43 million digital criminal prints in the IAFIS. http://www.fcw.com/fcw/articles/2002/1028/web-fprint-10-28-02.asp

As Congress prepares to reconvene in a lame-duck session after Tuesday's election, one of the largest pieces of legislation on the Senate's agenda is the controversial and deadlocked Homeland Security Act, which the House passed Sept.  9.

A little-known amendment in the Senate version of the bill makes it much easier for ISPs to disclose e-mail communications without being served with a warrant, which had been prohibited before the Patriot Act of

Critics such as Lee Tien of the Electronic Frontier Foundation consider the amendment a "recipe for privacy abuse."

According to a press release from Senator Orrin Hatch's (R-Utah) office, his amendment intends to provide "greater flexibility to communications providers and law enforcement when necessary to prevent and protect against devastating cyber attacks."

Under the Patriot Act, ISPs were given the right to disclose to a "law enforcement agency" the private communications of a customer if the company "reasonably believes that an emergency involving immediate danger of death or serious physical injury to any person requires disclosure of the information without delay."

The new rules, if adopted, would modify the Patriot Act's fairly strict "reasonable belief"
test with a "good faith" provision, allow disclosure to "any federal, state or local governmental entity," not just law enforcement agencies, and removes an "immediacy"requirement.

According to Tien's analysis, the "good faith" provision "would probably allow providers to rely on government assertions of an emergency even if no facts were presented," and lead to "aggressive behavior on the part of law enforcement."

"When the government knows it has loopholes, they will use them," Tien said.  "They will try to bully ISPs."

Tien also argues that the amendment's language would allow "public schools, social services departments, the IRS or the local tax assessor" access if they "can persuade your ISP that there is an emergency."

In June, the House Judiciary Committee asked the Attorney General's office whether law enforcement had used such tactics under the more stringent rules of the Patriot Act.

In a written response, the Attorney General's office did not deny this might be happening, writing: "There are no statistics detailing the number of times disclosures have occurred or the basis for such disclosures."

Jennifer Garnick, director of Stanford Law School's Center for Internet and Society, believes the Patriot Act has "had little judicial oversight and review" and that the new regulation's "definition of emergency is so broad, it's a case of the exception swallowing the rule."

Other provisions of the amendment ease the restrictions on law enforcement's ability to install trap-and-trace devices such as the FBI's Carnivore pack-sniffing software without getting a warrant beforehand.

The EFF mounted a campaign against these provisions when they were part of the Cyber Security Enhancement Act, which passed the House, 385-3, in July.  That bill did not make it out of the Senate Judiciary committee.

The EFF has not targeted the Homeland Security Act since many political analysts believed the bill would not be passed in the upcoming lame-duck session.

However, Ivo Daalder, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, ties the fate of the Homeland Security bill to control of the Senate, of which the Republicans resoundingly gained control on Tuesday.

Democrats have been pushing for a version of the bill that guarantees civil service protection to the estimated 170,000 employees of the proposed agency, while Republicans and the administration want flexibility to promote and fire employees.

Published by the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) Washington, D.C.

In an open letter distributed to the higher education community, EPIC today advised colleges and universities not to adopt invasive peer-to-peer (P2P) network monitoring systems.  EPIC's letter comes in response to recent exhortations from the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) and other copyright trade associations supporting the monitoring of student P2P file sharing.  EPIC argued that monitoring of file transfers is incompatible with the mission of higher education institutions, and that such monitoring would chill free expression and implicate the privacy of members of the academic community.

The EPIC letter acknowledges that network monitoring is appropriate for certain security and bandwidth management purposes.  However, monitoring to determine whether file transfers are "authorized" is both impracticable and incompatible with guarantees of academic freedom.

EPIC warned that the RIAA is attempting to expand its already weighty power under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act by demanding greater policing of private communications by higher education institutions. Such monitoring is not required by law, and it burdens colleges and universities with a duty to monitor and pursue individuals using P2P networks.  Also, once in place, a system for monitoring P2P use can expand and become a system of general surveillance for all electronic networks.

EPIC advised colleges and universities to take a circumspect approach to network monitoring issues.  EPIC recommended that institutions adopt a recent report from the National Science Foundation (NSF)Logging and Monitoring Project (LAMP) to evaluate computer policy in the higher education context.  EPIC further recommended that institutions involve all stakeholders, including students, in the development of network management policy.

EPIC P2P Privacy Letter:http://www.epic.org/privacy/student/p2pletter.html

AOL Wants to Help Companies Conduct Workplace Surveillance

America Online recently announced that it would be selling network surveillance software to businesses to monitor employee communications over AOL's Instant Messenger (AIM) service.  EPIC has written a letter to Jonathan Miller, Chairman & CEO of America Online, drawing attention to the privacy risks of the monitoring software and urging him to withdraw the product until privacy enhancing protections can be established for AIM users.

Instant messaging is a revolutionary communications service that has been broadly embraced by millions of users around the world.  The quick, transient communications that take place between friends, spouses, or people with shared interests in IM chats have rapidly created a whole new medium and culture of communications on the Internet, one that closely resembles private discussions that take place in the physical world.  Instant messaging captures the spirit and possibilities of the Internet by building relationships and communities in a unique fashion, but it depends upon the expectation of privacy that the service has created.  EPIC argues that AOL's AIM Gateway service threatens to radically transform privacy expectations for instant messaging users, and that it poses a particular threat to employees whose well-established expectation of privacy in the workplace could be extinguished.  The letter calls on AOL to build privacy enhancing technologies into AIM to protect user privacy.

 Food and Drug Administration OKs Implantable ID Chips

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved the use of Applied Digital Solutions' (ADS) controversial VeriChip in humans.  The VeriChip is a tiny identification device that emits a 125-kilohertz radio frequency signal detectable by scanners up to four feet away. According to ADS, the FDA sent the chip manufacturer a letter stating that the agency would not regulate the VeriChip if it were used for non-medical purposes.

FDA investigator Wally Pellerite raised the issue that the FDA thoroughly examines cosmetic implants, which serve no medical purposes, in order to determine their effects on the human body.  It remains unclear what criteria the FDA is applying in requiring rigorous studies of other implants, while allowing the use of VeriChips without full review.

Even though the FDA has not approved the use of VeriChip for health purposes, ADS markets VeriChip as an effective way for doctors to identify unconscious patients, possibly saving their lives in emergency situations by transmitting instant information about their medical history.  The FDA launched an investigation last May in response to ADS' inconsistent claims.  However, ADS assured FDA officials that the chip would only be used as an identification device.  Even so, privacy experts warn that the chip could also be used for purposes of tracking and monitoring people.

For information on a November 15 National Academies panel discussion entitled "Human Microchip Implantation: It's More Than Skin Deep,"featuring EPIC Executive Director Marc Rotenberg, see:http://www.epic.org/events/

GAO Releases Report on Government Use of Personal Information

The United States General Accounting Office (GAO) recently released a report prepared for the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs that reviews how selected agencies handle personal information provided by members of the public to obtain government services.  The report examines in detail how personal information collected through four representative forms (from four different federal agencies) was treated, and whether requirements under the Privacy Act and the Computer Matching Act were appropriately followed.  The four forms were the Education Department's student aid request form, the Department of Agriculture's standard loan form for farmers, the Department of Labor's federal worker's compensation form, and a passport application from the State Department.  The report concludes that, "Overall, agencies collected a substantial amount of personal information of a wide variety of types, including personal[ly] identifying information (names and Social Security numbers) and demographic, financial, and legal data."  It found that the procedures for handling personal information collected were complex, involving numerous processes, and that a wide range of personnel has access to the information.  In addition, the personal information collected was shared extensively with other government entities, private individuals, and organizations following "authorized procedures."

The Department of Education's Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), filled out by a large number of students every year, is one example of personal information being widely shared among different agencies and entities under the "routine use" exemption of the Privacy Act.  For example, the Education Department gives information on financial aid applicants to the Justice Department to see if they have been convicted of any drug-related offenses; to the Department of Veterans Affairs to check a veteran's eligibility status for student aid; to the Selective Service System to make sure a male applicant has registered for the draft; and to the Immigration and Naturalization Service to see if an applicant is eligible for federal benefits.  If an applicant is delinquent on a federal loan, the application information is sent to a private collection bureau.  The Education Department also sends the student's personal financial information to state agencies to coordinate student aid.  To qualify as a routine use, the agency simply has to announce the use in the Federal Register.

A review of the report reinforces the need for more substantive privacy practices beyond the formal notice requirements of the Privacy Act of 1974 and the Computer Matching Act of 1988.  The bi-partisan Federal Agency Protection of Privacy bill (H.R.  4561), which passed the House and is currently pending in the Senate, would require agencies to conduct privacy impact analyses before and after passing regulations concerning personal information.  Commentators have also suggested bringing the Privacy Act up-to-date to cover the new and more intrusive types of information sharing and collection conducted by federal agencies.

GAO Report, "Selected Agencies' Handling of Personal Information,"
available at:http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d021058.pdf

FORGET FINGERPRINTS, WALK IS NEW ID IDEA By BILL HOFFMANN November 6, 2002 -- The way a person walks may soon be used as positive identification.

Scientists at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta are developing a security system to recognize people by their walk.

They bounce radar signals off a moving body, which define a set of unique characteristics.

In early tests, researchers correctly identified 80 to 95 percent of volunteers from their walk.


Cordless keyboard wrote on neighbor's computer While a Stavanger man typed away at his desktop computer his text was also streaming in on his neighbor's machine in a building 150 meters away. Hewlett-Packard have never received a complaint like it.

Newspaper Stavanger Aftenblad had an inside track on the weird tech story since the incident involved two of their graphics workers.

Per Erik Helle got a jolt when his home computer suddenly seemed to develop a life of its own.

"About 10 pm I was sitting and watching TV when the computer, which was in sleep mode, suddenly began to buzz.  I looked over and noticed it was waking up. I also saw a red light on the keyboard's receiver box blinking as if I was writing something," Helle said.

A game which he could not remember using that day appeared on the screen.
When Helle went over to shut it off the screen displayed a message asking him if he "really wanted to delete this file?".  Not knowing what it meant, he answered no to play it safe.

The machine was not finished.  A series of beeps and clicks that hinted at error messages came so quickly that Helle again got the impression someone was writing.  So he turned on his word processor.

He saw text ticking in live, and could tell from the message that it was his neighbor Per Arild Evjeberg, also his boss at Stavanger Aftenblad, who was writing.  A phone call quickly confirmed that Helle was watching Evjeberg type live.

"If HP can't find a decent explanation for this I don't dare use this keyboard.  I changed the signal channel and now Per Erik doesn't get it.  But now I don't know who might be reading what I write as I write it," Evjeberg said.

Evjeberg and Helle had received new HP machines from the same company and Helle had one time earlier noticed a registration form appear with his neighbor's information in it.

HP product manager Tore A.  Särelind believes that only a combination of unusual circumstances could result in the keyboard signal traveling 150 meters and through one wooden and one concrete wall.

"With the conditions and distance described we have no logical or technical explanation for how this is possible.  The keyboard should have a theoretical radius of about 20 meters - assuming a clear path from keyboard to receiver," Särelind said.

Särelind said the next generation of keyboards would use a new technology which would choose randomly between 256 available channels, and promised to send both Evjeberg and Helle a copy.

Stavanger Aftenblad reported that another company using the equipment claimed that a user managed to type on two computers on different floors.

"Would-be Car Thieves Taking the Bait" Tech TV (10/15/02); Barnes, Peter

Police departments around the country are increasing their use of remote control and global positioning system (GPS) technology in undercover "bait cars." The bait car appears on a city map displayed on a laptop monitor in the police department.  If the vehicle is broken into, a trumpet alarm sounds and alerts police that a theft is in progress.  Once the car starts moving, the location is relayed by the GPS device.  "We can actually shut down the vehicle.  We can kill the ignition and have the vehicle coast harmlessly to a stop.  And we have the option of locking the doors so that the suspects can't escape," says Chris Dengeles, a detective with the county police department in Arlington County, Virginia.  Law enforcement has been using bait cards since 1997; but new technology is allowing police to track vehicles longer and farther, with more options form bringing the thieves to justice and collecting video and audio evidence. http://www.techtv.com/news/print/0,23102,3403437,00.html

"County May Track Parolees Via Satellite" Omaha World Herald (10/15/02) P.  3B;

Henson, Shannon Nebraska law enforcement is considering the use of technology developed by Omaha-based iSecureTrac that will allow parole officers to keep track of parolees' whereabouts on a minute-by-minute basis.  Under the current system, parolees are fitted with a bracelet that monitors them when they are at home; to verify daytime activities, officials call employers or make onsite checks.  The new technology, called tracNET 24, allows a parolee to wear a 12-ounce unit clipped to his belt while at work.  Once arriving home, the tracer is downloaded, and a map is generated and transmitted to the parole officer detailing movements.  TracNET 24 makes use of global positioning system (GPS) technology, but only 12 U.S.  parolees are currently using it.  The technology's developers believe that it could be used to significantly reduce recidivism, while iSecureTrac President Jim Stark says that it could reduce the need to jail people. http://www.omaha.com/index.php

"GPS: Keeping Cons Out of Jail" Wired News (10/15/02); Scheeres, Julia

Law enforcement officials are praising a new electronic tracking system that monitors the activity of criminals.  The Global Positioning System (GPS), as the device is known, tracks criminals in the neighborhoods where they reside, then compares the compiled data against other crimes that have been committed in the area to see if there is match.  To track possible offenders, the GPS module records the longitude, latitude, direction and speed once per minute, then plots those readings on a map.  The readings are taken from a small GPS receiver that offenders wear on their waistband or on an electronic bracelet on their ankle.  Local governments like GPS because it is a cost-effective alternative to returning criminals to prison and does not disrupt the lives of probationers and parolees, so they can continue working in the neighborhoods where they live.  "To the extent that GPS surveillance is used as an alternative to incarceration for non-violent or first-time offenders, (it) is certainly a positive thing," says David Fathi, staff council for the ACLU's National Prison Project.  "The ACLU welcomes any reasonable steps to reduce our country's over-reliance on incarceration, which has given [the United States] the highest incarceration rate in the world." http://www.wired.com/news/privacy/0,1848,55740,00.html

DIGITAL ANGEL CORPORATION IS AWARDED UNITED STATES PATENT FOR NEXT-GENERATION, ENHANCED-PERFORMANCE IMPLANTABLE MICROCHIP Technology breakthrough is expected to create growth opportunities with new marketplace applications New Patent (#6,400,338) for "Passive Integrated Transponder Tag with Unitary Antenna Core" builds on the Company's "keystone" implantable microchip patent (#5,211,129) - Worldwide patents pending SO.  ST.&nnbsp; PAUL, MN, October 3, 2002 -- Digital Angel Corporation (AMEX: DOC)
announced today that it has been granted a United States patent for its next-generation, enhanced-performance implantable microchip.  The subdermal, radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is expected to find a wide range of new marketplace applications.  Worldwide patents are pending for this implantable microchip breakthrough.

The next-generation microchip significantly improves the performance of the Company's existing subdermal chip, extending the range of the radio signal emitted by the chip and increasing the speed at which the information on the chip can be read by the Company's proprietary scanners.  These performance enhancements are expected to open up growth opportunities with a variety of new marketplace applications for the implanted microchip.

In essence, the technological advance involves a revolutionary and proprietary new "unitary core" design.  This proprietary "unitary core" frees up more space within the surrounding tube for a bigger, more powerful antenna, which substantially increases the range of the chip's radio signal.  The new design improvement also yields a doubling in the chip's magnetic field, which helps to open up new applications - such as doorway-type, walk-through scanners - required for a variety of security-related, building-access applications.

Commenting on the new patent, Randolph K.  Geissler, CEO of Digital Angel Corporation, stated: "This is a major breakthrough for the Company, for our customers, and for our shareholders.  A real tribute to our microchip R&D engineers, this patent builds on our leadership in the implantable microchip industry.
We invented and pioneered this technology, and we continue to lead through the ownership of various patents and proprietary technologies surrounding the subdermal microchip.  The new design and enhanced performance will open up exciting applications and growth opportunities for Digital Angel Corporation and its customers."

The new patent builds on the Company's underlying "keystone" patent for its implantable RFID microchip.  The technological advance will become the enhanced-performance platform for the Company's entire line of implantable microchips.  The new design - which has the added benefit of making the microchip more susceptible to an automated production process - is the result of a three-year research and development effort.  The new, automated manufacturing process will enable the Company to cost-effectively increase production capacity to meet ever-growing demand, especially with regard to emerging marketplace applications.

The next-generation, patented microchips will be included in production runs beginning in the fourth quarter of 2002.  The new subdermal chips are fully compatible with the Company's proprietary scanners so animal shelters and veterinary clinics will not need to replace their existing scanners.  The performance of those scanners will be enhanced due to the improved RFID chip technology.

The new proprietary chip's extended range and enhanced magnetic field will expand its utility in various animal applications, including certain fish-related applications.
Some salmon species, for example, have been officially declared an endangered species in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.  In response, the U.S. Department of Energy has recognized the need for more efficient identification and research programs for salmon migratory patterns.  Digital Angel's next-generation chip will assist in this effort.  Digital Angel pioneered the first microchip system, enabling the government to begin migratory tracking of microchipped salmon through U.S.  waterways.

The "unitary core" microchips should also aid in the adoption of the Company's livestock tracking and identification systems.  The enhanced performance of the implantable RFID chips will simplify the data-collection (scanning)
process while making the systems more cost-effective to install and easier to maintain in this very demanding market.

About Digital Angel Corporation, Inc.
On March 27, 2002 Digital Angel Corporation completed a merger with Medical Advisory Systems, Inc., which for two decades has operated a 24/7, physician-staffed call center in Owings, Maryland.  Prior to the merger, Digital Angel Corporation was a 93% owned subsidiary of Applied Digital Solutions, Inc.  (Nasdaq: ADSX), which now is the beneficial owner of a majority position in the Company.  Digital Angel(tm) technology and patents represent the first-ever combination of advanced sensors and Web-enabled wireless telecommunications linked to Global Positioning Systems (GPS).  By utilizing advanced sensor capabilities, Digital Angel will be able to monitor key functions - such as ambient temperature and physical movement - and transmit that data, along with accurate emergency location information, to a ground station or monitoring facility.  The Company also invented, manufactures and markets implantable identification microchips the size of a grain of rice for use in companion pets, fish, and livestock.  Digital Angel Corporation owns patents for its inventions in applications of the implantable microchip technology for animals and humans.  For more information about Digital Angel Corporation, visit www.digitalangel.net.

Welfare Recipients to Get Drug Test Fri Oct 18, 2:51 PM ET By DEE-ANN DURBIN, Associated Press Writer LANSING, Mich.  (AP) - A federal appeals court Friday cleared the way for Michigan to test welfare recipients for drug use.

U.S.  District Court Judge Victoria Roberts halted a pilot drug-testing program in
1999 after a group of welfare recipients and the American Civil Liberties Union (news - web sites) of Michigan argued that the testing is unconstitutional.

A three-judge panel of the 6th U.S.  Circuit Court of Appeals (news - web sites)
reversed Roberts' decision Friday, saying the testing program is based on a legitimate need to ensure that public money is not used for illegal purposes.

Robert Sedler, the attorney who sued the state Family Independence Agency on behalf of several welfare recipients, said he will appeal to the full court.

"We are dealing here ...  with the suspicionless testing of adults," he said.

Michigan was the first state to pass such a program, and many other states have been watching the case progress, the ACLU said Friday.

According to the Welfare Information Network, a Washington, D.C.-based clearinghouse, states that have drug-testing in some form for welfare recipients include Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma and Oregon.

"It's clear that the Michigan case had a chilling effect, but some states have gone ahead and done it anyway," said Andrea Wilkins, a policy analyst with the National Conference of State Legislatures.

In Michigan, the state wants to require welfare applicants in a handful of communities to provide urine samples for drug screening before they can be considered for benefits.

Under the rules of the pilot program, the drug test results wouldn't affect access to food stamps and police wouldn't be notified, but applicants who tested positive for drugs would be sent to treatment and could gradually lose benefits if they failed to go.

Gov.  John Engler praised the court ruling Friday and said Michigan plans to reinstate the drug-testing program soon.

"We know that drugs are a significant barrier to employment, and testing and treatment for welfare recipients for drug use is consistent with our goal of helping them reach true self-sufficiency," Engler said.

New York Times (10/06/02); Markoff, John

Some observers are worried about the loss of civil liberties from a widespread network of security cameras following Sept.  11.  Michael Naimark used a cheap laser pointer to demonstrate how easy it is to block surveillance cameras' sensors.  Naimark's solution is commonplace knowledge in military circles.  However, he expressed some regret about his demonstration possibly educating terrorists on how to avoid security cameras and emphasized his intention is to stimulate discourse.  The role of surveillance camera footage in a couple of high-profile cases, including a mother in an Indiana parking lot repeatedly striking her child, is causing concern among early developers of the technology and privacy advocates.  A related issue is the use of Internet cameras--some view the cameras as entertainment, while others detest the loss of privacy.  The New York-based Surveillance Camera Players is mapping out video camera sites in NYC online and staging performances before them.
"We're philosophical anarchists," explains group co-founder Bill Brown.  "We never engage in illegal activity, but we believe the greatest weakness of those who operate the surveillance systems is that they require secrecy."
Electronic Privacy Information Center executive director Marc Rotenberg alleges that the cameras' effectiveness in identifying terrorists and improving statements is grossly overexaggerated.

"Big Brother Goes Behind Bars"
Fortune (09/30/02) P.  44; Roberti, Mark

Two Michigan prisons and one in Illinois will eliminate the need to continuously count inmates by purchasing a high-tech tracking system from Technology Systems International.  The technology, developed by Motorola, involves each prisoner wearing a tamper-proof transmitter wristband that sends out a radio frequency representing a specific serial number, which is received by antennas that transmit the data to a PC via a local area network.  Guards are alerted when a convict gets too near the perimeter fence or does not come back from a furlough in time.  Penitentiaries can also ensure that rival gang members keep a safe distance from each other.
California testing of the system lowered rates of violence, property damage, and inmates going through the food line more than once.  "This will totally change the way prisons are run," declares Larry Cothran a consultant for the National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center.

"Biometrics Moves to Center Stage"
Washington Technology (09/23/02) Vol.  17, No.  13, P.  1; Wait, Patience

More and more U.S.  government agencies are relying on biometric identification systems to identify potential threats, limit access to sensitive areas, and fight terrorism.  International Biometric Group (IBG) predicts government spending in the field will be $512 million in
2005, up from $217 million in 2002, surpassing law enforcement as the biggest vertical application within two years, according to IBG's Jackie Lucas.  Biometric identification systems use fingerprint recognition, iris/retinal scans, thermal imaging, palm scans/hand geometry, voice-print recognition, facial recognition, signature recognition, and other physical or behavioral attributes to identify people.  Since early 2002, personnel from the FBI's Criminal Justice Information Services in Afghanistan have been using digital fingerprint scanning tools to take the fingerprints, photos, names, and so on of suspected al Qaeda terrorists; the data is sent and stored in the FBI's Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS).  In an upcoming project, the IAFIS database is slated to be linked to the Immigration and Naturalization Service's biometric identification system, INDENT, in order to create a single database.  Meanwhile, the Transportation Security Administration's (TSA) Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) system will integrate biometrics into smart-cards for workers in the aviation, maritime, rail, and trucking industries as well as for TSA workers.  And Science Applications International (SAIC) is developing a contract with the New York Police Department to provide human resources applications based on fingerprint biometrics.  But R.J.  Langley at TRW believes the government should develop a national biometrics infrastructure over the next 15 years similar to the architectures for electricity, communications, and roads to ensure security and prevent a hodgepodge of stovepipe mechanisms.

No Cyborg Nation Without FDA's OK By Julia Scheeres 2:00 a.m.  Oct.  8, 2002 PDT

In May, three members of a Florida family were implanted with ID chips, sparking an international debate over the implications of the technology.

The manufacturer insisted that the VeriChip would revolutionize the fields of security and health care by providing a tamper-proof form of identification.  Privacy pundits, meanwhile, fretted over forcible chipping and biblical literalists warned that a microchip could be interpreted as the "Mark of the Beast."

VeriChip maker Applied Digital Solutions (ADS) crowed about an anticipated demand that would create "millions"
of cyborgs within the next few years.  It even trademarked the terms "get chipped" and "The Chipsons"
-- the nickname for the Florida family, whose real name is Jacobs.

But five months have passed, and the VeriChip still isn't available in the United States.

Why?  Because the controversial microchip has become mired in bureaucratic limbo as the government decides whether the VeriChip should be a regulated device.

Central to the confusion is a March e-mail exchange between ADS and the Food and Drug Administration, in which the company sought guidance about whether the product needed the agency's approval.

"The chip has no medical purposes," ADS consultant Stephen B.  Kaufman stated in an electronic missive to FDA officials on March 19.  "It is for security or financial or other identification purposes only."

An FDA investigator responded that the rice-sized microchip did not appear to be a regulated device, but requested additional information so that the agency "could review the item carefully and make a determination."

Instead, ADS sent out a press release stating that the FDA didn't consider VeriChip to be a "regulated medical device" and started touting the product as a "life-saving" device on talk shows.

This dismayed the FDA investigators who exchanged e-mails with the company.

"We were like, 'Wait a second,' we told them to come in and tell us more," said Wally Pellerite, who works in the FDA's Office of Compliance.  "The information they were releasing in press releases and on television shows contradicted the information they gave the FDA."

Things got more confusing when an FDA spokeswoman stated that "as long as the chip itself does not contain medical information, it is not regulated by the FDA."

Then, a week after the Jacobs family got chipped, Pellerite said that the FDA was investigating the company.  As a result, Nasdaq temporarily halted trading of ADS shares and VeriChip's future in the United States was put on hold.

Part of the problem is the chip's novelty, Pellerite said in an interview.  While microchips have been used to track pets and livestock for years, the idea of chipping humans is new.

"This is a technological advance that we haven't really looked at before, and it may have inherent risks," said Pellerite, who added that he was unaware of any implant that was not regulated by the FDA.

According to Section 201 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, implants and other devices "intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals" require government approval.

Pellerite said the argument could be made that any foreign object designed to remain in the body indefinitely might affect the function of the body -- and therefore requires regulation. ; Cosmetic implants such as breast and penile enhancers, for example, come under the agency's jurisdiction, despite having no medical function.

If the FDA determines that the VeriChip should be regulated, ADS may have to conduct clinical trials to prove the product is safe.  The agency should reach a conclusion before the end of the year, Pellerite said.

"We're eagerly awaiting the FDA's clarification and guidance about VeriChip," ADS spokesman Matthew Cossoloto said.

Leslie Jacobs, matron of the Jacobs family, is also anxious for a decision to be made.

"It's frustrating," said Jacobs.  "It makes you impatient because the chips can help so many lives if it's able to go forward.  It's very frustrating."

Meanwhile, ADS has forged ahead with VeriChip distribution agreements in Latin America and is developing a subdermal GPS chip.

The latest deal was announced earlier this month with a Mexican security firm called SPIMSA, which plans to market VeriChip as a permanent ID for executives and to control worker access to secure areas, such as airport terminals.

"People want to buy peace of mind, and if this product can offer that, they're going to buy it," SPIMSA spokesman Antonio Aceves said.

"Cops Go Ga-Ga Over Latest Gadgets"
San Francisco Chronicle (09/20/02) P.  A21; Stannard, Matthew B.

The recent COPSWest Conference on law enforcement products in Ontario, Calif., drew law enforcement officers from across the state.  However, since many of the gadgets were expensive and unproven, the majority of officers hesitated to purchase them for their agencies.  At this year's conference, FN Herstal displayed its FN303 "less lethal" weapon (priced at $900) that releases marble-size shells from more than 50 yards away and can release paint, pepper spay, tear gas, or a sticky, foul-smelling substance; the shells bruise the skin but do not penetrate.  Another weapon, the P90 submachine gun, can drive bullets through body armor at 200 yards which soon become slow, reducing the chance of injuring bystanders.  Camlight, meanwhile, offers a flashlight which contains a wireless video camera.  The still-developing Alertcast system, priced at about $2,500, allows officers to override a motorist's car audio system to alert them of approaching emergency vehicles.  And the $3,000 CopTrans system (still in development) can translate phrases related to law-enforcement from English to Spanish or English to Chinese, according to Christine Montgomery.  Most conference attendees looked at less expensive gear such as shred-resistant tires, low-power LED lights for squad cars, and reflective handheld batons for guiding traffic.
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/20 /BA226409.DTL

"A Cybersage Speaks His Mind"
CNet (09/19/02); Festa, Paul

Internet legal expert David Sorkin of the John Marshall Law School in Chicago and an ICANN board member was one of the first academics to offer courses dealing with cyberlaw.
Sorkin's views are relatively widely publicized, through the Spam Laws Web site he maintains and the lesser-known Don't Link to Us site.  He says in an interview that privacy and intellectual property have both come to the forefront in terms of Internet-related law, but that there is little need for new legislation.  Instead, Sorkin argues that most problems relating to the online world can be solved using laws intended for the offline world.  He criticizes the regulatory approach in the United States, where too many states pass inconsistent and off-the-mark laws, and favors broader frameworks, such as the European Data Protection Directive implemented on that continent.  Solutions to the spam problem should not be targeted at peripheral issues, such as creating false message headers, purveying illicit content, or failure to allow opt-outs, but should instead work on comprehensive solutions.  Sorkin says policies restricting linking to publicly available Internet content are nonsensical and that regulation in that area could potentially damage the utility of the Internet.  He says that he does not know if Congress will pass anti-spam legislation, but thinks that the bills being considered will have a more negative than positive effect if enacted.  Sorkin also says that ICANN has "done little to earn the public's trust" and he has "grave concerns" about the job the organization has done so far.  He says ICANN "isn't open or accountable or stable" and may be biased in some ways. http://news.com.com/2008-1082-958576.html

"A Gathering of Big Crypto Brains"
Wired News (09/19/02); Lillington, Karlin

Well-known cryptography experts met in Naas, Ireland, for the annual COSAC conference, which gave them the opportunity to pick each other's brains, demonstrate their research, and discuss such topics as wireless security, forensics, and the corporate attitude of ignoring security matters.  COSAC attendees have included Data Encryption Standard breaker Michael Wiener and public key cryptography inventor Whitfield Diffie.  Inforenz director Andy Clark participated in this year's conference, where he disclosed that "evidence eliminator" software that supposedly deletes computer files is faulty.  Meanwhile, Yokohama National University professor Tsutomu Matsumoto and a team of graduate students demonstrated how biometric fingerprint scanners could be fooled using artificial fingers.  Revealed was a technique in which silicone fingers containing a conductive material derived from carbon powder can unlock the devices.  Matsumoto has also shown that gelatin "gummy fingers" with moisture content similar to real fingers can also be used, while a third method involves lifting a fingerprint from glass and placing it on a bogus digit using an electron microscope, an inkjet printer, and Photoshop software.  COSAC organizer David Lynas, who works for the QinetiQ computer security company, described the conference as "the only environment in which [leading computer security figures] actually learn." http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,1282,55209,00.html

"Pr.  George's to Review Pepper Spray Policy"
San Diego Union-Tribune (09/18/02) P.  C1; Bigelow, Bruce V.

Titan and five other companies have been awarded a $3 billion contract by the federal government to supply different law enforcement agencies with radios, signal repeaters, and other communications devices based on Project 25, which is the standard for radio hardware and software technology.  The law enforcement technology will improve radio communications between law enforcement agencies, especially during large-scale emergencies such as the Sept. 11 tragedy.  A major purpose of the Project 25 initiative was deployment of the Common Air Interface, whereby a customer can integrate mobile and portable radio gear from any supplier and allow it to interact with any other Project 25 system.  Furthermore, the project maps out a route to achieve interoperability for ongoing technological advances.  The Titan contract, issued by the Treasury Department and Justice Department, will assist the coordinated efforts of the FBI, ATF, Customs Service, Secret Service, and DEA.  Any manufacturer can avail itself of the Project 25 standard. http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/business/20020918-9999_1b18titan.html

"Sales Take Off for Maker of Emergency Offices on Wheels"
Copley News Service (09/16/02); Peterson, Kim

San Marcos, Calif.-based Mattman has seen sales more than double since last year's terrorist attacks.  A manufacturer of specialized vehicles, it has provided technologically-sophisticated mobile offices to numerous law-enforcement agencies and companies seeking to prepare for future emergencies.  Mattman just supplied Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport with a $1.19 million command post on wheels, replete with plasma televisions, satellite receivers, 11 computer workstations, and a wireless network.
The company has also constructed 80 vans for the National Science Foundation in Antarctica that are fitted with tires 4 feet in diameter, brake systems that can withstand extreme temperatures, and oil heaters.  Mobile command stations have been in use for years in some places--there is one that San Diego's Lindbergh Field has been using for about a decade. Mattman expects to see further sales growth once the federal government allocates funding for its homeland security effort.  https://www.copleynews.com/

"Web-Based Information System Links State's Correction Agencies"
Arkansas Democrat Gazette (09/16/02) P.  B1; Shurley, Traci

In October, Arkansas state and community corrections departments plan to launch a new Web-based communications networking system called the Offender Management Information System (eOMIS), developed by Tallahassee, Fla.-based Marquis Software Development.  Eventually the Arkansas State Department of Corrections and Department of Community Corrections will also be linked to the state Crime Information Center and JailNet, a new criminal database that stores histories on every inmate in state and county facilities.  About $414,000 was invested in the program at the community level, which will allow officers immediate access to probationers and parolees' most current drug screening tests, current addresses and any rehabilitation programs being undertaken, allowing officers more time to supervise 40,000 offenders.  State Corrections, with a significantly larger volume of inmate information, invested nearly $850,000 in the Marquis package and has a $550,000 contract for the following year.  Arkansas is the first state to try the eOMIS system, although Florida and Arizona state correctional departments have been using Marquis' inmate tracking system.  http://www.ardemgaz.com/

"FBI Collects Fingerprints at W.Va.  Site for Security"
Baltimore Sun (09/15/02) P.  1A; Sullivan, Laura

The FBI operates the world's largest biometric database at its Criminal Justice Information Services Division in Clarksburg, W.Va.  The facility, which stores the criminal records of every U.S.  citizen convicted of a crime, performs millions of record checks for police agencies across the country and thousands of fingerprint searches every day.  The center is now becoming the key component of the government's fight against terrorism, with requests for fingerprint searches increasing 20 percent per day following the Sept.11 attacks.  The Bush Administration and the Immigration and Naturalization Service are considering using fingerprint identification technology to check the millions of people entering and leaving the United States each day.  The increased focus on security has also prompted more screening of state employees.  The center uses advanced computers to send search information back to officers or agencies in just 15 seconds.  The facility employs extensive security measures to guard against terrorist attacks, though it remains, at least technically, open to the public.  Database searches have led to the identification of hundreds of perpetrators involved in "cold cases." http://www.sunspot.net/

"Hi-Tech Cops Keep Pace With Thugs"
Mercury (Australia) (09/14/02) P.  38; Lawrence, Kara

When a disgruntled Matthew Dean Smith hacked into his former employer's Web site and shut it down, little did he realize that his home computer, from which the breach was perpetrated, held all the evidence necessary to convict him.
The New South Wales (NSW) Police Computer Crime Unit of Australia estimates that 67 percent of businesses' networks in the island-nation have been breached thus far this year.
The unit, created in 1998, has the ability to intercept data transmissions through telephone intercepts and decipher the codes being sent.  NSW Police has used the technology once thus far during an investigation in a case involving a hacker who modified the customer information of a telecommunications company.  Though most of its workload involves hacking, the unit is increasingly being called in to assist in other investigations, mainly through the tracking of mobile phones and the examination of hard drives.  The group is also working with the FBI in its Honeynet project, which was designed to track hacker habits through the setting up of a fake Internet server.

"Forbidden Zone"
New Scientist (09/14/02) Vol.  175, No.  2360, P.  34; Mullins, Justin

The void between light and radio waves in the electromagnetic spectrum is occupied by terahertz radiation, and engineers are developing technology that exploits such rays for a variety of applications, including medical imaging and, more significantly, security.  Terahertz waves render solid objects transparent and generate sharper images than X-rays, with no health risks.  A video camera that Rutherford Appleton Laboratory is developing with astonishing rapidity will feature detectors that operate at 0.3 and 0.25 terahertz.  Such cameras could be used to see through people and objects from a distance; the contents of packages and any weapons that air travelers are carrying could be detected remotely, for instance.  Jim Dempsey of the Center for Democracy and Technology says that such devices will inevitably run afoul of the U.S.  Constitution, especially in light of recent legislation that prohibits searches by infrared camera without court orders.  "That rationale, applied to terahertz imaging cameras, would suggest that they cannot be used to see through clothes without a specific suspicion or judicial approval," he declares.  Another recent breakthrough involves the creation of a 4.4-terahertz laser developed by an international research team.  Meanwhile, Cambridge-based TeraView plans to market devices that generate terahertz radiation by striking semiconductor crystals with a visible or infrared laser beam; such devices are designed to map out the molecular structure of materials, and company director Michael Pepper believes that they eventually could be shrunk down to the size of a TV remote control.  The technology could be used to check for early signs of skin cancer, while other sectors that could benefit include the pharmaceutical and food-processing industries. http://www.newscientist.com/

"All Eyes are on Oceanfront's New Surveillance System"
Virginian-Pilot (09/10/02) P.  B1; Jones, Mathew

The Virginia Beach Police Department recently activated its facial recognition video camera system, which can identify suspects based on the measurements of 26 different bone structures.  Those measurements are converted into code, which is compared to a suspect database; an alarm sounds if a match is found, and then a police officer compares the camera image to the database's 10 closest matches.  In testing, the system accurately identified suspect profiles 87 percent of the time during daylight hours and 75 percent during nighttime, according to Deputy Chief Gregory Mullen.
However, officers cite the system's value as a deterrent to keep criminals away from the Oceanfront.  The database currently holds 650 photos of people wanted on felony charges.  Such a system can search thousands of faces at the same time, notes Chief A.M.  "Jake" Jacocks Jr.  The only other U.S.  city with such a system is Tampa, Fla. http://www.pilotonline.com/

"States Take On Bioterrorism"
Washington Technology (09/09/02) Vol.  17, No.  12, P.  24; Welsh, William

Congress has approved the nationwide distribution of $918 million funneled through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to state and local governments for use in building infrastructures for bioterrorism preparedness. Funding will support needs assessments and will be used to build and maintain pharmaceutical stockpiles and upgrade information technology.  Ultimately, a national electronic public health information network will be constructed for the benefit of federal health officials to track and respond to infectious disease outbreaks and potential chemical, radiological, and biological attacks.  This new plan supercedes the boundaries of the CDC's current three-year national electronic alert network project and will enable federal and state specialists to assist local agencies in treatment and law enforcement agencies in evidence handling.
Using some of its $58 million share of the federal funding, Texas has already begun to put into place a network system linking 64 statewide health organizations to local health agencies, hospitals, fire, police, and other emergency agencies.  Avnet Enterprise Solutions of Phoenix, Ariz., Cisco Systems of San Jose, Calif., and Texas-based Dell Computer have been contracted to build the Texas Health Alert Network, which will ultimately reach 90 percent of the state's population. http://www.washingtontechnology.com/news/17_12/statelocal/18932-1.html

"Webcam--Wired Schools: a Fad or the Future?"
Potomac Tech Journal (09/09/02) P.  5; Resende, Patricia

The installation of security cameras has been increasing in schools, daycare, and nursing home centers during the past few years, says Fredrik Nilsson, director of business development for Axis Communications.  The Chelmsford, Mass.-based Web camera developer along with other firms like Pelmac Industries of Auburn, N.H., have been busily installing cameras in hallways, school yards, and cafeterias in schools throughout the country as insecurities about personal safety increase since the shootings at Columbine High School.  Axis' cameras are designed with a built-in Web server, but does not require a PC to send images over the wide or local area networks or Internet, said Nilsson, and as it is interfaced to the Ethernet, a back office PC server stores images.  In at least three New Hampshire schools, Pelmac installed Pelco surveillance cameras designed to send live feed via a fiber-optic cable to local police and fire departments.  Adamantly against putting surveillance technology into schools, John Roberts, executive director of the American Civil Liberties Union of Massachusetts, believes that the cameras will negatively effect the morale of students and create distrust between students and faculty.  He believes what is really going on is that "people respond to worst-case scenarios .  you have a bunch of high technology companies selling their technology and playing off of post-9/11 and post-Columbine." Pelmac's president, Mike Pellerin, said school officials who want the cameras have only the safety of their students uppermost in their minds as their daily concerns include child abductions, drug trafficking, fights, and out of control behavior on school grounds.  http://www.potomactechjournal.com/

"Refined Protection"
Security Management (08/02) Vol.  46, No.  8, P.  44; Longmore-Etheridge Ann

Three years ago, Sunoco embarked on a project to revamp security at its cornerstone 781-acre Marcus Hook Oil Refinery, which straddles Pennsylvania and Delaware.  A risk assessment revealed that more CCTV systems were needed to monitor areas of entrance and egress, parking lots, along roads and rail lines, and at remote locations, and for data storage capabilities, a digital system was selected.
Replacing live patrols with technology, the company chose a single access control system for all its sites, linking them through a control center that also served as the control hub for other aspects of security and emergency response functions.  All employees are issued an access control ID, which allows security to monitor their whereabouts, and lesser-used gates were all barricaded, forcing everyone to pass through the main gate under the eye of the control center.  A 50-member emergency response team, trained in firefighting, rescue, hazardous materials, and environmental crises, can be quickly summoned if needed.  For Sunoco's 608 stores, intervention specialists at the corporation's headquarters in Philadelphia keep a constant watch on goings-on through CCTVs and two-way speakers.  Contacts between the Remote Intervention Control Room's employees and each location is made every eight hours, and the speakers allow the specialists, who are trained to deal with angry customers and hostage situations, to make themselves heard in the stores, thus serving as a deterrent.  Store employees are also supplied with special phones to initiate contact with headquarters, pendant panic buttons, and cash-drawers fitted with a wireless money-clip alarm.  The system is tied into cash registers, permitting security to check any suspicious transactions.  http://www.securitymanagement.com/

"DSL in the Security Mix"
Communications News (08/02) Vol.  39, No.  8, P.  6; Southworth, Jim

Connecting all security surveillance, sensors, and systems to a telephone line with a digital subscriber line (DSL)enables the creation of a complete independent security solution.  Information gathered from motion detectors, door alarms, surveillance cameras, and movement-tracking pager-like devices can be instantly sent to security managers via the DSL connection.  Systems that detect airborne foreign substances and chemicals can be connected via DSL to notify managers or local authorities of changes in humidity, temperature, air quality, or contamination.  In an office environment, such systems would report environmental problems to systems managers, hospitals, and local emergency authorities, and could help control a crisis or deter escalation of a crisis.  Water sprinklers could also be attached to the overall security system with a DSL connection, and if necessary, could be notified to shut down to prevent further water damage to an area.  A seismic detection system connected through DSL could help officials determine the severity of damage in the event of an earthquake, and help them locate and save trapped victims.
http://www.comnews.com/ dm

"Emails Say Police Are Sabotaging Video Cameras"
Associated Press (09/30/02)

Internal emails and documents indicate that damages to video cameras on vehicles used by the police department of Eugene, Ore., may be the result of sabotage by officers.  Though administrators suggest the SpectraTek camera systems used as part of a $90,000 program failed because equipment did not operate correctly from the beginning, the company says it received no complaints or requests to apply the warranty.
Police are acknowledging the possibility that officers tampered with the equipment so they would not be subject to monitoring, and technicians did uncover evidence that wires had been disconnected, over three years.  Repair records note that there were three incidents where the patrol cars' video antennas went missing.  Additionally, emails indicate many people involved in the program suspected officers were interfering with the equipment. http://www.ap.org/

"More Cities Rush to Go Cyber With Services"
USA Today (09/30/02) P.  3A; Alvord, Valerie

The "shame factor" is driving people to the Web sites of local governments.  Steve Hansen, marketing manager for Denver's Office of Television and Internet Services, says people are curious to see Web pages of pictures of men convicted of hiring prostitutes and individuals facing drug charges, or to find the results of restaurant inspections and a list of liquor license violators.  "These pages have generated tons of interest, both here and in other cities we've spoken with," says Hansen.  Denver has seen traffic at its Web site soar 40 percent since it launched "Johns TV,"
and started posting pictures of men convicted of hiring prostitutes.  New York says its Web site nearly crashed during the first two days of launching its restaurant inspection page.  The posting of information on crime and civil misbehavior on e-government sites has had a positive impact on the Web sites, in that visitors have discovered that they can do other things at the sites, such as apply for permits, download forms, and pay fines.  Hansen says using e-government sites to reign in scofflaws and other civil misbehavior is very trendy at this time.

"Sounds of Silence"
U.S.  News & World Report (09/30/02) Vol.  133, No.  12, P.  79; Terrell, Kenneth

The Georgia Tech Research Institute has developed a new RADAR Flashlight that will allow law enforcement and military personnel to "hear" the faint stirrings of breathing on the far sides of walls.  "There are about 25 different scenarios where it could help out," explains Bill Deck of the National Law Enforcement Corrections Technology Center.  The device, costing between $1,000 and $1,500, weighs nearly seven pounds and looks like a cross between a power drill and a lantern flashlight.  The RADAR Flashlight sends electromagnetic energy pulses through walls and bounces the signals off of objects on the other side of the walls.  However, the pulses cannot pass through metal barriers or water, and the technology does not yet afford the ability to determine exactly what objects the electromagnetic pulses are picking up. http://www.usnews.com/usnews/issue/020930/misc/30senses.i.htm

"As Security Cameras Sprout, Someone's Always Watching"
New York Times (09/29/02) P.  1; Murphy, Dean E.

Though attention as of late has focused on law-enforcement's increasing use of face-recognition technology and closed-circuit television systems in public facilities, few security experts have noted the preponderance of surveillance cameras being operated by the private sector.
The recent case of an Indiana store camera catching a woman beating her child in a parking lot highlights a growing trend.  According to the Security Industry Association, more than 2 million closed-circuit systems are operational in the United States, and the surveillance market is growing at an annual rate of 15 percent, reports the Connecticut security research firm J.P Freeman Company.  In Manhattan alone, the Civil Liberties Union found 2,397 cameras fixed on places heavy with pedestrian traffic, all but 270 of them privately owned.  Law-enforcement encourages the proliferation of cameras because captured and stored video footage often helps in cases.  Even trade organizations have gotten on board.  The Western United Dairymen has recommended that its members use surveillance technology to help deter animal rights activists and prevent bioterrorist attacks. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/09/29/technology/29TAPE.html

"SA Police Contemplates E-Crime Outsourcing"
ZDNet Australia (09/26/02); Douglas, Jeanne-Vida The South Australian Police Department is considering outsourcing its Internet-related criminal investigations unit to comply with the Electronic Crime Strategy proposed by the Police Commissioner's Conference Electronic Crime Steering Committee.  The committee issued recommendations for how prevention, partnerships, education, resources, regulations, and legislation can prevent criminal activities conducted via the Internet.  Australian police officials are also considering integrating more of their operations with the private sector and other strategies to improve human resourcing.  Ted Wisniewski of the Western Australian Police explains that the commissioner's e-crime working party convenes by videoconference on a bi-weekly basis.  "We have a number of work plans and tasks to be carried out at a national level, and each party can take on a task and aim to develop it for the national level," he notes.  State police confer not just through the Conference Electronic Crime Steering Committee, but also via the Australasian Computer Crime Managers Group and the Australasian E-Crime Working Party.  Their shared goal is to organize a national computer crime strategy and build standards for investigative techniques.

"Pentagon Explores Use of Chemicals"
Associated Press (09/25/02); Kelley, Matt

The U.S.  military is looking at ways to use sedatives such as Valium and other drugs to control rioters or other violent people when deadly force is undesirable.  Edward Hammond of the chemical and biological weapons watchdog group Sunshine Project believes such actions are illegal and violates the chemicals weapons treaty.  At present, the treaty allows military and police to use irritants such as tear gas and pepper spray to control unruly crowds but bars the use of substances that incapacitate people.  "If the U.S. is going to denounce countries around the world for violating chemical and biological arms control treaties, it better make sure its own house is in order first," Hammond notes.  In 2000, researchers at a Pentagon-backed institute at Pennsylvania State University compiled a report saying that developing calmative weapons was feasible, but that researchers would still have to work out how to prevent injuries from people falling down when rendered unconscious. http://www.ap.org/

"Subway Cameras Speed Terrorism Responses"
Potomac Tech Journal (09/23/02) Vol.  3, No.  38, P.  9; Resende, Patricia

Newport, R.I.-based LiveWave has been picked by Argonne National Laboratory, a U.S.  Energy Department research center, to provide digital camera security software for the Program for the Response Options and Technology Enhancements for Chemical/biological Terrorism (PROTECT).  PROTECT, a joint effort by various federal agencies and Washington, D.C.'s Metro Authority, was first discussed in 1995, when a Japanese subway was attacked with nerve gas.  The initiative will use chemical sensors to detect unknown substances circulating in subway systems.  When a sensor detects something unusual, it will alert relevant police, fire, and hazardous material officials to what is happening through Argonne's Chemical/Biological agent Emergency Management Information System, providing locations and protocols.
Real-time video of the subway location will be transmitted to first-responder dispatchers and wireless hand-helds carried by various officials.  The system is now being installed in D.C.  stations.

"The Thin Gray Line"
CNet (09/23/02); Lemos, Robert

"Gray hat" hackers are being forced to reconsider their actions, which walk the razor's edge between acceptable and unacceptable activities, in light of new legislation, increased law enforcement, and the ever-changing definition of what constitutes ethical hacking.  "We are reaching a crossroad where decisions have to be made as to which way people are going to go: Are they going to continue to function as a security consultant or go to the dark side?"
declared Howard Schmidt of the White House's Critical Infrastructure Protection Board.  Practices such as publicizing corporate security flaws may now carry the threat of lawsuits, prosecution, and even jail time for most independent security experts and consultants.  Not even hackers who intrude in order to warn network administrators about security weaknesses are immune--the Hurwitz Group's Peter Lindstrom, for one, lumps gray hats and black hats in the same category.  Although this is a minority view, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and other statutes are helping to increase its strength.  The vagueness and broad terminology of the DMCA is discouraging many hackers who specialize in finding and disclosing software vulnerabilities; the arrest of Russian programmer Dmitri Sklyarov and the Justice Department's case against his company for distributing a program that breaks e-book copy protections sent a troubling message to gray hats.  Some think that programmers and hackers are shying away from alerting companies of software holes as a result of today's security-conscious atmosphere.  Some hackers and others have responded to these trends by developing new guidelines for ethical hacking.  http://news.com.com/2009-1001-958129.html

"Officials Hail New System That Monitors Offenders"
Des Moines Register (09/23/02) P.  1B; Hupp, Staci

Sophisticated tracking technology enables corrections and public safety officials in Iowa to monitor sex offenders and other dangerous prisoners released on parole or probation.
The electronic monitoring system can link with computers, satellites, global positioning systems, and more conventional tracking methods.  The technology uses electronic boxes attached to a person's waist and electronic ankle bracelets to update police to their whereabouts at 10-second intervals.  Information recorded by the devices is downloaded at the end of the day.  Iowa plans to invest $255,000 in the corrections department's electronic monitoring system this year.  The tracking system is very useful in making sure offenders stay clear of areas prohibited as a condition of their release, such as liquor stores or locations frequented by children.  Iowa Department of Corrections' Fred Scaletta notes the system is expected to provide real-time tracking within several months.
"There's not a reason to put everybody on, but when you have someone who's a higher-risk offender, it's a good idea," notes Lois Osborn of the Department of Corrections. http://www.desmoinesregister.com/

"Smart Roads Could Help Homeland"
Federal Computer Week (09/23/02); Lisagor, Megan

Smart roads use cameras, sensors, telecommunications, and other technologies to make commuting safer and easier.  These intelligent transportation systems (ITSes) can be considered as ways to boost homeland security, according to a report from a subcommittee of the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee.  More than 384 public transport systems across the country now have installed or are installing some of the technologies.  In relation to homeland security, the systems could be used for monitoring infrastructure, evacuating cites, and communicating with motorists.  Telematics providers, for example, are developing ways to send "reverse 911" messages to cars to make them aware of emergencies.  ITS applications were in use following the Sept.11 attacks on the Pentagon.  The Arlington, Va., traffic management center reversed HOV lanes, modified traffic signals, and restricted passage to roads near the Pentagon.  ITS America, a public/private enterprise, hopes Congress will fund a proposed 10-year plan to build an integrated network of transportation information. http://www.fcw.com/geb/articles/2002/0923/web-its-09-23-02.asp

"Mobile Field Report Writing"
Law Enforcement Technology (09/02) Vol.  29, No.  9, P.  86; Rogers, Donna

Mobile field report writing is the latest technology for police officers on the street, but before a software application is selected, several questions need to be considered: Is it going to be a part of a larger reporting system; should the application be capable of standing alone or be connected; and what new features will future applications have?  Of the applications themselves, there are two primary components--the reporting and writing capabilities, and the ability to provide lookups to federal, state and local databases.  Veracity Report Writing Systems has developed a Windows-based reporting application that is database-driven in that rather than a check-the-box template, and it guides the officer to write the report, tutoring in situational management.  It is configured to be a perfect script for courtroom testimony with no room for a "red herring defense" by lawyers, says Veracity CEO Gary Oliverson.  Del King of HTE Government Software says an application that can be integrated into a whole system becomes a "building block"--the CAD feeds the mobile data browser, which in turn feeds the incident field reporting, which is then sent to the Crime Reporting Management system for statistical analysis.  New World Systems' Mark Morton notes that customization is essential, and says that his company's Aegis Mobile tool includes editing capabilities that enable rearranging, skipping or field deletions for streamlining purposes.  Aether Systems' Mobile Government Division offers Packet Writer, a data-centric field data collection system wirelessly enabled but also capable of working disconnected, which is essential when an officer reaches a "dead zone".  Rich Artusy, mobile product manager of Tiburon, maker of a comprehensive application called Field Automation System, recommends starting from the inside out in designing a mobile solution as it is vital that the mobile unit interacts and operates with records and CAD functions.  http://www.law-enforcement.com/

"A High School Where the Sensorship Is Pervasive"
Los Angeles Times (09/08/02) P.  A1; Huffstutter, P.  J.

West Hills High School in Santee, Calif., is located less than three miles from Santana High School where Charles "Andy" Williams killed and wounded students in a school shooting.  To increase school security at West Hills High, Cisco, Sony, and PacketVideo donated equipment and oversaw the installation of the $50,000 SkyWitness surveillance system.  The system's wireless cameras track all the students, their car license plates, and each bathroom door in the school.  Powerful smoke detectors that can detect a single lighted match can alert campus security personnel.  By year's end, hall monitors will be outfitted with wireless computers that can access a student's picture, class schedule, and attendance record.  School administrators are considering whether to add facial recognition software to the system to help computers sort out students from intruders.  In Tewksbury Memorial High School near Boston, meanwhile, a video surveillance system even allows local police to monitor the hallways.  In the wake of school shooting and terrorism, most of the teens now accept the surveillance as a fact of life.

"US Cops Build Minority Report Database"
VNUNet (08/27/02); Farrell, Nick

Defense lawyers and the American Civil Liberties Union have opposed a database containing names, addresses, and photos of individuals that the Delaware police suspect will break the law, even though many such people have spotless records.
The majority of the 200 people in the database belong to ethnic minorities that hail from areas characterized by poverty and a high incidence of crime.  Delaware Mayor James Baker has derided the opposition's critique as "asinine and intellectually bankrupt." Meanwhile, defense lawyers voiced their disapproval by saying the tactic reflects poorly on the police. http://www.vnunet.

Well the time is almost here folks! Looks like we will have nowhere to hide!


New High-Tech ID Scanners May Help Fight Underage Drinking Aired September 8, 2002 - 07:43 ET THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT.  THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.

MILES O'BRIEN, CNN ANCHOR: Now when I was a young man, there was a few occasions when I tried to get into saloons, when I probably shouldn't have.  Hasn't everyone tried that at one time in their lives?  Well, maybe not everyone, but lots of us have tried it, but technology is here to thwart you, young ladies and gentlemen.  Daniel Sieberg is here to talk a little bit about some scanners that might be appearing at a tavern near you soon.  Tell us about it.
That's right.  Yes, good morning.  Miles, it doesn't seem that long ago, the most high tech device a bouncer might have had was the flashlight, as they're looking at somebody's ID...


SIEBERG: ...to see if the information matches up.  We've got a couple of different examples here of high tech ID scanners that are showing up more and more at different bars...

O'BRIEN: These are on the market already.  So...

SIEBERG: They are on the market already.  That's right.  We'll touch on some security possibilities for these as well, but we're going to start here with the machine from Intellicheck.  We've got a couple of drivers' licenses here.  These are actual drivers' licenses, not actual people, of course.  We're going to just slide it in here.

On the back, in fact at home, you can look on the back of your own license and see you may have a bar code here or a magnetic stripe.  And this machine is going to read the bar code as I slide it in here.  We've hooked up a laptop to this machine, just for the purposes of display.  You don't necessarily need to have this laptop.  And if you see here, it says "No, the person cannot buy alcohol.  Yes, to tobacco." So they're under 21.  And it lists all of the information that you would see on the front of somebody's license.  That's the key to these devices...

O'BRIEN: So...

SIEBERG: ...they're showing -- they're trying to match the information that's encoded.

O'BRIEN: So the bouncer doesn't even have to do the mathematics.

SIEBERG: Right.  No mathematics involved with -- in this case.  O'BRIEN:
All right, now and I guess the theory behind this is, first of all, those bar codes are on in many states right now.  Most licenses have them.

SIEBERG: That's right.  In -- the most licenses do have them, Miles.  About
41 or 42 states currently have it.  Others are slowly adopting it.  But that's key to why this technology hasn't been adopted across the country yet, because not every state has adopted this encoding on the back of licenses.

I just wanted to show one other one here, if I could.


SIEBERG: We've got one that can demonstrate some of the potential for security.  We're going to just update that.  This is another license.  And when I slide this into the reader here, what you're going to see when it comes up on the laptop -- I'm just going to turn this around -- when it comes up on the machine over here, you're going to see something a little bit different.
Aside from just the information that was on here before, there's a picture for some states that can be encoded, as well as this alert symbol.  So if there was something about this individual that they wanted to get out to the larger community, that could also be read by the scanner.

O'BRIEN: So this is run against perhaps the NCIC, the central crime computer that the FBI runs, that kind of thing, for warrants, that sort of thing?

SIEBERG: Potentially, yes.  If that was something that they want us to put out on the different scanner.

O'BRIEN: How do you get the VIP status on there, Daniel?  I want to...

SIEBERG: That's a good question.

O'BRIEN: ...I'd like to get that VIP on my...

SIEBERG: Yes, absolutely.

O'BRIEN: ...license.  You pay a little extra for the license maybe.


O'BRIEN: This is probably expensive equipment.

SIEBERG: It does range between about $500 and $2,500 for the different scanners.  As I say, this one is from a company called Intellicheck.  We have another device here from Logics.

O'BRIEN: Oh...

SIEBERG: This one is a little bit different, only because it's able to read the magnetic stripe on the machine, rather than the actual bar code.  And we're just going to...

O'BRIEN: Well, and it seems to -- a server or a waitress could actually carry that with him or her.

SIEBERG: Right, this one is a little bit more portable...


SIEBERG: ...as you can see than this one here.  This one is powered by Linux.  And we've got another ID here.  We're just going to swipe it through.

O'BRIEN: Right.

SIEBERG: And if I swipe it through like this, it's telling us that it's a valid ID.


SIEBERG: So that that person can purchase whatever they're after.

O'BRIEN: I see.

SIEBERG: Or get into any place that....

O'BRIEN: It gives you the age and everything just like that.

SIEBERG: As much information as is on the front of the card, that's the idea behind being (UNINTELLIGIBLE) itself.

O'BRIEN: All right, well, I presume, given the costs, and weighing that against the possibility of lawsuits if somebody has served under age, you're going to see this in a lot of establishments soon?

SIEBERG: Potentially, yes.  Besides the fact that these states have adopted all of this encoding technology, which is limiting it being adopted ever.  For example, if you took a low tech license to a high tech state, they couldn't read it because the information just wouldn't be there.  Beyond that, there are concerns that companies may not understand how to use this.  It's meant to be fairly intuitive.  But there's sort of taking a wait and see approach, a lot of these different establishments.

O'BRIEN: And I suppose, of course you're using your drivers' license at the airport a lot these days, there's an application there as well?

SIEBERG: Absolutely.  There are future applications for this airports, for delivery drivers.  At banks, for example, if they're trying to prove who they are.  One of the other overriding concerns in all of this is, of course, privacy.  There are concerns that this information could be stored in some way, used later.  The companies that make these different scanners say there are safeguards in place.  And it also varies by state, whether the state can actually keep the information for later, or whether it can be stored, only for law enforcement purposes.  So there does range by state.  And they do say that there are safeguards in place for...

O'BRIEN: Well, as we look at some of the places where this might be occurring...


O'BRIEN: ..the gray states are where there -- this is possible, because the bar coding, is that correct?

SIEBERG: Exactly.  That's the states that have done this, have used this encoding technology.  We see a couple of other states that have some unique differences.


SIEBERG: Georgia is actually unreadable, the code that's on there is unreadable.  But some of these states that are currently white, right now, are moving into the gray area.  They are actually considering adopting this technology.

O'BRIEN: All right.  And you touched on that issue.  I mean, literally, the state could keep track of your comings and goings.  How often you go to have a beer or whatever?

SIEBERG: Right.  The state potentially could as well as the company where you go.  You know, and that's part of the concern is that they may start marketing things based on events that you're going to.  If you're always going to a jazz concert or something, they might send you more information on that.  So oftentimes, these companies can store the information, but they also leave it up to the businesses in many cases on whether or not they're going to keep it and for how long.

O'BRIEN: All right, big brothers getting bigger, Daniel.

SIEBERG: Yes, that's right.

O'BRIEN: All right.  Daniel Sieberg, our technology guru.  Thank you very much for dropping by.

SIEBERG: Right, thanks, Miles.

O'BRIEN: And scanning us in on this subject matter.

By Christian Mahne in Sydney Imagine being watched from the moment you get behind the wheel.

Every glance is tracked and every blink monitored, with your car warning you before you are going to have an accident.

This is now possible thanks to a system that studies the human face to detect fatigue or distraction and then alerts the driver.

The FaceLab system recently won one of Australia's most prestigious scientific awards, the Eureka prize for innovation in technology.

FaceLab has been developed Seeing Machines, an international team of 20 scientists based at Australian National University in Canberra.

They are experts in human-computer interactivity, face recognition for short.

Fighting fatigue Since 1996 they have been developing FaceLab, a system that tracks and monitors car drivers by cameras mounted on the dashboard.

FaceLab can tell if you are becoming inattentive to the road by working out where you are looking, how many times a second you are blinking and angle of your head.

The first application of the system is in spotting early signs of driver fatigue.

This is a major problem in a country as large as Australia, where it can take 10 hours or more to drive between main cities.

Globally, fatigue is responsible for some 30% of the 700,000 deaths on the world's roads each year.

When you consider that a driver who has been awake for 20 hours has reactions slower than someone over the legal alcohol limit to drive, the consequences of driving tired could not be more serious.

Early warning "We use two cameras that give us an offset from your face which gives us 3D depth information," explained Seeing Machines market developer Gavin Longhurst.

"From that we can actually find out how far away in range you are and from that we can create a 3D model of your head."

Once the computer has that three-dimensional model of the driver it tracks reference points, such as eyes and mouth, using the cameras on the dashboard.

A PC in the car boot interprets the gaze, blink and head angle information coming from the cameras.

If drivers start to display the characteristic early signs of falling asleep, the system can alert them.

At present FaceLab is in the prototype stage.  Every major global car company has bought one of the systems from which to develop their own version.

Cyber cars?

At US$40,000 a go, the prototypes are beyond the pocket of consumers.  But by the time they hit the market in four years' time, costs will fall to around US$200 per unit for technology the size of a cigarette packet.

The first customers are expected to be haulage companies and professional drivers as they are most at risk of driver fatigue.

Over time FaceLab, like the airbag before it, could become an invaluable safety feature in each of the 50 million new cars sold yearly.

The system could also turn into an automotive Big Brother, capable of deciding whether or not you are fit to drive.

FaceLab's creator Alex Zelinsky sees a future where cyber cars make can make the call about whether or not to let their drivers out onto the road.

"A car could detect if there is some abnormality in how the car is being driven or not driven safely," he said.

"So our technology could be used to determine that a person is not checking the instruments in a correct scanning pattern, not looking at the road.

"Sure they could be factors determining that something's not right.  It could be fatigue, it could be some form of impairment caused by alcohol, drugs even."

By then if the inventors have their way, everything from cars to computers will respond to the merest blink of our eye.

NASA plans to read terrorist's minds at airports By Frank J.  Murray THE WASHINGTON TIMES

Airport security screeners may soon try to read the minds of travelers to identify terrorists.
Officials of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have told Northwest Airlines security specialists that the agency is developing brain-monitoring devices in cooperation with a commercial firm, which it did not identify.
Space technology would be adapted to receive and analyze brain-wave and heartbeat patterns, then feed that data into computerized programs "to detect passengers who potentially might pose a threat," according to briefing documents obtained by The Washington Times. NASA wants to use "noninvasive neuro-electric sensors,"
imbedded in gates, to collect tiny electric signals that all brains and hearts transmit.  Computers would apply statistical algorithms to correlate physiologic patterns with computerized data on travel routines, criminal background and credit information from "hundreds to thousands of data sources," NASA documents say.

The notion has raised privacy concerns.  Mihir Kshirsagar of the Electronic Privacy Information Center says such technology would only add to airport-security chaos.  "A lot of people's fear of flying would send those meters off the chart.  Are they going to pull all those people aside?"

The organization obtained documents July 31, the product of a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit against the Transportation Security Administration, and offered the documents to this newspaper.
Mr.  Kshirsagar's organization is concerned about enhancements already being added to the Computer-Aided Passenger Pre-Screening (CAPPS) system.  Data from sensing machines are intended to be added to that mix.
NASA aerospace research manager Herb Schlickenmaier told the Times the test proposal to Northwest Airlines is one of four airline-security projects the agency is developing.  It's too soon to know whether any of it is working, he says.

"There are baby steps for us to walk through before we can make any pronouncements," says Mr.  Schlickenmaier, the Washington official overseeing scientists who briefed Northwest Airlines on the plan.  He likened the proposal to a super lie detector that would also measure pulse rate, body temperature, eye-flicker rate and other biometric aspects sensed remotely.

Though adding mind reading to screening remains theoretical, Mr. Schlickenmaier says, he confirms that NASA has a goal of measuring brain waves and heartbeat rates of airline passengers as they pass screening machines.
This has raised concerns that using noninvasive procedures is merely a first step.  Private researchers say reliable EEG brain waves are usually measurable only by machines whose sensors touch the head, sometimes in a "thinking cap" device.  "To say I can take that cap off and put sensors in a doorjamb, and as the passenger starts walking through [to allow me to say] that they are a threat or not, is at this point a future application," Mr. Schlickenmaier said in an interview.

"Can I build a sensor that can move off of the head and still detect the EEG?" asks Mr. Schlickenmaier, who led NASA's development of airborne wind-shear detectors 20 years ago.  "If I can do that, and I don't know that right now, can I package it and [then] say we can do this, or no we can't?  We are going to look at this question.  Can this be done?  Is the physics possible?"

Two physics professors familiar with brain-wave research, but not associated with NASA, questioned how such testing could be feasible or reliable for mass screening.  "What they're saying they would do has not been done, even wired in," says a national authority on neuro-electric sensing, who asked not to be identified.  He called NASA's goal "pretty far out." Both professors also raised privacy concerns.

"Screening systems must address privacy and 'Big Brother' issues to the extent possible," a NASA briefing paper, presented at a two-day meeting at Northwest Airlines headquarters in St.  Paul, Minn., acknowledges.  Last year, the Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional police efforts to use noninvasive "sense-enhancing technology" that is not in general public use in order to collect data otherwise unobtainable without a warrant.  However, the high court consistently exempts airports and border posts from most Fourth Amendment restrictions on searches.

"We're getting closer to reading minds than you might suppose," says Robert Park, a physics professor at the University of Maryland and spokesman for the American Physical Society.  "It does make me uncomfortable.  That's the limit of privacy invasion.  You can't go further than that."

"We're close to the point where they can tell to an extent what you're thinking about by which part of the brain is activated, which is close to reading your mind.  It would be terribly complicated to try to build a device that would read your mind as you walk by." The idea is plausible, he says, but frightening.

At the Northwest Airlines session conducted Dec.  10-11, nine scientists and managers from NASA Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, Calif., proposed a "pilot test" of the Aviation Security Reporting System.
NASA also requested that the airline turn over all of its computerized passenger data for July, August and September 2001 to incorporate in NASA's "passenger-screening testbed" that uses "threat-assessment software" to analyze such data, biometric facial recognition and "neuro-electric sensing."
Northwest officials would not comment.

Published scientific reports show NASA researcher Alan Pope, at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va., produced a system to alert pilots or astronauts who daydream or "zone out" for as few as five seconds.
The September 11 hijackers helped highlight one weakness of the CAPPS system.  They did dry runs that show whether a specific terrorist is likely to be identified as a threat.  Those pulled out for special checking could be replaced by others who do not raise suspicions.  The September 11 hijackers cleared security under their own names, even though nine of them were pulled aside for extra attention.

British News

July 23, 2002 Little Brother's fingerprints all over the library By David Rowan IT PROMISED to be the high-tech saviour of the embattled primary-school librarian, an ingenious device that guaranteed no more lost library cards and fewer missing books.

All a child had to do to borrow Topsy & Tim for the week was flick a thumb through an unobtrusive fingerprint scanner, so sensitive it could even recognise a pattern from under layers of sticky chocolate.

There was only one snag: in many cases, parents were not told that schools were storing their children’s fingerprints.

Parental outrage followed and, by last night, the school thumb-scanner being used by 1,000 British primary schools was being internationally condemned as a blatant breach of children’s human rights.

The trouble began when the mother of an 11-year-old attending the Sacred Heart Roman Catholic School in Ruislip, West London, discovered that her son had been fingerprinted without her consent.

Furious, the woman, who refused to be named, contacted civil liberties groups such as Privacy International and a child’s advocacy group, Action on Rights for Children in Education (Arch).

Privacy International called for the banning of the library-management software, sold by a Stockport company called Micro Librarian Systems.  “This is unethical and disproportionate,” Simon Davies, Privacy International’s director, said.

The assistant information commissioner Phil Boyd said that there had been no breaches of the Data Protection Act, as the thumbprints were reduced to a numerical code.

US planning to recruit one in 24 Americans as citizen spies

By Ritt Goldstein July 15 2002 The Bush Administration aims to recruit millions of United States citizens as domestic informants in a program likely to alarm civil liberties groups.

The Terrorism Information and Prevention System, or TIPS, means the US will have a higher percentage of citizen informants than the former East Germany through the infamous Stasi secret police.
The program would use a minimum of 4 per cent of Americans to report "suspicious activity".

Civil liberties groups have already warned that, with the passage earlier this year of the Patriot Act, there is potential for abusive, large-scale investigations of US citizens.

As with the Patriot Act, TIPS is being pursued as part of the so-called war against terrorism.  It is a Department of Justice project.

Highlighting the scope of the surveillance network, TIPS volunteers are being recruited primarily from among those whose work provides access to homes, businesses or transport systems.  Letter carriers, utility employees, truck drivers and train conductors are among those named as targeted recruits.

A pilot program, described on the government Web site www.citizencorps.gov, is scheduled to start next month in 10 cities, with 1 million informants participating in the first stage.  Assuming the program is initiated in the 10 largest US cities, that will be 1 million informants for a total population of almost 24 million, or one in 24 people.

Historically, informant systems have been the tools of non-democratic states.  According to a 1992 report by Harvard University's Project on Justice, the accuracy of informant reports is problematic, with some informants having embellished the truth, and others suspected of having fabricated their reports.

Present Justice Department procedures mean that informant reports will enter databases for future reference and/or action.  The information will then be broadly available within the department, related agencies and local police forces.  The targeted individual will remain unaware of the existence of the report and of its contents.

The Patriot Act already provides for a person's home to be searched without that person being informed that a search was ever performed, or of any surveillance devices that were implanted.

At state and local levels the TIPS program will be co-ordinated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, which was given sweeping new powers, including internment, as part of the Reagan Administration's national security initiatives.  Many key figures of the Reagan era are part of the Bush Administration.

The creation of a US "shadow government", operating in secret, was another Reagan national security initiative.

Ritt Goldstein is an investigative journalist and a former leader in the movement for US law enforcement accountability.  He has lived in Sweden since 1997, seeking political asylum there, saying he was the victim of life-threatening assaults in retaliation for his accountability efforts.  His application has been supported by the European Parliament, five of Sweden's seven big political parties, clergy, and Amnesty and other rights groups.

--- Footnote from J.D.  Abolins:

Anybody ever heard of Pavlik Morozov?  (If not see http://www.cyberussr.com/rus/morozov.html for a quick blurb about the fellow.) When I see proposals to mobilize American people into being eyes and ears of the government, I am reminded of Pavilik and his family.

Now I am not against people reporting certain things to the police.  It is the habit of being constantly suspicious of neighbors, co-workers, and others that can become destructive.  Down the line it can lead to suspicions based not on significant clues but upon things such as "fails to display sufficient respect for authority", "laughs whenever the phrase 'homeland security' is used", and "hangs out with anti-social misfits." It is an all too easy slide from neighbors watching out for each and helping the community to becoming agents of the state.

J.D.  Abolins PS: Why is it that the most revealing news reports about the USA are coming nowadays form the UK, Aussie, and other non-USA media?

Applied Digital device links passenger, luggage

By Deborah Circelli, Palm Beach Post Staff Writer Monday, July 8, 2002 PALM BEACH -- Talk about having permanent baggage.

Applied Digital Solutions Inc.  -- that's right, the folks who brought you the implantable VeriChip -- says it has devised a way for airport security to link a person to their luggage through a permanent identification device.

The company says its new technology, called VeriPass and VeriTag, will help people get through security checkpoints faster at airports and provide a foolproof way to ensure that people are who they say they are.

"It can reduce long lines at the airport and make check-ins more accurate,"
said Gary Gray, vice president of wireless and software for VeriChip Corp., a subsidiary of Applied Digital.

The technology calls for a traveler's luggage to have a tag containing a radio frequency identification device molded into it.  When a scanner reads the tag, it signifies that it belongs to the owner who has the VeriChip implant.  The implant would be voluntary, Gray said.

The VeriChip, the size of a grain of rice, will also contain information on the passenger and can be linked to flight manifest logs, and airline or law-enforcement software databases.

The technology will be on display at the Airport Security Expo July 17-18 in Las Vegas.


FBI begins visiting libraries to monitor reading habits of those it suspects of being tied to terrorism Mon Jun 24, 5:42 PM ET By CHRISTOPHER NEWTON, Associated Press Writer WASHINGTON - The FBI ( news - web sites) is visiting libraries nationwide and checking the reading records of people it suspects of having ties to terrorists or plotting an attack, library officials say.

The FBI effort, authorized by the antiterrorism law enacted after the Sept.  11 attacks, is the first broad government check of library records since the 1970s when prosecutors reined in the practice for fear of abuses.

The Justice Department ( news - web sites) and FBI declined to comment Monday, except to note that such searches are now legal under the Patriot Act that President George W.  Bush ( news - web sites) signed last October.

Libraries across the nation were reluctant to discuss their dealings with the FBI.  The same law that makes the searches legal also makes it a criminal offense for librarians to reveal the details or extent.

"Patron information is sacrosanct here.  It's nobody's business what you read," said Kari Hanson, director of the Bridgeview Public Library in suburban Chicago.

Hanson said an FBI agent came seeking information about a person, but her library had no record of the person.  Federal prosecutors allege Global Relief Foundation, an Islamic charity based in the Chicago suburb, has ties to Osama bin Laden ( news - web sites)'s terror network The University of Illinois conducted a survey of 1,020 public libraries in January and February and found that 85 libraries had been asked by federal or local law enforcement officers for information about patrons related to Sept.  11, said Ed Lakner, assistant director of research at the school's Library Research Center.

The libraries that reported FBI contacts were nearly all in large urban areas.

Judith Krug, the American Library Association's director for intellectual freedom, said the FBI was treading on the rights it is supposed to be upholding.

"It's unfortunate because these records and this information can be had with so little reason or explanation," Krug said.  "It's super secret and anyone who wants to talk about what the FBI did at their library faces prosecution.  That has nothing to do with patriotism."

New Technology For Catching Liars

By CHRISTOPHER NEWTON Associated Press Writer June 21, 2002, 2:50 PM EDT WASHINGTON -- The world is becoming a trickier place for people who tell lies -- even little white ones.

From thermal-imaging cameras, designed to read guilty eyes, to brain-wave scanners, which essentially watch a lie in motion, the technology of truth-seeking is leaping forward.

At the same time, more people are finding their words put to the test, especially those who work for the government.

FBI agents, themselves subjected to more polygraphs as a result of the Robert Hanssen spy case, have been administering lie detection tests at Fort Detrick, Md., and Dugway Proving Ground in Utah, bases with stores of anthrax.  Nuclear plant workers also are getting the tests in greater numbers since Sept.  11.

"There has been a reawakening of our interest in being able to determine the truth from each other," said sociologist Barbara Hetnick, who teaches a course on lying at Wooster College.  "As technology advances, we may have to decide whether we want to let a machine decide guilt or innocence."

The new frontiers of lie detection claim to offer greater reliability than the decades-old polygraph, which measures heart and respiratory rates as a person answers questions.

They also pose new privacy problems, moral dilemmas and the possibility that the average person will unwittingly face a test.

At the Mayo Clinic, researchers hope to perfect a heat-sensing camera that could scan people's faces and find subtle changes associated with lying.  In a small study of 20 people, the high-resolution thermal imaging camera detected a faint blushing around the eyes of those who lied.

The technique, still preliminary, could provide a simple and rapid way of scanning people being questioned at airports or border crossings, researchers say.

But would it be legal?

"As long as no one was being arrested or detained solely on the basis of the test, there is no law against scanning someone's face with a device," said Justin Hammerstein, a civil liberties attorney in New York.

"You could use the device to subject someone to greater scrutiny in a physical search or background check, and it would be hard to argue that it is illegal."

Barry Steinhardt of the American Civil Liberties Union said any technology that isn't 100 percent effective could lead unfairly to innocent travelers being stranded at airports.

"You would be introducing chaos into the situation and inevitably focusing on people who are innocent," Steinhardt said.

At the University of Pennsylvania, researcher Daniel Langleben is using a magnetic resonance imaging machine, the device used to detect tumors, to identify parts of the brain that people use when they lie.

"In the brain, you never get something for nothing," Langleben said.  "The process for telling a lie is more complicated than telling the truth, resulting in more neuron activity."

Even for the smoothest-talker, lying is tough work for the brain.

First, the liar must hear the question and process it.  Almost by instinct, a liar will first think of the true answer before devising or speaking an already devised false answer.

All that thinking adds up to a lot of electrical signals shooting back and forth.
Langleben says the extra thought makes some sections of the brain light up like a bulb when viewed with an MRI.

MRI machines are bulky, but their potential as lie detectors could lead to the invention of smaller, more specialized versions, Langleben said.

Other tests are on the market, although how well they perform is an open question.

Hand-held "voice stress" detectors already are being sold for $300 to $600 at some department stores and on the Internet.

Makers claim the devices show when a person's voice trembles under the stress of a lie.  Although skeptics say there is no proof they work, police in Philadelphia, Los Angeles and Miami are using more advanced versions and say they sometimes prompt confessions.

Also, the subject need not be present.  Police can record a suspect's voice and check it for stress later.

Not everyone is sold on it.

"Voices can shake because people are scared about being interrogated by police," said Thomas Jakes, president of People for Civil Rights.  "This technology is nothing but a way to scare people."

Critics say failure on any lie detector test can have unfair consequences, regardless of what the truth may be.

Mark Mallah says he was suspended and put under 24-hour surveillance after failing a routine polygraph test in 1994, when he was an FBI counterintelligence agent.

He was finally cleared and reinstated 19 months later.  He quit.

"They never produced any evidence or came forward with anything, but the polygraph still undermined my career," said Mallah, who practices law in San Francisco.

In the CIA, routine polygraphs led to the suspicion of dozens of agents in the 1980s.  Many were kept in professional limbo for years, according to an FBI report.

"We should try to avoid a society where suspicion is based on a machine and not on evidence," said Dale Jenang, a sociologist and philosophy researcher at the University of California, Berkeley.  "Guilt and innocence are too important to leave to a machine."

New 'T-ray' Space Camera Also Sees Through Clothes, Walls By Robert Roy Britt Senior Science Writer posted: 02:43 pm ET, 13 June 2002

A new British science program aims to produce cameras for use in space that are so sensitive they will see through fog, smoke and even walls and clothing.

The technology will detect an obscure yet ubiquitous form of radiation known as terahertz waves, also called T-rays. Similar cameras are also expected to have applications in airport security and medicine.

One camera, already built by a company called QinetiQ and working in so-called millimetric waves, has demonstrated the ability to eerily peer through clothes and reveal a concealed weapon -- as well as much of a person's body.  The image shows far more detail than an infrared camera, which detects heat.

Terahertz radiation is similar to but more revealing than what the QinetiQ camera detects.  Scientists say T-rays are emitted by pretty much everything.  They come from "the human hand, an envelope, someone with clothes on or a comet," says Geoff McBride, who works on Star Tiger, the British project.  It is supported by the European Space Agency.

In a telephone interview, McBride told SPACE.com that a space-based T-ray imager could be deployed in two years if funding is made available.  The first objective might be to study Earth's atmosphere, he said.

Similar but less sensitive systems are currently used on satellites to measure sea surface temperatures.

"Unlike light, terahertz waves are able to propagate through cloud and smoke, providing a powerful advantage for certain remote-sensing measurements," according to Star Tiger officials.  "From a practical aspect they are also able to pass through windows, paper, clothing and in certain instances even walls."

Eventually, a T-ray imager could be deployed to investigate a comet's tail, McBride said.

Unheralded frequency Low frequency versions of terahertz waves are known as millimeter waves, and they behave much like radio waves, Star Tiger engineers say.  At higher frequencies, the terahertz waves straddle the border between radio and optical emissions.

The technology, for which there is surprisingly little literature, is sometimes referred to as quasi-optics.

T-ray cameras might one day be used to peer under the skin and detect cancer, scientists say.  They could also have security and communications applications.

A February article on the Web site of the journal Nature said terahertz cameras could be "the next big wave" in imaging technology for everything from cells to stars.

Scientists at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in New York claim T-rays will be harnessed to speed computer memory and sharpen flat-panel displays, as well as provide a new imaging technology that could prove valuable for airport security.

"It is quite possible that plastic explosives look very different under terahertz light and could be distinguished from the molecular structure of suitcases, clothing, and common household materials or equipment," says Rensselaer engineer Xi-Cheng Zhang.

The Star Tiger project, meanwhile, would bring leading researchers together in a laboratory where all the equipment and support exist to develop the necessary technology, according to a statement from the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the United Kingdom.

One goal of the program is to prove that complicated problems can be solved in this way.  "This is complemented by the removal of normal everyday distractions to allow the team to concentrate fully on the technical problems," according to the statement.

The project will be discussed by British Science Minister Lord Sainsbury at a ceremony on June 24

Press coverage of implanted chips distorted?

Tech experts warn real threats go unreported by 'mainstream' media Posted: May 10, 2002
12:43 p.m.  Eastern By Sherrie Gossett © 2002 WorldNetDaily.com As "Good Morning America," "Inside Edition," and "The CBS Evening News" televise the much-hyped "chipping" of eight individuals starting today, Lee Tien, the senior staff attorney for the Electronic Frontier Foundation, is speaking out passionately about what many experts believe are serious threats posed by implanting chips in humans – threats he says are not being adequately portrayed by the major media.

Tien has been in high demand as a commentator on the issue.  And the New York City press office of the American Civil Liberties Union, which once called the chip "an outrage" and "unconstitutional," is currently refusing to comment on the chips, referring all inquiries to Tien or David Sobel of the Electronic Privacy Information Center.

Despite the numerous requests for comments, Tien told WND that the media have not effectively communicated his stance on the matter: "I've been used as part of their press campaign – as a token privacy person.  It's really insulting."

When the 'chips were down' ...

As WorldNetDaily reported previously, "Digital Angel," has been described by company communications as an implantable microchip that, once inserted into a human, can be tracked by GPS and the information then relayed wirelessly to the Internet, where an individual's location, movements and vital signs can be stored in a database for future reference.  The chip, along with another non-trackable version (the VeriChip) was developed by the NASDAQ-traded, Palm Beach, Fla., company, Applied Digital Solutions.

ADS tried unsuccessfully to market the implantable tracking chip in 1999 and 2000.  The company hit bumpy ground though, with protests coming from civil liberties advocates, libertarians, electronic freedom activists, radical protest organizations, anarchists and religious groups.

Complicating matters was a failed foray into presidential-year politics.  WND has reported on an unconsummated partnership between ADS and the Clinton-Gore administration, pushed by then-Secretary of Commerce Norman Mineta just days before the presidential election.  The company soon entered a dramatic financial freefall, according to the South Florida Business Journal.
Whereas in 2000 shares were $18, by November of the following year they traded at 53 cents.  In August of 2001, shares hit an all-time low of 16 cents.  The company lost millions and was threatened with delisting by NASDAQ.

Following Sept.  11, however, the company found its golden opportunity to reintroduce the chip, first in its non-tracking form (the VeriChip).  An announcement of "phase two" of the company’s strategy is likely to ride on the heels of today's much-publicized implantation event.

WND reported that ADS stated in its promotional materials and website that the sophisticated Digital Angel tracking chip was intended to be implanted in human beings, tapping into an estimated $100 billion worldwide market.

ADS chairman and CEO Richard J.  Sullivan answered privacy-advocate critics at a private unveiling of the Digital Angel prototype in October 2000, "And let me be very clear on one important point," he said.  "The potential marketplace I'm talking about is for an attachable device … something worn on the outside … close to the skin.  ...  We're not planning on or even considering any other application at this time.  Only external uses!  All of our energy … all of our focus … all of our effort is in this direction.  Period.  Any other approach or suggestion is purely hypothetical speculation at this time."

Sullivan delivered this statement a week after his website had displayed extensive information about development of the chip for human implantation, and after McKinsey & Co.  consultants had prepared a marketing projection for a whopping $70 billion market in the U.S.

Major media 'ignorant' and 'remiss' Tien is speaking out because he believes the media are doing a poor job of reporting the threats that the chip can propose to individual rights, as well as the technical security weaknesses inherent in the Digital Angel technology delivery system.

"The impression I'm getting is that the implantation thing has a 'gee-whiz' factor that the media seems to like," Tien told WND.  "But ever since Sept.  11, reporters have been less aggressive about challenging the privacy implications of the technologies or the practices."

"The media give an obligatory nod to civil liberties and privacy issues," Tien explains, "but the reports lack objective, educated analysis, resulting in them being 'one-sided.' There are few reporters interested in drilling into the real problems."

'Frog in the pot' marketing Tien is especially concerned over involuntary uses of the chip and the company's intentional strategy to "handle" the public and media, so they are gradually accepting of a more dangerous form of the chip – the GPS-tracked "Digital Angel" chip.

CEO Sullivan has suggested that all foreigners entering the U.S.  should be injected with the company’s chips, which he said should replace green cards.  While ADS has repeatedly stated that they are only pursuing voluntary applications of the chips, their proposed uses clearly indicate otherwise.  The stunning array of potential uses ADS is pushing aggressively include the implantation of prisoners, parolees, people under house arrest, children, the elderly, airport workers, nuclear power plant workers, gun owners and computer users (as a form of logon ID).

The company also envisions the implanted chips creating a "cashless society," being used instead of ATM and credit cards.  ADS also wants to control all of the databases for all uses of the chips.

"My take on it," Tien explains, "has always been that the whole idea of forcing people to be tracked against their will is absolutely repugnant."

"They're doing the frog in the water trick – getting the memo out that this is voluntary, making it hard for civil liberty advocates to counter it," Tien explains.  "But no matter what great uses are promised by the company, it is just part of an overall, larger trend – a movement toward the much bigger location tracking development of the chip."

Tien also stresses that once the chip is "colonized"
into the prison system, it will be even harder to prevent involuntary uses from spreading to other areas of society.

"We're very concerned about this habituating of the public.  The idea is, 'Oh well, it's here, so get over it.
It must not be so bad.' But once they get it in limited form, the jump to tracking form is easier for the company.” Security or hype?

Regarding the development of the chips, especially the Digital Angel tracking chip, Tien remarks:
"These people [Applied Digital Solutions] have no idea whatsoever about what real security means.  I spoke to their CTO, Dr.  Keith Bolton.  His response was 'We have this proprietary technology' – a meaningless comment."

Applied Digital Solutions contends it spent $40 million dollars on proprietary mixed-media encryption technology, and that the system security, which relies on Secure Socket Layers (SSL), won't be "spoofed." Digital Angel location information is accessed by "authorized individuals"
by entering a password into an Internet site.  But, according to Tien, the chip delivery system is vulnerable to "spoofing" and fraught with security risks.

"The low-end VeriChip is probably quite significantly insecure, but because of its limited capacity, the actual risk is not great."

However, Tien warns, it would be very different with Digital Angel: "People have the impression that only 'authorized' people will see their personal information.  But all sorts of people will eventually see it."

Compounding the problem, Tien says, are existing vulnerabilities in Microsoft software.  In March of this year, Digital Angel Corporation signed an agreement with Microsoft MapPoint in order to strengthen its worldwide GPS mapping capabilities.

"The threat is not just to the people implanted with it, but also for those people who hang out with them.  They will all be part of a large surveillance system," Tien maintained.

Chilling misuses outlined Raising further technical concerns, Tien asked, "How do you know what information they've put on the chip?  They don't suggest that it's externally programmable, but what if it is now or in the future?"

Tien illustrated his point: "Here I am with this chip.
I've got a connection.  Is it read-only or writable?
And if something is wirelessly written to it, what are they saying?" Referring to the fact that wireless networks and radio frequency data transmission packets are notoriously easy to "hijack," Tien asks,"Who are they saying I am?  How hard is it for someone to send a transmission with information identical to my chip?"

Tien argues that such hacking and "spoofing" of the system could be used, for example, to frame someone by falsely placing their identification chip information into a computer and linking the ID number with a crime scene location.  "It's equivalent to saying, 'Here's your DNA at this crime scene.
Now prove you weren't there,'" said Tien.

Nabbing cyberpunks?

Nathan Cochrane of The Age newspaper in Australia has also researched and explored various potential misuses of the chip.  In an e-mail sent to Declan McCullagh, Washington bureau chief for Wired magazine, Cochrane summed up a potential result of using the implanted tracking chip as a logon identification system, as advocated by ADS:
"Can you imagine a tracking system that could tell when you had swapped songs over Napster, then dobbing you in to the local police, complete with your location accurate to within a few meters?"

The observation parallels similar developments of other electronic identification systems, like electronic toll booth passes, first marketed as a "convenience" item, but later used to issue speeding tickets to drivers who used the technology.

Cyberspace vulnerabilities critical During congressional testimony earlier in the year, United States cybersecurity czar Richard Clarke pointed out that when corporate computer systems are hacked into, it is seldom reported to the government.  This is because after such information is reported, it could then be retrieved by researchers and reporters by using the Freedom of Information Act.  So corporations typically avoid reporting serious security breaches for fear of the financial consequences that diminished consumer trust could bring.

Clarke testified before Congress that there never has been a "secure" Internet product, and that terrorists could have hacked into government systems leaving "back doors" through which they could enter later.  Prior embarrassing security breaches of prominent government websites such as NASA, the Pentagon and the CIA seem to say to privacy advocates, "If the government is struggling to secure its IT systems, just how secure are commercial networks?"

Tien believes that the cyber czar's comments serve to highlight potential areas of concern for those considering allowing companies like ADS to collect and control extremely sensitive information.

Location, location, location Legal questions arise concerning the vacuum of legal protection of location-based electronic information.  As politicians, corporate interests and privacy advocates are still wrestling over issues of who gets to see cell phone location information, the same issues apply to tracking chips.  The question is, who will win access to your movement and location information?  Your wife's divorce attorney?
Your political rival?  News reporters?  Corporate lawyers?  Advertising firms?  Government?  And who would desire to steal your location information records?

Would the monetary and power value of such personal information give rise to a "digital mafia,"
buying and selling your location and movement information for profit?  In a world where there is mass implantation of tracking chips as a form of ID, one can only imagine the value of obtaining where a political rival was on a given night, with whom, at what hotel, and for how long? And in the cashless society advocated by ADS, what did they buy?  The bio-sensor information transmitted and stored by the chips would even tell you how hard their hearts were beating and to what degree their skin temperature rose.

Alternatives to implantation For medical monitoring, implanting devices in the body is just not necessary, Tien contends.  Other companies like "Lifeshirt" of Miami have developed products that monitor vital signs just like ADS chips do, but non-invasively.  And as far as tamper-proof identification goes, Tien argues that the body by itself contains unique identifying characteristics that can be effectively confirmed by biometric technologies.  These characteristics include fingerprints, irises, DNA and facial angles.
As for tracking, Tien points out that using a bracelet in situations where such tracking is unavoidable, is sufficient, and that implantation just isn’t a logical necessity in most civilian situations.

"We don’t like it.  We're very concerned.  And we hope this thing falls apart," Tien

Your Cell Phone Is Watching You Chris Kanaracus, Valley Advocate April 4, 2002 Tracking devices were once a staple of old science fiction and action movies.  One typical scene: The good guy slaps a tracer on the villain's getaway car and follows him -- at a safe distance -- to his lair for the final showdown.  Or a team of leering, white-coated technicians forces a microchip-sized homing device into the hero's brain cavity.

These days, such scenarios aren't so fantastical.  For blanketing the United States are 140 million human-tracking devices: cellular phones.

When you place a cellular phone call, your phone seeks out the nearest receiving tower, which serves a discrete area or "cell." The tower routes the call to its destination.  If you leave the cell area before your call ends, the call is bumped over to the corresponding cell tower, thereby tracking your rough location.

"Rough" is the operative word: While urban centers, which contain many cell towers, can relay your location with some accuracy, those odds go down in rural areas, where towers are fewer and cell service is often spotty.

But in the coming months, the tracking ability of cell phones will grow exponentially -- not just in its power to monitor users, but also in the way it can be used for commercial gain.

Last year, the Federal Communications Commission ordered cellular companies to equip all new cell phones with Global Positioning Satellite tracking devices that can pinpoint a user's location to within 300 feet, anywhere on the planet.  The agency ordered the move at the behest of law enforcement agencies, who have long wished to be able to tell where 911 calls made on cell phones originate.

To a degree, cellular companies have reacted to the FCC's order with distaste.  The GPS chips will add about $20 to the cost of each phone, which are often given away free with cellular service plans.

But the companies are also rubbing their hands with glee at the potential profits.  As regular Internet users know, marketers believe there's money to be made from information about people's daily activities and habits.  Log on to a typical website, and it may plant a "cookie" -- a piece of code that identifies users -- on your hard drive.  With that information, websites can track your surfing habits and tailor the content of advertisements accordingly.

Cell phone companies are aware of the potential backlash from consumers; a Verizon Wireless spokesperson told the technology news website CNET.com that it currently has no plans to release information about customers' day-to-day whereabouts to commercial third parties.  Still, none of the cell companies are saying they won't try to use the information for their own purposes.

One way cell companies could profit is by selling advertising that would be displayed on cell phone screens.  In the near future, your cell phone could turn into a miniature billboard, alerting you, for example, to nearby restaurants at lunchtime or to sales at the local mall.

This won't happen overnight.  Cellular companies have lobbied for and received a temporary stay from the FCC's order to install the GPS chips, although that reprieve is set to expire later this year.  The FCC ruling also allows companies to ease into compliance, giving them until 2005 to make all cell phones GPS-equipped.

But in the meantime, you're not safe from cell-phone marketing: Some companies, such as marketers PangoNetworks, are already making use of today's more limited location tracking technology.

Pango sets up zones called "hot spots" within businesses or shopping malls.
Hidden sensors can detect your phone or Palm Pilot, upon which the system hums into life, sending ads for merchandise you might be standing near and compiling data about your shopping habits: What stores have you visited?
Did you linger near the wrinkle-free khakis or by the animatronic Hello Kitty display?  Boxers or briefs?

On its corporate website, Pango says users who don't want to receive these messages will be able to program their phones to remain undetectable by the system.

Of course, at the rate things are going, true anonymity may soon be a thing of the past.

In fact, there's only one foolproof way to beat the system: Turn off your phone.  But how likely is that to happen?

Chris Kanaracus can be reached at ckanaracus@newmassmedia.com.

"North Dakota Flight School to Install Fingerprint-Scanning System" Minneapolis Star Tribune (01/21/02); Haga, Chuck

The Federal Aviation Administration is monitoring the fingerprint-scanning security system at the University of North Dakota's (UND) flight school to see if the system might work in other applications.  Airports also could eventually use such biometrics systems to manage access to baggage, fueling, and other areas, in place of identification cards.  Biometrics involves scanning fingerprints or eye or facial structures through a computer in order to authorize a person at a security checkpoint.  The program at the university's school has garnered much attention since the terrorist attacks on the United States.
It will begin scanning student and instructor fingerprints in coming weeks and should be ready to work within the semester.  The system's creator, VeriFly, hopes to use the UND program to market its products to other groups. (www.startribune.com)

"Shine and Punishment" Portland Press Herald (ME) (01/16/02) P.  1B; Hoey, Dennis

Maine has a new state prison that features state-of-the-art technology.  The $76 million facility has high-tech features such as touch-sensitive fences and computer-operated doors.
The compound is surrounded by a rim of three fences; the first fence features a pressure-sensitive taut-wire that emits an electronic signal when touched, signaling a breach to guards.  Inmate activities in every part of the complex of seven buildings, covering nearly 500,000 square feet of space, will be monitored by video surveillance cameras.  In addition, much of the glass at the prison will be shatterproof and bulletproof.  Each cell will have a glass window, which will give inmates a view of the outside world.
Flooding the prison with natural light is an attempt to give the facility a sense of humanity.  Other features of the prison, set to house inmates next month, include day rooms for cell blocks; a salad bar in the dining area; a warehouse that resembles a factory; a full-sized gym and basketball court; weight room; chapel; law library; computer lab; canteen; barber shop; and music room.  (www.portland.com)

"Security Vs.  Privacy" InformationWeek (01/14/02) No.  871, P.  22; Rendleman, John; Swanson, Sandra; Maselli, Jennifer

The American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators this week is expected to introduce a proposal to issue drivers' licenses with biometric identifiers.  However, the plan faces considerable privacy and technical hurdles, especially with similar proposals of a national ID card leaving a sour taste in the mouths of privacy proponents.
The databases would be open to DMVs in different states, federal agencies, law-enforcement officials, and even businesses, and privacy advocates argue that such a situation leaves confidential information vulnerable to abuse.  "We don't see a very great distinction between a national ID card and a coalition of 50 states [issuing] drivers' licenses," says Lee Tien of the Electronic Frontier Foundation.  "To the extent that the databases are highly integrated, there may be even more of a risk from human error or human malfeasance." The integration effort itself would also be a challenge, one that requires state records to be modernized and many state and federal systems to be connected.  Convincing naysayers that the system is important and secure will be key to making the biometric driver's license proposal viable.  (www.informationweek.com)

"Recognizing the Enemy" Technology Review (12/01); Stikeman, Alexandra

 Face recognition technology is already being used in several places around the country; in order to work completely, the system would have to be linked to databases via the Internet.  Massachusetts' Viisage Technology and New Jersey-based Visionics both have systems able to do just that, and according to officials, the setup is relatively simple.  However, a continuing problem in using such systems is connecting the systems to and receiving cooperation from a multiple number of federal and local authorities.  Airport security would gain the most benefits from the technology, but another problem arises, specifically collecting the images of individuals sought by law enforcement agencies.(www.techreview.com)

"Customs Officers Given More Powers" Montreal Gazette (01/09/02) P.  A4; Beaudin, Monique

Quebec's three most congested border crossings will now be staffed by customs officers armed with pepper spray and billy clubs and a new authority under which they can arrest and detain suspicious individuals.  Other security and detection equipment to be used at the Saint-Bernard-de-Lacolle, Saint-Armand-de-Philipsburg, and the Stanstead crossings will include breathalyzer-like machines for detecting alcohol on a person's breath--narrowing the gap between when the person arrives in Canada and when the officers can stop them, according to one customs agent.  The lobbying for more official authority for border patrols has been three years in the making, but negotiations have taken this long between police officers and customs officials.  Until now, customs officers had no authority to stop a drunk driver from entering into Canada, but one problem remains; since the powers are only installed at three crossings, the other 144 portals will remain penetrable by all sorts of suspicious individuals.  Serge Charette, president of the Customs Excise Union Douanes Accise, notes that although they are happy with the new authorities given them, because they are not in place at all crossings, drunk drivers and other suspicious drivers are already "port shopping"-- going out of their way to cross at the borders where they know the customs officials do not have the authority yet to enforce arrests or detainments of any kind.  (www.canada.com/montreal)

"Printrak to Provide Royal Canadian Mounted Police With Regional Automated Fingerprint Identification Access System" PRNewswire (01/10/02)

Motorola subsidiary Printrak has agreed to supply the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) with its Regional Automated Fingerprint Identification Access System (RAFIAS).  The system will enable police access from anywhere in Canada to a national database containing 3.3 million fingerprint records.  The initial system, which contains four RAFIAS pilot sites, is scheduled for installation this year.  The RCMP will have the option to acquire 171 additional workstations later after launching the original 26 RAFIAS workstations.  The technology, which is based on Printrak's automated fingerprint identification system research, will replace the RCMP's current Photo Phone system.  RAFIAS will allow RCMPs to capture, enhance, and input tenprint and latent fingerprints into the database.  The RCMP's policing authority extends through all of Canada, including 192 First Nations communities.  (www.prnewswire.com)

"California Wiretapping Bill Dealt Legal Setback" SiliconValley.com (01/15/02); Levey, Noam

A scaled-down version of Gov.  Gray Davis' (D-Calif.) bill to expand wiretapping powers of state and local law enforcement officials was offered, after changes were made to quiet complaints from the legislative counsel that the original proposal might violate federal law.  The counsel sent a letter to Assemblyman Carl Washington (D-Compton) noting that states do not have the same authority as the federal government to use roving wiretaps on phones used by suspected criminals.  Washington said he would jettison this provision, as well as eliminate a measure to increase email surveillance of suspects.  Both civil liberties groups and state legislators have opposed the California bill, which they fear would trample privacy rights and broaden the authority of law enforcement agencies that have been known to abuse wiretapping powers.  Meanwhile, Washington is promising to introduce a bill that would expand electronic communications surveillance.  However, Assemblyman Fred Keeley (D-Santa Cruz) and others are worried that the proposal lacks privacy protections.  (www.siliconvalley.com)

"All 50 States Agree to Upgrade Driver's Licenses" Boston Globe Online (01/14/02); Kerber, Ross

Officials in all 50 states are seeking about $70 million in federal funds to upgrade their driver's license systems to link them to law enforcement databases, and to have fingerprints or digital photographs included on driver's licenses to create national identity cards.  About 200 million Americans carry a driver's license, but states do not all have the same regulations governing license issuance; Vermont, for instance, does not even require a photo for licenses.  A state administrator's group has established a task force to develop a system the links all state databases and makes a majority of the regulations uniform.  The task force is considering the use of bar codes and magnetic strips that could be scanned in any jurisdiction.  Also at issue is the training of license issuers to detect fraudulent documents that could be used to obtain a valid license or identification card. (www.boston.com/globe)

"The Little Label with an Explosion of Applications" Financial Times (01/15/02) P.  8; Cole, George

Smart tags are used to track the positions or presence of their wearers with radio waves, and the technology is being applied to many markets.  Xerox uses smart tags to keep tabs on photocopiers shipped to Europe, while some Japanese factories tag workers' shoes so they can pass through automatic doors.  Meanwhile, pharmacists are using smart labels placed on medicine bottles that enable a special reader to vocalize information such as a patient's name and general instructions, a significant help to vision-impaired and elderly patients.  In a year, smart tag chips embedded in banknotes will start being mass produced.  Other potential applications of the technology include automatic toll payment systems in cars.  Sokymat is one of the largest smart tag technology manufacturers in the world, and Sokymat UK director Marie Glotz says the company is making products for cans and labels, automotive applications, industrial applications, and food and animals.  One of the more unusual projects in this last category involves microchip-tagged bees that the U.S.  Army uses to detect landmines.  Glotz believes smart tags could supplant barcodes because "they don't have to be in sight of the reader; they don't become scratched and unusable; and they can be reused."(www.ft.com)

"Visionics IBIS Mobile Identification System Delivers Stellar Performance in Ontario Police Department"
Business Wire (01/14/02)

Visionics IBIS Mobile Identification System was fully implemented at the Ontario, Calif., Police Department in October 2001, and in just the first two months of operation, the system completed 490 transactions and identified 15 people with outstanding warrants with an average response time of 2.5 minutes, according to the Visionics performance update.  The IBIS system works by allowing officers to use a Remote Data Terminal, a hand-held portable device, to collect photographs, fingerprint images, and magnetic stripe data and send the information to a laptop in the squad car without wires.  The information is then transmitted via cellular communications or radio to a central IBIS server, where it is scanned, and either alerts the officer of a problem or discards the information.  The system, which provides real-time information to mobile officers, has made the Ontario Police Department more efficient and could work with airport security, border control, sporting events, and other mobile scenarios, says Visionics chairman and CEO Joseph Atick.  (www.businesswire.com)

"Facing the Future of Recognition Software" Police and Security News (12/01) Vol.  17, No.  6, P.  71; Sharp, Arthur G.

Since Sept.  11, Facial Recognition Software (FRS) has been touted by some as a way to fight terrorism, as well as a useful tool in easing the workloads of law enforcement agencies (LEAs).  FRS systems use computer-scanned pictures to match those stored on a database, typically driver's license and mug shot photos of criminals or those with previous agency contact; the system closely examines the underlying facial structure, so disguises are not a hindrance.  Photo availability is not an issue as 2,000,000 surveillance cameras are in use nationwide in many airports, casinos, intersections, and government offices, among other places.  In fact, Joseph Atick, chief executive of Visionics Corp., says FRS might have stopped the Sept.  11 terrorist attacks if officials were able to match the hijackers' faces with available mug shots.  However, one of the drawbacks of FRS is that the photos need to be clear in order to produce the best results, and most photos of terrorists or criminals are not.  FRS opponents believe that such systems violate privacy, while others question whether reducing crime takes precedence over individual rights.  LEAs agencies are presently concerned more with acquiring and implementing the integrated FRS systems, but the potential for networking among departments exists; currently, four departments in West Covina, Calif., are networked with plans to add several more in the near future.  However, a major setback for FRS, according to opponents, is the 10 percent to 20 percent failure rate--meaning the systems have failed to identify or incorrectly identified suspects--though 80 percent to 90 percent accuracy is enough for most proponents to advocate implementation.

"Putting Parolees on a Tighter Leash" New York Times (01/31/02) P.  G1; Lee, Jennifer 8.

Florida-based Pro Tech Monitoring, the leader in surveillance technology using the Global Positioning System (GPS), produces a tracking and monitoring device that allows municipalities to keep better track of parolees than traditional systems.  Parolees wear an electronic ankle bracelet that transmits a signal to a four-pound electronic box that the offenders must carry with them at all times.
The box makes a cell phone call to a central computer every 10 minutes, transmitting the offender's geographic location via the GPS.  Not only does the GPS provide constant and precise monitoring, but it can send an alert to authorities if the offender enters a designated "hot zone," such as a school or victim's home; if the offender does not arrive on time at home; strays more than 100 feet away from the box; or tampers with the bracelet.  Katherine Johnson, a criminologist at the University of West Florida, says satellite monitoring has turned out to be a good behavior-modification tool during the tracking period.
According to Jim Sommerkamp, a senior probation supervisor in Hillsborough County, Fla., only 40 percent of offenders under satellite surveillance violate parole or probation, compared to 70 percent of all offenders on parole.  However, state and local authorities have not adopted the system quickly, as it costs twice as much as traditional electronic monitoring, and the GPS satellite signals are usually blocked inside buildings, urban areas with tall buildings, and rural areas with inadequate cell phone infrastructure.

"Airport Checks Get Personal"

St.  Petersburg Times (FL) (02/02/02) P.  1A Aviation and technology groups are looking to conduct trials soon of expansive new air security systems, which could aggregate personal information about travelers and would connect company reservation systems with private and government systems.  The programs would apply data-mining and predictive functions to pinpoint behavior indicating a potential threat, assign each passenger a threat index score, and alert authorities when more extensive checks are necessary.  Supporters of such a system advocate its potential efficiency and unobtrusiveness, and companies working on such systems insist they plan to protect personal information from airlines and security personnel.  Critics suggest the system would violate privacy, could serve as a basis for a large surveillance infrastructure that would further threaten privacy rights, and might tempt law enforcement officers into applying it to locate people for other reasons.  The technologies necessary to create such a system are in existence today, but various factors would delay the application of the system, including the fact that the Transportation Security Administration would have to establish guidelines and arrange for funding, and certain privacy protections of both the Fair Credit Reporting Act and Driver's Privacy Protection Act might have to be eliminated for the system to work.  HNC Software and Accenture are each leading a development effort, with the help of other companies, on systems that would establish normal activity patterns and note deviations, perhaps eventually using biometric technology.  (www.sptimes.com)

"Smart Fence Sounds Alarm for Intruders" Toronto Star (02/04/02) P.  E7; Lewerenz, Dan

Researchers have developed a "smart fence" that trips an alarm when vibrations are detected.  Developer David Swanson, a senior researcher at Penn State's Applied Research Laboratory, says the inspiration for the fence came from a spider web.  Because a chain-link fence vibrates once touched, researchers sought to convert it into a breach detector using acoustic technology.  Swanson said the sensors could be programmed to transmit sound through speakers to alert security; a more sophisticated application would have the computer analyze the volume and noise frequency to determine the size of the intruder, then track the time it takes for sound to travel to pinpoint where the fence was being breached.  (www.thestar.com)

"Long-Distance Robots" Scientific American (12/01) Vol.  785, No.  6, P.  94; Alpert, Mark

Telepresence could make up for some of the shortcomings of videoconferencing, such as the difficulty of understanding what participants are saying and the lack of equipment mobility.  The technology makes use of robots equipped with a video camera, a microphone, a wireless transmitter for sending signals to an Internet connection, artificial-intelligence software, and sensors.  Telepresence robots allow users to go online, from their remote location, and see what the robot sees and hears.  Users also can use a mouse to control the movements of the telepresence robot.
IRobot is active in this area and plans to sell telepresence robots for both business and home use.  There are some concerns that people will have a hard time embracing telepresence robots because they are likely to see them more as camera-wielding intruders.  However, telepresence robots may offer benefits that are so great, such as safe alternatives for seniors who do not want to live in nursing homes, that people may come to accept them.  So far, reconnaissance in dangerous environments, such as the World Trade Center site, appears to be the best demonstration of the value of telepresence robots, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency has decided to fund an iRobot telepresence robot that specializes in reconnaissance and surveillance.  (www.sciam.com)

SCAN THIS NEWS 1.03.2002

Recently, I sent out a copy of an official notice from the new Homeland Defense Agency requesting proposals from contractors for the development and production of new technologies to be used ostensibly in counter terrorism measures.  I personally thought the document was a "bomb shell" in its own right and might cause quite a stir.  Whereas, I had not seen anyone report on this anywhere else, and had I only happened upon the Request For Proposal (RFP) whilst doing research on another topic, I was curious whether others would also find it alarming.  Perhaps people have become numbed to such pronouncements.

My first reaction was to draw parallels between this latest US government solicitation and the 1998 report prepared by the European Parliament entitled "An Appraisal of the Technologies of Political Control".  It seemed clear to me that the US government, Homeland Defense Agency is openly moving -- almost point-for-point -- towards adoption of the techniques and measures of totalitarian political control warned about in the European Parliament document.

Perhaps I'm just over-reacting.  I don't know, you decide.

I have copied below a few select excerpts from the "Political Control" document, and once again, below that I have included the Homeland Defense Agency's request for proposals.

--- AN APPRAISAL OF THE TECHNOLOGIES OF POLITICAL CONTROL An Omega Foundation Summary & Options Report For The European Parliament SEPTEMBER 1998 http://www.icdc.com/~paulwolf/eu_stoa_2.htm [Another link to same document:] http://www.uhuh.com/laws/europar3.htm "The resultant innovations in the technology of political control have been functionally designed to yield an extension of the scope, efficiency and growth of policing power.  The extent to which this process can be judged to be a legitimate one depends both on one's point of view and the level of secrecy and accountability built into the overall procurement and deployment procedures.  The full implications of such developments may take time to assess.  It is argued that one impact of this process is the militarisation of the police and the para-militarisation of the army as their roles, equipment and procedures begin to overlap.  This phenomena is seen as having far reaching consequences on the way that future episodes of sub-state violence is handled, and influencing whether those involved are reconciled, managed, repressed, 'lost' or efficiently destroyed.

"What is emerging in certain quarters is a chilling picture of ongoing innovation in the science and technology of social and political control, including: semi-intelligent zone-denial systems using neural networks which can identify and potentially punish unsanctioned behaviour; the advent of global telecommunications surveillance systems using voice recognition and other biometric techniques to facilitate human tracking; data-veillance systems which can match computer held data to visual recognition systems or identify friendship maps simply by analysing the telephone and email links between who calls whom; new sub-lethal incapacitating weapons used both for prison and riot control as well as in sub-state conflict operations other than war; new target acquisition aids, lethal weapons and expanding dum-dum like ammunition which although banned by the Geneva conventions for use against other state's soldiers, is finding increasing popularity amongst SWAT and special forces teams; discreet order vehicles designed to look like ambulances on prime time television but which can deploy a formidable array of weaponry to provide a show of force in countries like Indonesia or Turkey, or spray harassing chemicals or dye onto protestors.  Such marking appears to be kid-glove lin its restraint but tags all protestors so that the snatch squads can arrest them later, out of the prying lenses of CNN."

-[snip]- "New surveillance technology can exert a powerful 'chill effect' on those who might wish to take a dissenting view and few will risk exercising their right to democratic protest if the cost is punitive riot policing with equipment which may lead to permanent injury or loss of life."

-[snip]- "The overall drift of this technology is to increase the power and reliability of the policing process, either enhancing the individual power of police operatives, replacing personnel with less expensive machines to monitor activity or to automate certain police monitoring, detection and communication facilities completely.  A massive Police Industrial Complex has been spawned to service the needs of police, paramilitary and security forces, evidenced by the number of companies now active in the market.  An overall trend is towards globalisation of these technologies and a drift to increasing proliferation, without much regard to local conditions.

"One core trend has been towards a militarisation of the police and a paramilitarisation of military forces in Europe.  Often this begins via special units involved in crisis policing, such as the Special Weapons and Tactics Squads such as the Grenz Schutz Gruppe in Germany; the Gendarmeries National in France; the Carabinieri in Italy; and the Special Patrol Group in the UK or the federal police paramilitary teams in the United States (FBI, DEA & BATF) that adopt the same weaponry as their military counterparts.  Then a growing percentage of ordinary police are trained in public order duties and tactics which incorporate some element of firearms training.  The tactical training is often a mirror image of the low intensity counter-revolutionary warfare tactics adopted by the military."

3.1 Area Denial replaces personnel guarding either areas or perimeters.  It has involved deploying technology which can either create punishment when its limits are infringed or systems with built in intelligence which can both locate the point of infringement and activate a corrective response.

3.2 Surveillance Technologies are one of the fastest growing areas of the technology of political control and a key problem is how to deal with the torrent of information it yields The term covers a vast range of products and devices but the overall trend is towards miniaturization, more precise resolution through the adoption of digital technology and increasing automation so that the technology can be more effectively targeted.

*Automatic fingerprint readers
*Human identity recognition system
*Face recognition systems
*Night vision technology
*Neural network bugs
*Passive Millimeter Wave Imaging
3.3 Data-veillance - The use of telematics by the police has revolutionised policing in the last decade and created the shift towards pre-emptive policing.

------------------------------------- Government Issues Broad Agency Announcements on Homeland Defense and Security http://www.itsa.org/itsnews.nsf/key/686A?OpenDocument USD (AT&L)/TSWG 02-Q-4655 BAA PACKAGE UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR ACQUISITION, TECHNOLOGY AND LOGISTICS (USD (AT&L))
02-Q-4655 Due Date for Receipt of Phase I Submittals:
No Later Than 23 December 2001 A pdf version of the DoD's BAA may be downloaded at:
https://www.bids.tswg.gov/tswg/bids.nsf/DownloadBAAs/02-Q-4655/$FILE/ATL+BAA +Package2.pdf

This is the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics (USD (AT&L)) and Combating Terrorism Technology Support Office (CTTSO) Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) Broad Agency Announcement (BAA), 02-Q-4655, issued under the provisions of paragraph 6.102(d)(2)(i) of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), to provide for the competitive selection of research proposals.

4.1.  Objective.  USD (AT&L) and CTTSO are issuing this joint BAA to identify capabilities that can be developed in approximately 12-18 months.  USD (AT&L) is responsible for research and development in the Department of Defense. CTTSO executes the TSWG program that conducts rapid prototype development focused on critical multi-agency and future threat counter/anti-terrorism requirements in support of the USD (AT&L).  The primary TSWG mission is to conduct the National Interagency Research and Development (R&D) Program for combating terrorism through rapid research, development, and prototyping.

USD (AT&L) and CTTSO are interested in soliciting proposals in the following areas combating terrorism, location and defeat of hard or difficult targets, protracted operations in remote areas, and countermeasures to weapons of mass destruction.  The intent of this BAA is to identify technologies and approaches that provide near-term solutions (12-18 months).

R-100 Combating Terrorism This topic area includes but is not limited to finding suspected terrorists, predicting the future behavior of terrorists, finding weapons and support equipment that could be used by terrorists, detection and warning of terrorist activities, rapidly configuring protection and defensive measures against terrorist action and recovery from terrorist actions.

R-101 Automated Speaker Recognition System Incorporate Pashtu, Urdu, Farsi, Arabic dialects, and other minor Middle Eastern and central/south Asian languages into an existing Automated Speaker Recognition System.  Integrate advanced language recognition and change detection algorithms to detect changes and identify language within speech data containing multiple languages, short segments (10 - 30 seconds) and over degraded channels.
Develop corpus collection/database to support this project.  Incorporate open system architecture to permit client-server use by selected intelligence and counterintelligence agencies.

R-102 Computer and Information Operations
Develop a family of tools for the detection, extraction, storage, transmission, scanning, and forensic analysis of computer media, PDAs, and digital audiovisual imagery.  Emphasis will be on tools for high performance analysis (forensic intrusion, data, media, network and hierarchical visual information), decryption, steganography, and forensic knowledge based application.

R-103 Tagging, Tracking, Locating and Remote Sensors
Develop tags/sensors that allow remote monitoring of real/near real-time movement of forces and resources.  Both line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight methods are acceptable. Methods may be either passive or active.  This includes monitoring of civilian as well as military targets.  Networked autonomous systems that provide a fused picture of the environment and movements are desireable.

R-104 Locating Faces in Video Images
Develop improved algorithms for identifying that a 2-D video image or sequence of images contains one or more human faces, locating those faces precisely in the image(s) and counting the number of different faces.  We are primarily interested in “natural environments” with unconstrained lighting and pose angle, where image resolution exceeds 50-pixel interocular distance.  Integration with emerging U.S.  government test datasets will be required.

R-105 Identifying Faces in Video Images
Develop improved algorithms for identifying faces from video sequences under unconstrained lighting and.USD (AT&L)/TSWG 02-Q-4655 BAA PACKAGE pose conditions.  Of particular interest is the refinement of basis sets for image-based approaches, creation of model-based methods using 2-D input with potential for “real time” applications, and study of decision optimization with multiple, highly correlated images.  Demonstration of algorithms using emerging U.S. government test datasets will be required.

R-106 Video Human Tracking
Develop a system for tracking a single person through multiple sequential 2-D video images or through multiple cameras in uncontrolled lighting environments.

R-107 Voice Print Identification Develop a system to use voice prints to locate, track, and correlate suspected terrorists and their associates.
Develop the technology to identify specific foreign language speakers based on a short sample of voice data collected from intelligence, law enforcement or media sources.  Technology must interface with collection databases of voice samples and provide a mechanism for the distribution and use of resultant “speaker id” products.  The identification technology should incorporate current state of the art and provide linkage to emerging developing technologies from academia, industry and government labs.  System should have the ability to automatically establish and track correlations and build the identification objects, while also providing a robust suite of voice analyst assistant tools for parsing and analyzing the speech data.
Develop the ability to handle multiple channel effects and noise degradation from degraded or low quality channels.

R-108 Terrorist Behavior and Actions Predictions Technology
Develop an integrated information base and a family of data mining tools and analysis aids to assist the analyst and the identification of patterns, trends and models of behavior of terrorist groups and individuals.  This would include information fusion of diverse intelligence, law enforcement and cultural data into a common form assessable to state of the art data mining and analytic tools.  Included would be visualization and display tools for understanding the relationships between persons, events and patterns of behaviors.  The system would allow “what if ” type modeling of events and behavioral patterns and result in predictive analysis products with specific elements of information to confirm or deny the hypothesis of the various models.  The resulting predictions and hypothesis models should form the basis of a planning and “course of action” tool for US/Allied actions in confirming predictions or disrupting behaviors.

R-109 Information Integration Center
Develop the ability to readily store, catalogue and correlate data that will be identified in the course of an investigation and analysis of suspected terrorist activity.

R-110 Physical Security
This topic area covers research and development projects that satisfy requirements for physical security support to protect personnel, equipment and facilities against terrorist activity.  This includes development of equipment and systems to safeguard personnel, prevent or delay unauthorized access to facilities and installations, and to protect against terrorist threats and sabotage.  It further includes methods of mitigating the effects of blast on structures.

R-111 Ports of Entry Passenger Screening Aid
Develop a deception detection device for use with counterterrorism based structured interviews for passengers of the various modes of transportation.  The system should apply known relationships between electrodermal activity and the detection of deception in a polygraph to a portable device.  Consideration will be given to alternate approaches and sensors.  Emphasis should be placed on processing time.

"Digital Images Will Verify Identity of Visitors to U.S." Los Angeles Times (01/02/02) P.  A1; Peterson, Jonathan

The State Department will soon begin sending digital images of foreign travelers, taken during the visa application process, to American ports of entry, so that border officials can verify the identities of these individuals in real time.  Also under consideration by Congress is a proposal to place biometric identifiers, such as fingerprints or iris scans, on visas of those wishing to travel to the United States, as well as on the passports of 29 nations.  Those countries, including Japan and much of Western Europe, will have to create new passports to meet U.S.  requirements if the proposal is authorized, under threat of removal from the visa-waiver program.

"DNA Testing for Inmates" USA Today (12/27/01) P.  10A

DNA evidence exonerated Albert DeSalvo last month from a series of brutal slayings.  DeSalvo was believed to be the notorious Boston Strangler, who raped and murdered 11 women within an 18-month period, after confessing to the crimes. However, DeSalvo, already a convicted rapist, was murdered in prison before charges could be filed.  Investigators discovered his DNA did not match DNA samples taken from the strangler's last victim after exhuming the body.  DNA testing has led to the exoneration of more than 90 convicted criminals, including nine on death row, since it began in the mid-1980s, and has solved crimes in California, Florida, Washington, and Wisconsin.  Despite these benefits, the Department of Justice terminated plans to test prisoners who were convicted before inception of the technology.  Arizona, Oklahoma, and Tennessee only allow DNA testing in cases involving the death penalty or life-in-prison.

"Fresno Airport Is First in the Nation to Use Face-Scan Technology" Contra Costa Times (12/27/01)

California's Fresno-Yosemite International is the first airport in the United States to use face-recognition technology to scan passengers, under a pilot program authorized by the Federal Aviation Administration.  After walking through metal detectors, passengers are instructed to look into the lens of a digital camera.  After their photo is taken, the image is compared to a database of 800 suspected terrorists, determining whether there is a match within seconds.  The software compares 26 facial features, and then comes up with a score, 10.0 being perfect, and 8.0 being high enough to warrant closer inspections by security personnel.  Critics of the technology say it is not effective, giving too many false-positives and false-negatives.  They also point out to the fact that none of the 19 hijackers involved in the Sept.  11 terrorist attacks would have been detected by the machine, since none were known to U.S.  authorities.  (www.contracosta.com)

"Watchful Wonders; Supercircuits' Tiny Technology Catches Thieves in the Act" Austin American-Statesman (12/26/01) P.  D1; Mahoney, Jerry

Texas-based Supercircuits generated about $20 million in revenues in 2001 by providing security and surveillance systems for law enforcement agencies, retailers, and companies.  Though its biggest seller is a four-camera system that is mounted on a ceiling, which includes a monitor and processor that allows recording capabilities for everything the camera sees, it is best known for setting records in the 2002 Guinness Book of Records for a color video camera no bigger than a sugar cube, and a video transmitter the size of a thumb.  The firm also makes the world's most diminutive wireless video system.  (www.austin360.com/aas)

"Thermal Imaging Tested as Airport Security Tool" Washington Times (01/03/02) P.  A4

A high-resolution thermal-imaging camera trained on an individual's face to detect signs of blushing associated with lying may in the future be installed at airports and border checkpoints as part of America's war on terrorism.  A recent Mayo Clinic study took 20 Army recruits and assigned eight of them to stab a mannequin and take $20 from it.  The subjects were then asked about their "crimes," told to deny them, and filmed with the camera.  Six of the eight mock criminals were uncovered, while 11 of the 12 innocents were found to be telling the truth.  Critics of the experiment say that not nearly enough persons were used to validate the technology's performance, and furthermore, that the camera only detected signs of anxiety, much like a polygraph test, and may not be a true indicator of when someone is lying. www.washtimes.com)

"Probation Officers Using Computer Software to Monitor Sex Offenders" Associated Press (01/06/02);

O'Connor, John Don Spurlin, a Sangamon County, Ill., probation officer, proposed that Sugar Grove's Security Software Systems use its Cyber Sentinel software not only to protect children from sexual predators, but also to shield predators from their own impulses.  In turn, the company tested the software, and it worked so well that Sangamon County now plans to require the software for offenders in the future.

So far, four county sex offenders feature Cyber Sentinel on their computers and if they go to a prohibited site, use sexually explicit language, or employ phrases common to online predators, they will receive an email informing them they may have violated their probation.  Similar technologies are being used across the country, but some authorities insist that the new solutions do not replace human contact between law enforcement officials and individuals on probation.  (www.ap.org)

"Study Begins for New Driver's Licenses" Associated Press (01/08/02); Bridis, Ted

Instead of national identity cards being distributed to U.S. citizens, Congress is strongly urging the U.S.  Department of Transportation to work with state motor vehicle agencies in developing uniform methods for storing and verifying data on licenses.  Using bar codes or biometric technology, any state would be able to check the identities of drivers, perhaps preventing terrorists and criminals from using false identification.  Currently, 37 states store electronic information on driver's licenses, but only a few use biometrics, such as fingerprints or retinal scans.  Georgia uses digital thumbprints.  Privacy advocates are worried that using licenses in such a manner will open up the possibility of severe privacy abuses by the government.  (www.ap.org)

"Davis Seeks to Expand Wiretap Powers" Los Angeles Times (01/08/02) P.  A1; Morain, Dan

When Gov.  Gray Davis (D-Calif.) delivers his State of the State speech tonight, he is expected to propose legislation to increase phone and email surveillance on Californians. The proposal would expand the powers of state and local police to implement court-authorized roving wiretaps that enable them to monitor any phone used by suspected criminals, as well as tap into email and Internet sites.  The measure is similar to the Patriot Act signed into law by President Bush last October; like that law, its primary goal is defense against terrorism.  "[Davis] wants to see California law enforcement modernized in their techniques in investigating terrorists," says George Vinson, the governor's security advisor.  ACLU lobbyist Francisco Lobaco is opposed to Davis' plan, which he claims endangers the privacy of innocent people.  Senate President Pro Tem John Burton (D-San Francisco) and Public Safety Commission Chairman Sen.  Richard Polanco (D-Los Angeles) agree that the federal government already has the power to authorize such surveillance, and see no need for California to have its own authority.  (www.latimes.com)

"Cameras' Ability to Cut Crime Doubted: Privacy Chief Says They Just Displace Crime" Vancouver Sun (01/03/02) P.  B1; Sandler, Jeremy

 In general, British Columbia's information and privacy commissioner has some doubts as to whether installing surveillance cameras on the streets of Vancouver will really deter crime.  Commissioner Loukidelis noted that according to the studies he has read, the 2.5 million or so cameras currently installed all over the United Kingdom have not made a significant difference in preventing crime there.  In response to an inquiry, he published a letter on his Web site spelling out his current position and highlighted that Vancouver's police department--while not addressing any other crime prevention measures--admits to a decrease in the number of drug and related arrests made, but still wants to install as many as 30 surveillance camera in the Downtown Eastside area.  Speaking to Vancouver's Chief Constable Terry Blythe, mayor and police board chairman Philip Owen, and Inspector Axel Hovbrender, the lead officer on the camera project, Loukidelis said in his letter that he could not make a determination until more information, including the action's compliance to the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act, was evaluated.  Loukidelis, who has veto power over the police department's use of cameras, says he is especially concerned about videotaping people on the street because the public has a high regard for the privacy of their daily activities.  Darrell Evans, executive director of the B.C.  Freedom of Information and Privacy Association, remarked that the police only assume the cameras to be effective, but his organization remains opposed, saying the loss of general privacy is not worth it.

Though Blythe, Owen, and Hovbrender were not available for comment, it was noted that in past statements, Owen said he believed the cameras would be effective in fighting crime, but unless it was proven cost-effective and the public backed the program, he could not support it himself.

"Move to Digital Government Sparks State Privacy Concerns" GovExec.com (01/03/02); Vaida, Bara

The speed with which states are integrating their databases since the Sept.  11 attacks has led to a host of privacy concerns, including how long personal information is stored, who is given access to the information, how it is being used, and penalties for misuse.  Jeffrey Eisenach, head of the Progress and Freedom Foundation, reported on the potential privacy problems during the organization's recent survey on e-government, which ranked Illinois and Kansas as the top states when it comes to using IT to reach out to residents.  Colorado, Delaware, Illinois, New Jersey, and Ohio have been particularly keen on giving law-enforcement agencies increased access to databases, despite the fact that none of them have enacted laws regulating how the information can be used.  In fact, only eight states have such laws, including New York, Texas, Nevada, and Massachusetts.  If a law promoted by Rep.  Billy Tauzin (R-La.), chairman of the House Energy and Commerce Committee, passes, all state laws will have to conform to federal regulations regarding digitally stored personal information.  (www.govexec.com)

"Judge OKs FBI Keyboard Sniffing" Wired News (01/04/02); McCullagh, Declan

U.S.  District Judge Nicholas Politan ruled that the FBI could legally install a keystroke logger in the PC of alleged mobster Nicodermo S.  Scarfo in order to root out a password needed to decrypt confidential business data. Within the encrypted file is evidence of a gambling and loansharking operation, according to the Justice Department.

Scarfo's defense contended that this constituted a violation of both wiretap law and the Fourth Amendment's outlawed "unreasonable" searches, but Politan's decision upheld assistant U.S.  Attorney Ronald Wigler's argument that neither was circumvented.  Wigler said this is the first case of its kind to employ the keystroke logger, but privacy advocates are worried that the judge's decision will expand the government's surveillance powers over its citizens.  Also troubling is the fact that the government did not fully detail the keystroke logger's operation to the defense, noted Electronic Privacy Information Center general counsel David Sobel.  (www.wired.com)

"CIA-Backed Analysis Tool Eyed for Passenger Checks" Computerworld (01/01/02) Vol.  36, No.  1, P.  12; Disabatino, Jennifer

 CIA-backed data analysis software is currently being tested for its ability to detect suspected terrorists and their associates when they book airline, hotel, or car reservations.  Four companies operate the computerized reservations and global distribution systems, and for the past three months, one of them has been integrating the solution.  The software, developed by Systems Research & Development of Las Vegas, can clean up incorrectly entered data; search for possible connections between airline passengers and suspected terrorists; check a passenger's name, address, phone number, and other identifying information; search for close variations; and detect whether a passenger lives near a suspected terrorists.  The testing process will begin with running "canned data" to see what connections it picked up on.  (www.computerworld.com)

"Security Trumps Privacy" Christian Science Monitor (12/20/01) P.  11; Stern, Seth

 According to recent surveys conducted after the Sept.  11 terrorist attacks, up to two-thirds of Americans are willing to allow government use of facial-recognition technology or national identification cards if it means protection from further incidents, and an equal number are willing to lose their anonymity on the Internet.  Since the September events, Congress has given the Bush administration unprecedented powers to track emails, monitor financial transactions, and use wiretaps, but in truth, the trend began long before the attacks.  Last year, facial-recognition technology was used at the Super Bowl in Tampa, Fla., earlier this year to compare images to a database of wanted criminals, and the city also employed the equipment in its Ybor City entertainment section.  Across the country, 4 million CCTV cameras are used in retail stores and other public areas.  An association that represents the country's largest financial institutions recently agreed to allow federal law enforcement agencies to run daily computer checks on customer transactions.  In addition, in Pasadena, Calif., transmitters are used to pinpoint the location of family members at an amusement park, technology that if coupled with a national identification card, would allow anyone's whereabouts to be tracked though global positioning satellites.  (www.csmonitor.com)

"DOJ Authorization Bill Requires Annual 'Carnivore' Report" Newsbytes (12/21/01); Krebs, Brian

The U.S.  Senate has approved the Department of Justice Appropriations Authorization Act, an edict that requires the director of the FBI and the Attorney General to provide Congress with an annual report on the use of the DCS 1000 email surveillance tool, also known as "Carnivore," in federal investigations.  This is the first time in 20 years that the Senate has passed a reauthorization bill for the DOJ.  "Many concerns have been raised about the use of this system, and it is my hope that the reporting requirement will provide policymakers with valuable information and encourage [the] department to use the system responsibly,"
said Senate Judiciary Committee ranking GOP member Orrin Hatch (R-Utah).  The report will supply numerous details, including how many times Carnivore was used in the preceding year, who authorized its use and why, and any intercepted information that was not authorized by court order.  The Justice Department earlier commissioned an independent review committee to submit a report evaluating whether Carnivore could keep such data away from prying eyes, but privacy groups were not satisfied.  Meanwhile, the USA Patriot Act passed by Congress in October also requires the Justice Department to provide a Carnivore usage report to every court that authorizes its use in an investigation.(www.newsbytes.com)

"A Pitch for Smart Postal Stamps" Wired News (12/19/01); Scheeres, Julia

The U.S.  Postal Service is considering the implementation of "smart stamps," which would identify the senders of mail. The Committee on Government Reform, which oversees the U.S. Postal Service, is proposing new requirements under which postal customers would have to show identification prior to buying stamps--making it virtually impossible to send anonymous letters.  The committee's suggestions come amidst "an unprecedented threat" facing the U.S.  Postal Service, said Rep.  Henry A.  Waxman (D-Calif.).  "Bioterrorists are poisoning innocent Americans with anthrax by taking advantage of the anonymity of the mail," he noted.  Waxman is among those in favor of a bar-code "stamp" that would contain the date, time and origin of the letter, and the sender's identity.  A Postal Service spokesman refused to comment on the details of the tracking proposal, but said that the agency was looking into "everything that's out there" to boost security.  (www.wired.com)

"Software That Sniffs Out Stolen Property" Business Week (12/24/01) No.  3767, P.  75; Carey, John

XML Global Technologies has created a system to help law enforcement recover stolen property faster.  Officers can scan a database, into which has been entered descriptions of items bought by secondhand stores, and find any items that match descriptions of stolen property.  Pawn shops enter the information over a secure Internet connection, instead of sending police paper records, which would cause police to spend weeks doing the same matching process that the Xtract system does in less than a few minutes.  Currently, only the Vancouver police is using the system, but XML Global is talking with police departments across Canada and the United States about setting up a similar subscription service deal, which costs Vancouver $74,000 per year.  However, Vancouver police recovered $12,000 worth of stolen jewelry this month and caught the thief using Xtract.  (www.businessweek.com)

"Eye in the Sky Will Track California Parolees" Government Computer News (12/10/01); Walsh, Trudy

The California Corrections Department recently signed a deal with Digital Angel to track parolees via a GPS system.  The California company makes wearable devices able to track where a parolee is and has been, as well as when the parolee was there.  The device is smaller than a pack of cigarettes, according to an official.  The new device will emit wireless alerts to Palm OS units, email systems, browsers, and pagers through the Digital Angel operations center, and then will be sent over TCP/IP or frame relay lines.  (www.gcn.com)

"Airport Security May Get Smarter" InternetWeek (12/10/01) No.  888, P.  13; Boyd, Jade

The Transportation Department must complete a review of technology to prevent access to secure airport areas by May 2002 to be in compliance with the new Aviation and Transportation Security Act.  Some observers speculate that airports and airlines may begin using biometric technology to upgrade current security, however; there is no word yet from Congress who will pay for the security upheavals.  The government's goal is to reduce average check-in times at airports to less than 10 minutes, according to Transportation Secretary Norman Mineta.  Besides the Transportation Department, the government is considering upgrading security with the adoption of biometrics in other departments, including the Defense Department, which recently contracted EDS to provide employees with 360,000 smart cards.  (www.internetweek.com)

"Face Recognition" Technology Review (11/01) Vol.  104, No.  9, P.  86

Face recognition technologies are entering the market as airports scramble to revamp their security; two notable types of biometrics include local feature analysis and eigenface.  Local feature analysis, developed by New Jersey-based Visionics, uses a camera and computer to identify a person in a crowd.  The program works by plotting the anchor points by bone structure and then matching that number to similar ones in the database.  The eigenface method, marketed by Massachusetts' Viisage, does not look at a collection of facial features locally; instead, it examines the entire face.  Both programs are emerging as the new face of security technology, but at a steep price. (www.techreview.com)

CHIP ID READY FOR SALE December 24, 2001 Yahoo news reports:

“Applied Digital Solutions, Inc., an advanced digital technology development company, announced today that it has developed a miniaturized, implantable identification chip -- called VeriChip(TM) -- that can be used in a variety of medical, security and emergency applications.

VeriChip is an implantable, 12mm by 2.1mm radio frequency device about the size of the point of a typical ballpoint pen.  Each VeriChip will contain a unique identification number and other critical data.  Utilizing an external scanner, radio frequency energy passes through the skin energizing the dormant VeriChip, which then emits a radio frequency signal transmitting the identification number and other data contained in the VeriChip.  The scanner will display the identification number, but the VeriChip data can also be transmitted, via telephone or the Internet, to an FDA compliant, secure data-storage site.  It will then be accessible by authorized personnel.  Inserting the VeriChip device is a simple procedure performed in an outpatient, office setting.  It requires only local anesthesia, a tiny incision and perhaps a small adhesive bandage.
Sutures are not necessary..."

"Company Poised to Offer Chip Implants in Humans" Los Angeles Times (12/19/01) P.  A1; Streitfeld, David

Applied Digital Solutions of Palm Beach is planning to capitalize on microchips that can be implanted within the human body.  The chips would initially be used to supply medical information for patients with prosthetic limbs and artificial organs.  Kidnapped people with the chips inside them could also be tracked by global positioning.
Furthermore, the chips could be used as a secure, all-purpose ID that can open doors, authorize payments, etc.

This application seems particularly desirable in light of the terrorist attacks, according to Richard Seelig, a surgeon who injected himself with Applied Digital's chips.

Applied Digital expects the FDA to approve the chips by the middle of next year; the company claims to have gained approval from the FCC, since the chips use radio frequencies.  The chips expected to hit the market in 2002 lack an internal power source, so they are not true tracking devices.  It will be several years before body chips that send out signals from a distance debut.  (www.latimes.com)

"Abusers Face Electronic Monitors" Toronto Star (12/13/01) P.  B02; Small, Peter

Ontario Corrections Minister Rob Sampson recently announced that private companies will be approached regarding making electronic monitoring bracelets to be mandatory for criminals under observation by probation and parole officers.  The government is also looking at global positioning systems, voice verification tools, and pager technology, and has been using electronic ankle bracelets since 1996 to monitor the activities of selected inmates out on temporary passes.  The device sends radio signals to a central receiver in North Bay, but currently, the corrections ministry lacks the technology that will allow the creation of exclusion zones--such as around an abused spouse's home.  A recent inquest into the murder-suicide of Pickering resident Gillian Hadley and her abusive husband, Ralph, prompted the new measures.  Ralph Hadley was out on bail after being charged with criminally harassing his estranged wife, and the conditions of his release prevented him from entering Pickering except for crossing through via Hwy 401, GO Train, or to visit his lawyer, who was located there.  He managed to break into her home, kill her, and then himself without discovery.  (www.thestar.com)

"Cracking Cold Cases" Seattle Times (12/09/01) P.  A1; Seven, Richard

Short Tandem Repeat (STR) technology enables police investigators to test DNA samples once considered insufficient or otherwise inadequate for testing.
Investigators are using the technology to help identify victims of the World Trade Center attacks and to identify the person responsible for several murders in Green River, Wash.  The Seattle Police Department hopes using STR technology will lead to arrests in some of its 300 cold cases from the last 30 years.  The new technique, which allows lab workers to test DNA samples invisible to the human eye, increases the Washington State Patrol Crime Laboratory's opportunity to solve more crimes, according to the facility's manager, Lynn McIntyre.  The STR technique decodes 13 DNA regions extracted from a cell's nucleus.  The lab is in the process of testing DNA samples collected at nearly 270 crime scenes that never generated a suspect and has produced 19 matches in seven months.  Many law enforcement leaders support keeping a database of DNA samples from every inmate convicted of a felony to aid criminal investigations.  (seattletimes.nwsource.com)

"The Shadow War" Popular Science (12/01) Vol.  259, No.  6, P.  68; Vizard, Frank
New scanning systems are the most promising long-term solutions for analyzing airline passengers and their bags.
One of the most high profile systems is the face recognition system, which is currently being used in several places around the country.  A specialized form of the system, HumanID, is being tested by DARPA; the system uses face recognition in combination with other surveillance techniques.  HumanID is also able to alert authorities when an individual appears at a site on numerous occasions, such as a terrorist casing an airport.  In addition, DARPA is using Dragon Eye, a miniature plane equipped with video cameras and a GPS locator able to radio images and their location back to the operator.  (www.popsci.com)

"Airport Security Adopts Wearable Computers" PC World (11/01); McLeod, Ramon G.

Beginning in early 2002, security officials in major U.S. airports will be equipped with wearable computers called the Mobile Assistant 5, which can instantly identify suspicious travelers using face recognition technology.  According to M. Dewayne Adams, senior vice president and chief strategy officer at Xybernaut, the developer of the Mobile Assistant 5, a major problem in the past with face recognition technology has been in getting the information quickly to the people who have to question and detain suspects.  The new device can rapidly provide security officials with important information, including a photograph, which they can then use during interrogation.  The Mobile Assistant 5 consists of two parts, namely an 8.4-inch ruggedized LCD screen and a two-pound computer that is worn on a belt.  The device sells for approximately $4,000.  (www.pcworld.com)

"Fingers, Faces Will Be Scanned, Oly Security May Raise Legal Issues" Salt Lake Tribune (11/30/01); Horiuchi, Vince

Police will be scanning both faces and fingers this year at the 2002 Winter Games.  Salt Lake's West Valley City police last week announced that it will employ software with security cameras to scan faces in the E Center crowd and compare them to criminal mugshots.  In addition, a portable fingerprint scanner that runs prints through a criminal database will be used by officers.  But such technology raises a number of legal issues.  West Valley City police Lt.
Charles Illsley, who is overseeing the plan to use the technologies, said: "I have no doubt there will be a Supreme Court case out of Utah, either at the appellate level or the U.S.  Supreme Court, from these." FaceTrac, a facial recognition system, culls image of faces from security camera video and compares them to a database of mugshots--if there is a match, the system calls up to five mugshots of criminals that are similar to the person in the video.

"FAA Looks at Scanners That Show All" Philadelphia Inquirer (11/29/01) P.  A18; Borenstein, Seth

The Federal Aviation Administration is once again considering upgrading metal detectors at airports in order to tighten security in the wake of the Sept.  11 terrorist attacks.  One instrument being looked at is the Rapiscan 1000, which passes X-rays through people and reflects them back to the machine to create a three-dimensional image.
Hawthorne, Calif.-based Rapiscan Security Products' machine is controversial because it renders an image of the subject nude.  According to Retired Adm.  Paul Busick, the FAA's associate administrator for security, the agency will never adopt such privacy invading scanners.  Consequently, FAA officials are trying to find a compatible technology, called "the cloaker," to cover the private parts but does not interfere with the Rapiscan's ability to detect weapons or other illegal devices.  (inq.philly.com)

"Security Concerns Boost Biometric ID Systems" Chicago Tribune Online (12/03/01); Menn, Joseph

Biometric systems, which identify customers and staff members through retinal scans or fingerprints, have increased in popularity since the Sept.  11 attacks.  Sales of biometric devices have increased 60 percent to $190 million, and are expected to increase to about $900 million by 2005.
Retailers, grocers, hospitals, and government agencies are leading the way as they install hardware and software that checks fingerprints against a national database of information.  Retailers will no longer be plagued by bounced checks, and hospitals will be able to better comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996.
Systems can recognize each user, store passwords, and allow each person to access their authorized section of the system.  (www.chicagotribune.com)

"Check by Police of Fingerprints Goes Wireless" Wall Street Journal (11/26/01) P.  B7D; Loftus, Peter

Policemen dealing with suspects without identification often face the choice of letting them go or undertaking the long process of bringing them to the station for fingerprinting.
Visionics offers a solution to the problem with its wireless Identification-Based Information System (IBIS) to quickly analyze prints in the field.  The company has seen more federal government and military interest in IBIS since the recent terrorist attacks.  Revenue for Visionics was up about $5 million in the last fiscal year.  (www.wsj.com)

"Fresno Pioneers Face Recognition ID System" Los Angeles Times (11/20/01) P.  A8

The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is challenging the use of face recognition technology at the Fresno Yosemite Airport in California.  The airport started using the technology following the Sept.  11 terrorist attacks.  The ACLU's national associate director, Barry Steinhardt, contends the technology will result in false accusations against innocent people.  The biometrics technology scans the faces of passengers before passing through metal detectors or magnetometers.  The images are then compared with a database containing hundreds of thousands of pictures.  Two other airports--Boston's Logan and California's Oakland International--also plan to employ the technology, which uses 26 facial features or characteristics for matching passengers with faces contained in the database and sets off an alarm when a match is discovered.  However, Steinhardt says the technology makes too many false matches and that such features as changes in facial hair or wearing sunglasses can affect the system.  In addition, he claims authorities have yet to establish a sufficient database archive of terrorist pictures to make the system effective. (www.latimes.com)

"No Thumbprint, No Rental Car" Wired News (11/21/01); Scheeres, Julia

Dollar Rent a Car is testing a system where people can only receive cars if they provide a thumbprint.  The biometrics system is designed to eliminate theft and credit card fraud.
Vice president of quality assurance Jim Senese hopes that the thumbprints convince criminals to seek another target.
He feels that the initiative's success so far will lead to lower rental prices.  Though privacy advocates voice concerns about biometric profiling, Privacy Forum moderator Lauren Weinstein notes that the public recently has become more willing to undertake additional security screenings.

"FBI Develops New Tools to Ensure Government Can Eavesdrop on High-Tech Messages"
Associated Press (11/21/01); Bridis, Ted

The Federal Bureau of Investigation is designing software to allow investigators to track the movements of suspects accessing the Internet.  People familiar with the agency's "Magic Lantern" technology said it keeps a record of what the user types in.  The FBI hopes to employ the technology for its "Cyber Knight" project, which focuses on breaking secret codes used in encrypted messages and computer files.
The technology could help investigators infiltrate criminal or terrorist organizations.  However, the agency acknowledged the new technology presents privacy concerns and the courts or Congress can challenge its use.  Magic Lantern's Internet installation offers significant advantages over the FBI's current Key Logger System monitoring technology, which requires agents to physically place a device on the suspect's computer.  The technology raises important legal issues, however, including whether investigators would have to acquire a wiretap order before using the technology.
Meanwhile, the FBI is asking some of the nation's leading phone companies to make changes to their networks so investigators can eavesdrop with greater ease.  (www.ap.org)

"Regeneration" InformationWeek (11/12/01) No.  863, P.  39; Masseli, Jennifer

The government's attempt to persuade the public that flying is safe may lead to airports taking advantage of biometric technology.  The House of Representatives is considering legislation that would set standards for biometrics in the industry.  The Federal Aviation Administration plans to test smart cards, facial recognition, and iris scanning in about
20 different airports.  Airlines are worried about the accuracy of biometrics and whether such systems would impinge upon people's privacy rights.  The systems are also costly at a time when airlines and airports are in their worst financial shape in recent history.  A Harris Interactive poll finds that 82 percent of Americans would be willing to undergo fingerprint scanning at the airport.  IBM is trying to entice airports to use its hand-geometry scanner, which does not require the same amount of storage as a fingerprint system.  (www.informationweek.com)

The following article was originally published in the 36th-year edition of the Finnish-language journal, SPEKULA (3rd Quarter1999).  SPEKULA is a publication of Northern Finland medical students and doctors of Oulu University OLK (OULUN LAAKETIETEELLINEN KILTA).  It is mailed to all medical students of Finland and all Northern Finland medical doctors.  Circulation 6500.

MICROCHIP IMPLANTS, MINDCONTROL AND CYBERNETICS by Rauni-Leena Luukanen-Kilde, MDFormer Chief Medical Officer of Finland In 1948 Norbert Weiner published a book, CYBERNETICS, defined as a neurological communication and control theory already in use in small circles at that time.  Yoneji Masuda, "Father of Information Society," stated his concern in 1980 that our liberty is threatened Orwellian-style by cybernetic technology totally unknown to most people.  This technology links the brains of people via implanted microchips to satellites controlled by ground-based super-computers.

The first brain implants were surgically inserted in 1974 in the state of Ohio, U.S.A., and also in Stockholm, Sweden.  Brain electrodes were inserted into the skulls of babies in 1946 without the knowledge of their parents. In the 50's and 60's, electrical implants were inserted into the brains of animals and humans, especially in the U.S., during research into behavior modification, and brain and body functioning.

Mind control (MC) methods were used in attempts to change human behavior and attitudes.  Influencing brain functions became an important goal of military and intelligence services.  Thirty years ago brain implants showed up in x-rays the size of one centimeter.  Subsequent implants shrunk to the size of a grain of rice.  They were made of silicon, later still of gallium arsenide.  Today they are small enough to be inserted into the neck or back and also intravenously in different parts of the body during surgical operations, with or without the consent of the subject.  It is now almost impossible to detect or remove them.

It is technically possible for every newborn to be injected with a microchip, which could then function to identify the person for the rest of his or her life.  Such plans are secretly being discussed in the U.S.  without any public airing of the privacy issues involved.  In Sweden, Prime Minister Olof Palme gave permission in 1973 to implant prisoners, and Data Inspection's ex-Director General Jan Freese revealed that nursing-home patients were implanted in the mid-1980's.  The technology is revealed in the 1972:47 Swedish state report, STATENS OFFICIELLAUTRADNINGER (SOU).

Implanted human beings can be followed anywhere.

Their brain functions can then be remotely monitored by supercomputers and even altered through the changing of frequencies.  Guinea-pigs in secret experiments have included prisoners, soldiers, mental patients, handicapped children, deaf and blind people, homosexuals, single women, the elderly, school children and any group of people considered "marginal" by the elite experimenters.  The published experiences of prisoners in Utah State Prison, for example, are shocking to the conscience.  Today's microchips operate by means of low-frequency radio waves that target them.  With the help of satellites, the implanted person can be tracked anywhere on the globe.  Such a technique was among a number tested in the Iraq war, according to Dr.  Carl Sanders, who invented the intelligence-manned interface (IMI) biotic, which is injected into people. (Earlier during the Vietnam War, soldiers were injected with the Rambo chip, designed to increase adrenaline flow into the bloodstream.)  The U.S.  National Security Agency's(NSA) 20 billion bits/second supercomputers could now "see and hear" what soldiers experience in the battlefield with a remote monitoring system (RMS).

When a 5-micromillimeter microchip (the diameter of a strand of hair is 50 micromillometers) is placed into optical nerve of the eye, it draws neuroimpulses from the brain that embody the experiences, smells, sights and voice of the implanted person.  Once transferred and stored in a computer, these neuroimpulses can be projected back to the person's brain via the microchip to be re-experienced.  Using a RMS, a land-based computer operator can send electromagnetic messages (encoded as signals)to the nervous system, affecting the target's performance.  With RMS, healthy persons can be induced to see hallucinations and to hear voices in their heads.  Every thought, reaction, hearing and visual observation causes a certain neurological potential, spikes, and patterns in the brain and its electromagnetic fields, which can now be decoded into thoughts, pictures and voices.  Electromagnetic stimulation can therefore change a person's brainwaves and affect muscular activity, causing painful muscular cramps experienced as torture.

The NSA's electronic surveillance system can simultaneously follow and handle millions of people.
Each of us has a unique bioelectrical resonance frequency in the brain, just like we have unique fingerprints.  With electro-magnetic frequency (EMF) brain stimulation fully coded, pulsating electromagnetic signals can be sent to the brain, causing the desired voice and visual effects to be experienced by the target.  This is a form of electronic warfare.  U.S.  astronauts were implanted before they were sent into space so their thoughts could be followed and all their emotions could be registered 24 hours a day.

The Washington Post reported in May 1995 that Prince William of Great Britain was implanted at the age of 12.  Thus, if he were ever kidnapped, a radio wave with a specific frequency could be targeted to his microchip.  The chip's signal would be routed through a satellite to the computer screen of police headquarters, where the Prince's movements could be followed.  He could actually be located anywhere on the globe.

The mass media have not reported that an implanted person's privacy vanishes for the rest of his or her life.  S/he can be manipulated in many ways.  Using different frequencies, the secret controller of this equipment can even change a person's emotional life.  S/he can be made aggressive or lethargic.  Sexuality can be artificially influenced.  Thought signals and subconscious thinking can be read, dreams affected and even induced, all without the knowledge or consent of the implanted person. A perfect cyber-soldier can thus be created.  This secret technology has been used by military forces in certain NATO countries since the 1980's without civilian and academic populations having heard anything about it.  Thus, little information about such invasive mind-control systems is available in professional and academic journals.

The NSA's Signals Intelligence can remotely monitor information from human brains by decoding the evoked potentials (3.50HZ, 5 milliwatt) emitted by the brain.  Prisoner experimentees in both Gothenburg,Sweden and Vienna, Austria have been found to have [missing word] brain lesions.  Diminished blood circulation and lack of oxygen in the right temporal frontal lobes result where brain implants are usually operative.  A Finnish experimentee experienced brain atrophy and intermittent attacks of unconsciousness due to lack of oxygen.

Mind control techniques can be used for political purposes.  The goal of mind controllers today is to induce the targeted persons or groups to act against his or her own convictions and best interests.  Zombified individuals can even be programmed to murder and remember nothing of their crime afterward.  Alarming examples of this phenomenon can be found in the U.S.  This "silent war" is being conducted against unknowing civilians and soldiers by military and intelligence agencies. Since 1980 electronic stimulation of the brain (ESB) has been secretly used to control people targeted without their knowledge or consent.  All international human rights agreements forbid nonconsensual manipulation of human beings - even in prisons, not to speak of civilian populations.

Under an initiative of U.S. Senator John Glenn, discussions commenced in January 1997 about the dangers of radiating civilian populations.  Targeting people's brain functions with electromagnetic fields and beams (from helicopters and airplanes, satellites, from parked white vans, neighboring houses, telephone poles, electrical appliances, mobile phones, TV, radio, etc.), is part of the radiation problem that should be addressed in democratically elected government bodies.  In addition to electronic MC, chemical methods have also been developed.  Mind-altering drugs and different smelling gasses affecting brain function negatively can be injected into air ducts or water pipes.  Also, bacteria and viruses have been tested this way in several countries.

Today's supertechnology, connecting our brain functions via microchips (or even without them, according to the latest technology) to computers via satellites in the U.S. or Israel, poses the gravest threat to humanity.  The latest supercomputers are powerful enough to monitor the whole world's population.  What will happen when people are tempted by false premises to allow microchips into their bodies?  One lure will be a microchip identity card.  Compulsory legislation has even been secretly proposed in the U.S.  to criminalize removal of an ID implant.
Are we ready for the robotization of mankind and the total elimination of privacy, including freedom of thought?  How many of us would want to cede our entire life, including our most secret thoughts, to Big Brother?  Yet the technology exists to create a totalitarian "New World Order."  Covert neurological communication systems are in place to counteract independent thinking and to control social and political activity on behalf of self-serving private and military interests.

When our brain functions are already is connected to supercomputers by means of radio implants and microchips, it will be too late for protest.  This threat can be defeated only by educating the public, using available literature on biotelemetry and information exchanged at international congresses.
One reason this technology has remained a state secret is the widespread prestige of the psychiatric DIAGNOSTIC STATISTICAL MANUAL IV produced by the U.S.  American Psychiatric Association (APA), and printed in 18 languages.  Psychiatrists working for U.S. intelligence agencies no doubt participated in writing and revising this manual.  This psychiatric "bible" covers up the secret development of MC technologies by labeling some of their effects as symptoms of paranoidschizophrenia.  Victims of mind control experimentation are thus routinely diagnosed, knee-jerk fashion, as mentally ill by doctors who learned the DSM "symptom" list in medical school.  Physicians have not been schooled that patients may be telling the truth when they report being targeted against their will or being used as guinea pigs for electronic, chemical and bacteriological forms of psychological warfare.

Time is running out for changing the direction of military medicine, and ensuring the future of humanfreedom. Rauni Kilde, MD December 6, 2000 Also see my article on the psychic implants at:

"Applied Digital Solutions' Digital Angel Unit Agrees to One Year Pilot Program for Real-Time Monitoring of Parolees in Los Angeles County" Business Wire (11/07/01)

Palm Beach, Fla.'s Applied Digital Solutions confirmed recently its Digital Angel unit signed a contract with the California Governor's Office of Criminal Justice and Planning and Department of Corrections to conduct a one-year trial program involving its advanced location and monitoring systems.  The trial will be the world's first to combine biosensor technology with wireless Web communications and Global Positioning Systems.  The technology uses biosensors to detect vital body functions, including temperature and pulse, and location.  Data is then transmitted to a ground station or other tracking facility.  Applied Solutions is looking at the potential of using the technology to monitor the status of people with medical conditions; find missing people or pets; track the whereabouts of parolees; monitor livestock; and other applications.  The test will involve tracking released prisoners to ensure they do not violate their parole.  (www.businesswire.com)

"Sensor Can Tell If Driver is Drunk" Dallas Morning News (11/04/01) P.  1Y; Trahan, Jason

Civil engineers at the University of Texas at Arlington designed a dashboard sensor able to detect when someone is drinking and possibly alert law enforcement if the driver is drunk.  The technology is part of an effort to make officers more efficient in catching drunken drivers, rather than police stopping potential violators based on visual evaluations.  The new device works by the sensor detecting certain concentrations of fumes, specifically those emitted from someone above the .08 legal blood-alcohol content.

Equipping cars with the device may prove sticky say some observers, but others contend such technology could be used for fleet operators in tracking employees.

"Illinois School Uses Lie Detectors" Associated Press (11/06/01); Hughes, Jay In Dunlap, Ill.

School Superintendent Bill Collier recently used a polygraph test to get to the bottom of an issue involving students at Dunlop High.  The problem centered around the involvement of 15 student-athletes who were caught by police attending a party where alcohol was being served.  Three admitted their guilt, but several said they left as soon as they found out that alcohol was available. The lie-detector tests resulted in the suspension of seven students from the school's football team, while three others were cleared and two were suspended for refusing to take the test.  (www.ap.org)

"Robot See, Robot Kill" Wired News (10/29/01); Shreve, Jenn

Scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a self-aiming camera able to detect movement and sound, and compute the probability that what it is sensing is worth responding to.  The new camera--which is part of a project funded by the Office of Naval Research--is based on a neural network, originally designed to auto-focus on speakers during a video conference call or a college lecture.  According to officials, if people were to have an argument before the self-aiming camera, it would focus on the person with the loudest voice or actions.  In the future, researchers hope to have the camera use other kinds of sensory input, including radar, infrared, heat, or sonar.

It shouldn't be too long now until our every movement is recorded!

MONTREAL (CP) - Travellers at Canadian airports and border points will soon be running a $91-million gauntlet of high-tech security gadgetry that can scan fingerprints and pinpoint a bomb in a piece of luggage.  Ottawa is spending the money to bolster security at ports, border crossings and airports in the wake of last month's devastating terror attacks against the United States, said Transport Minister David Collenette.
Collenette made the announcement twice Thursday during visits to airports in Montreal and Toronto with Solicitor General Lawrence MacAulay and Revenue Minister Martin Cauchon.

On both occasions, he urged Canadians to get back on planes in order to deny triumph to terrorists.

"We want people to fly to show the terrorists we will not give in to the terrorists; we will not be cowed," Collenette said in Toronto.

"Air travel in Canada is safe, and we're committed to keeping it that way."

The $91-million package includes $8 million for some 65 fingerprint scanners to be set up at high-risk border crossings and airports in an effort to better detect criminals and terrorists, MacAulay said.

The scanners would work in tandem with forthcoming federal legislation that would allow customs officials to examine a list of incoming passengers in an effort to identify potential risks.

Suspect passengers would then be fingerprinted and the data cross-checked with fingerprints on file with the RCMP's databank in Ottawa and others operated by international agencies, including the FBI.

MacAulay reacted angrily when asked about the potential for such a system to violate a traveller's civil liberties or constitutional rights.

"What I want to be able to do, what your government wants to see happen .  .  .  is to make sure we provide the safest climate possible," he said.

"What this does is make sure that any individual whose fingerprint is on file with the RCMP and the FBI is able to be arrested on the spot, and they should be."

In Montreal, Collenette said the government would balance its desire to protect passengers with their right to move freely.

"The bottom line for us is that we live in a free, civil society," he said.  "We want to keep it that way, but there will be obviously some more intrusions to ensure that security is enhanced and I think the public will support that."

Passengers without a criminal record likely wouldn't show up in any law-enforcement database, MacAulay acknowledged.  "We don't have the fingerprint of everybody in the world."

Another $55.7 million is being spent on advanced bomb-detection systems designed to locate explosives in carry-on bags and in checked baggage, which is inspected less often by customs officials.

Collenette acknowledged that policies vary on how closely checked baggage is inspected by various airlines, and said the new equipment will ensure "more comprehensive examination" of all baggage.

The measures will come from the $250 million that Ottawa said earlier this week it will spend to improve security at borders, ports and airports.

Collenette went to great pains to point out that the improvements will enhance rather than repair a border security system that's already considered one of the best in the world.

"Canada has always had an enviable record for transportation safety and security," he said.  "We're among the very best worldwide, and we're committed to improving on that record."

Airport security has come under close scrutiny in the weeks since hijackers commandeered four U.S.  airliners Sept.  11 in one of the most devastating terrorist attacks in modern history.

Three of the planes found their mark, destroying the 110-storey twin towers of New York's World Trade Center and carving a massive hole in the Pentagon outside Washington.  More than 5,000 people perished in the carnage.

As the politicians spoke Thursday, several armed guards - a routine consequence of the Sept.  11 attacks - patrolled Dorval airport and police and tactical squad officers roamed Pearson International Airport's sprawling corridors.  A handful of passengers and flight crew members gathered to listen.

None of the hijackers would have been identified in a fingerprint scan, nor did any of them have explosives aboard the jets.  But the government's new safety measures are still vital, Collenette said.

"The people who perpetrated the crime in the United States all appear to have been legally in the U.S., and went through U.S.  airport security systems," he said.  "They did not go through Canadian systems."

Ottawa will also allocate $12 million to Canada Customs and Transport Canada to meet staffing requirements.  About 30 customs inspectors and 27 security inspectors will be hired as part of a plan to beef up personnel levels by 300 additional employees.

The measures also include additional airport security inspectors, better technology links between front-line inspectors and law enforcement and additional customs officers at seaports and airports.

In Montreal, Collenette said the purchases should eliminate the need for armed air marshals aboard Canadian planes.

"The focus for us has been to make airports more secure so you won't need the introduction of firearms on to planes," he said at Dorval airport.  Ottawa is in discussions with U.S.  transport authorities about marshals, which have been in use in the U.S.  for several weeks.

On Friday, the government is expected to reveal changes to immigrant identification cards, which are currently easily forged.  MacAulay said an announcement on the RCMP will also come Friday in Regina.

Police Use GPS to Track Parolees"

Associated Press (10/01/01); Raffaele, Martha The Global Positioning System, originally designed for the military, is being used by at least 20 states to keep constant track of more than 1,000 offenders.  The GPS system uses an ankle bracelet and a portable device that the offender carries; a signal from the bracelet allows law enforcement to locate the offender via a cellular phone connection.  Florida currently uses the GPS system--which can be rented for $10 to $12 per day--as does Texas.  New Jersey officials would like to use the technology, but the state would need to add an additional 30 to 40 parole officials in the budget request to operate the system.  (www.ap.org)

"Global Positioning Satellites Watch Probationers and Parolees"

Associated Press (09/29/01); Raffaele, Martha Lackawanna County, Pa., District Attorney Christine Tocki is able to use the Global Positioning System (GPS) to monitor the whereabouts of a sex offender confined to his home.  The technology she employs depends on 24 satellites and first was used in the military before being applied to car navigation and law enforcement monitoring systems in 20 U.S.
states.  Like an electronic monitoring system, the GPS has an offender wear a tracking device, but also allows authorities to monitor where an offender goes if he or she crosses boundaries, via a wireless modem system.  The device also allows for special warnings if offenders get near areas where victims live and work or if someone tries to interfere with a device's operation, but authorities do have problems with fading signals and overall effectiveness has yet to be tested.  (www.ap.org)

"High-Tech to Keep an Eye on Terrorism; Facial Recognition Systems Are Among the Advances"

San Antonio Express-News (09/26/01); Bragg, Roy Law enforcement and worldwide security consultants claim the combination of biometrics, proper planning, security personnel, and time-honored security precautions can make Americans comfortable once more with day-to-day living.

Employee and student identification cards may be replaced with finger or palm print scanners, while certain public places may soon be equipped with concealed cameras that possess facial recognition software.  "It's biometrics, and it's good old-fashioned police work and security work," says former Israeli army Capt.  Richard Horowitz.  Harry Martz of the Lawrence Livermore National Lab outside of San Francisco says one technological idea under consideration is a device that scans luggage and carry-ons at airports that would photograph bags from various angles and offer airport security three-dimensional pictures.  Another idea focuses on X-ray back-scattering imaging, which involves a large screen which would ricochet X-rays of low intensity off a boarding traveler standing beside it, viewing everything that is underneath his or her outfit.  Bill Beese of the security consulting company IPSA International thinks that the greatest law enforcement weapon is data mining, in which security authorities would have access to databases and information networks in order that law enforcement and private security companies can obtain similar data levels.

Beese notes, however, that state-of-the-art technology has been used and will continue to be used against Americans, including the Internet, digital encryption, and certain weaponry.  (www.hearstcorp.com/newspapers)

"Watch Offers Parental Backup"

Orlando Sentinel (09/25/01) P.  E1; Cobbs, Chris The Ranger GPS Personal Locator developed by Wherify Wireless is able to find missing persons and pets via global-positioning satellites and wireless communications.
The new wristwatch will be available in November and costs about $400, plus a monthly service fee of $10 to $30 to be billed like cellular minutes.  The first models to be available will be geared towards children, while future versions will be made for teenagers and adults.  The technology sends message to a satellite that relays a signal to the wristwatch asking for the location; the watch then beams up the geographical coordinates and the satellite passes the data back to the operator.  To find the missing person or pet, an individual can call the number of Wherify Wireless, at which time an operator will relay the position of the missing entity.  (www.orlandosentinel.com)

"ID Card System Urged for United States"

Toronto Star (09/26/01) P.  E4; Hamilton, Tyler Oracle CEO Larry Ellison, one of the richest men in North America, is urging the U.S.  government to create a national identity card system, and says he is willing to donate the software required to create such a system.  A survey conducted by Washington, D.C.-based Pew Research Center found that seven out of every 10 American citizens support the development of a national ID card.  However, federal privacy watchdog George Radwanski warns that a balanced approach must be taken.  Meanwhile, Iain Drummond, president of Vancouver-based face-recognition software manufacturer Imagis Technologies, agrees with Radwanski that a system such as the one Ellison proposes is not perfect and needs to be used responsibly since terrorists would still be able to slip through.  (www.thestar.com/)

"Identix Biometric Physical Access Control Systems Selected to Secure Facilities Across the U.S.  for Major Prison System" PRNewswire (09/26/01)

Identix recently announced that a major U.S.  prison system has chosen its biometric physical access control system in order to strengthen security for prisons nationwide.  The prison will integrate Identix's biometric access control system to assist the prisons in tracking the movement of prisoners throughout each facility on a real-time basis.  The system includes a mag-stripe card and Identix's V20 biometric access control device, enabling each prison to tie the magnetic stripe card to an inmate via an embedded fingerprint template in the V20 access control unit.  The prison system has already ordered and shipped 100 V20 units.

The new system will also allow prison officials to authenticate each prisoner; to set authorization policies and procedures to control which prisoners can access which facilities; and to manage the times access is allowed or denied.  (www.prnewswire.com)

"FBI Relies on More Advanced Techniques to Obtain Information" San Jose Mercury News (09/30/01); Chmielewski, Dawn C.

Currently, law enforcement agencies have the ability to monitor the telephone conversations, emails, and Internet use of citizens via the fiber-optic phone system and by remote.  The Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI)
"Carnivore" system allows for email address tracing, copies of electronic correspondence, and tracking of Web page visits.  The technology was previously called the DCS-1000 and is capable of activities that could pose questions about privacy, such as conducting keyword searches of emails. However, it is not able to get through an email locked with 128-bit encryption products now on the market, such as Santa Clara, Calif.-based Network Associates' Pretty Good Privacy.

One of the FBI's solutions for investigating crime is a key-logger system, which the agency will not discuss due to security reasons.  The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act had telephone companies put wiretap equipment on fiber-optic cable by switching equipment by this year, to allow for remote monitoring rather than stake-outs.  One type of technology permits the National Security Administration to tap into phone calls in other parts of the world through the Echelon satellite network.

"Keeping Tabs on Sex Offenders"

New York Times (09/23/01) P.  WC6; Lombardi, Kate Stone Sex offenders are often not caught by police or when they are, they plead their cases and are convicted of lesser charges.  Probation officers in Westchester County, N.Y., have begun implementing ways to reduce repeat offences by those on probation, while making it easier to catch them if they do.  The Probation Department uses a global positioning system to track sex offenders through an ankle bracelet, and the department also forces offenders to wear a pack that relays information to a satellite, which will alert police when an offender has entered a school yard or other unauthorized areas.  The department also employs Encase, a computer program that allows officers to plug into offender's home computers to determine whether they have been on pornographic Web sites.  Polygraph tests are also used during therapy sessions to aid counselors in their treatment of sex offenders.  (www.nytimes.com)

"Monitors Send Alarm of Stalkers"

Press-Enterprise (09/17/01); Kataoka, Mike For Superior Court Judge Becky Dugan of Riverside, Calif., the issuance of electronic monitoring devices is only "for the most extreme cases." While such technology has been around for decades, its use has been sporadic, as the cost involved usually outweighs its necessity.  Experts like Norman Lurie, a San Diego scientist who is currently studying ankle bracelets, also question electronic monitoring effectiveness: "I think it's important for people to understand that it's not really protection.  It's not going to stop someone who just decides to harm someone at any cost." California's Riverside County is the first one in the state to use Anaheim-based Central Station Security System's 900-megahertz radio-wave device with multi-state range.  Central Station president Robert Johnson said that the company works with police and correctional agencies, monitoring over 25 Shield devices in three states.  The next generation of electronic monitoring is seen by many experts as involving the use of Global Positioning System technology.  Satellite tracking enables authorities to know an offender's precise location 24 hours a day, not just when the person gets too close to a victim.  (www.pe.com)

"Surveillance Seen as Weapon of War"

Cleveland Plain Dealer (09/19/01) P.  A19; Wylie, Margie Surveillance technologies, including email eavesdropping; breakable encryption; biometrics; face recognition; X-ray scanning; location tracking; and surveillance cameras are high on the list of things needed in our fight against terrorism.  Email eavesdropping was designed to capture the flow of an ISP's electronic mail traffic, obtaining either addresses only or full content of the message.  However, the tapping issue is complicated over the controversy of the examination and discarding practices of types of messages not covered or targeted by court order.  Encryption is complicated by the fact that Congress has repeatedly ignored pleas by the FBI, CIA, and, NSA to restrict the production and use of codes so sophisticated that they render Internet communications unbreakable without a key.  Biometrics--a technology used in the identification of people based on body features and facial patterns, such as fingerprints and retinal patterns and face recognition methods--allow for the identification of people by mapping their facial points, and could be useful when picking a face out of a crowd.  Advanced scanning devices will permit a more thorough examination of people and baggage, using "back scatter" X-ray techniques that essentially strip-search people through their clothing to reveal not only the outline of private body parts, but items such as plastic knives as well.  In 1999, the Federal Communications Commission directed cell phone carriers to upgrade their networks to allow the transmission of instant location determination when 911 calls are made, using the "triangulation" technologies that are already in use in commercial trucks and rentals, which would serve to enhance the ability of the FBI to track suspects.  The technique that impacts the general population, and unfavorably at that, is camera surveillance, which will no doubt be increased well beyond the already-in-place controversial red-light enforcement system to include more closed circuit cameras in public settings.  (www.plaindealer.com)

"Exploring Technology to Protect Passengers With Fingerprint or Retina Scans" New York Times Online (09/19/01); Feder, Barnaby J.

As the government and airlines look for ways to thwart airplane hijackings, all eyes will likely be on biometrics systems, which are able to identify travelers by fingerprints, the patterns in retinas, and voice or other individual characteristics.  Last week, stocks of a few publicly traded biometrics firms experienced a surge, as the rest of the stock market dropped significantly.  Visionics, for instance, is being bombarded by customers seeking its FaceIt technology, which profiles individuals based on 80 facial structures.  Industry observers are waiting for airports to begin installing improved versions of other types of security products, such as closed circuit television systems and X-ray machines.  Visionics, however, is the likely leader in new technologies, considering the system can easily be linked to a database of possible terrorists.  (www.nytimes.com/)

"SmartGate and B & B Electromatic Enter Into Joint Development Agreement" PR Newswire (09/24/01)

Sarasota, Fla.  technology company SmartGate and Norwood, La.'s Integrated Securities Systems' subsidiary B & B Electromatic have formed a joint development agreement that utilizes SmartGate's "invisible field" safety technology along with B & B's powered barriers and gates.  The agreement is an attempt to make a power closure device that can be used in prisons, airports, nuclear power plants, refineries, on roads, and as barriers for railroads that is safe, effective, reliable, and low-maintenance.

"Attacks Accelerate Surveillance Research"

Wall Street Journal (09/20/01) P.  B8; Regalado, Antonio; Zimmerman, Rachel One certain result of last week's terrorist attacks is that surveillance and screening of individuals and their actions will be increased.  The Artificial Intelligence Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which receives 65 percent of its money from the military, is already asking its workers to make suggestions for devices that can be used to prevent terrorism.  Some ideas include: buildings that can fix themselves; black boxes physically attacked to individuals, which can help locate them in case of a disaster; and technology that can detect suspicious behavior.  Eric Grimson, an associate director at the lab, is working on a VSAM system that utilizes surveillance and monitoring equipment, combined with software, which can train itself about what "normal" activity looks like and flag anything that is abnormal, such as suspicious cars or people casing a location.  This technology can be used at airports, but some civil rights activists are cautious, saying nothing would prevent an employer from using it to track workers' habits.  Calif.-based Aerovironment has developed a 2.5-ounce spy plane that can fly up to 30 miles an hour, and is working on other unmanned surveillance devices which can be launched from planes, mortars, or guns. (www.wsj.com)

"Digital Recorders Introduces Four New Law Enforcement Products"  PR Newswire (09/19/01)

As part of Dallas-based Digital Recorders' subsidiary Digital Audio Corporation's (DAC) long-term plans to regain its profitability after a difficult fiscal year in 2000, it has released four new law enforcement products for immediate sale: SSABR, a covert digital audio recorder; QuickEnhance QE-10, a digital tape enhancement system that has been simplified; UltraScope, an ultrasonic spectrum analyzer for audio countermeasures; and ProbeAmp, a multi-meter/high-gain amplifier for audio countermeasures applications.  These products improve law enforcement's audio collection, forensic examination, and technical countermeasures applications.  DAC has supplied technology to U.S.  federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies, and the new products, three of which are now available, with the fourth shipping in November, may be limited to qualifying agencies.

"Face Morphing Could Catch Criminals"

New Scientist (09/04/01); Carrington, Damian Even though new studies show that computer-morphed faces given by witness descriptions increases the chance that the composite will be recognized, United Kingdom police methods will need to be changed, considering that information from several different witnesses can not be combined with the current Pro-fit system.  The University of Sterling in Scotland is studying the technology and has developed a system that evolves faces, enabling individuals to create a better "e-fit." Pro-fit, the system now used by law agencies, does not work as well as the new system, Evofit, which creates random variations of a witness's first attempt to make "offspring" faces.  The new system was recently used to capture a serious sex offender in Northhamptonshire, after the digitally created images were shown on U.K. television.  (www.newscientist.com)

"Airports Security Measures Won't Always be Visible"

Associated Press (09/17/01); Easton, Pam Houston Aviation System director Richard Vacar points out that though airline passengers will see greater security in the future, a lot of the new airport security measures will be unnoticeable.  He indicates that the hidden security is the greatest deterrent to foul play.  Some measures being proposed by aviation officials include federalizing airport security and using new technologies for carrying mail, freight, and cargo.  Legislators are thinking of reinforcing cockpit doors and placing air marshals on flights.

"Tech vs.  Terrorism; Airports Look to New Technologies to Beef Up Security"

San Francisco Chronicle (09/17/01) P.  C1; Pimentel, Benjamin; Evangelista, Benny Some of the nation's top technology firms are already in high gear, responding to requests from federal agencies to help repair the obvious airport security gaps that became so apparent after last week's deadly terrorist hijackings.  San Francisco's Identix and Newark, N.J.'s InVision, and other key biometric firms, will find themselves immersed in the development of devices and methods designed to keep tighter control over security practices in our nation's airports.

Basic baggage X-ray screening methods and devices will be replaced with more sophisticated scanning equipment capable of detecting chemical, bomb, or weaponry-making materials.

InVision leads the industry in this new X-ray technology: it manufactures a $1 million scanner that identifies explosives by measuring the density of the bag's contents, while the U.S.  Customs has begun to use another technology called BodySearch, a low-powered X-ray machine that sees through clothing.  Another layer of security and new on the scene is biometric identification technology, which uses unique individual physical characteristics-- fingerprints, hand geometry, face, voice, signature, eye retina, and iris patterns--for identity purposes, rather than licenses and passports, which can be forged.  To date, seven national and international airports have installed or have on order Identix's fingerprint scanner; in retrospect, some of last week's hijackers had already been placed on a "watch list" by Immigration and Naturalization Service officials, and could have been easily flagged in an airport fingerprint check.  In another move to tighten security at London's Heathrow Airport, the International Air Transport Association plans to test a new retinal scanning device designed by EyeTicket Corp.  of McLean, Va., on at least 2,000 British Airways or Virgin Atlantic passengers.
International Biometric Group, which coincidentally relocated last year from the 87th floor of the World Trade Center North Tower to Battery Park, surmised that the biometric industry will grow from $523 million in revenue to over $1.9 billion by the year 2005.  (www.sfgate.com)

"Tech Could Stop Future Hijackers, Suicide Planes"

Reuters (09/13/01); Henderson, Peter In light of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the technology industry is once again reviewing its many gadgets that may be able to thwart further terrorist attacks.  Such technologies include computers that could steer planes away from skyscrapers to face-recognition devices, which the casino industry is already utilizing.  However, implementing such technology would require extensive testing and would raise questions about taking control out of pilots' hands, says Honeywell International spokesman Ron Crotty.  A Federal Aviation Administration spokesman, meanwhile, does not see how such technology could stop terrorist attacks, like Tuesday's events.  The FAA is planning integration of million-dollar, three-dimensional scanners that are able to probe checked baggage for bombs, as well as new X-ray machines for carry-on luggage that will be phased in over the next year.
Screeners are also facing tougher regulations as the FAA banned knives following the hijackings last week.

"World Is Their Jail: Offenders Tracked by GPS" Charleston Gazette (09/16/01) P.  15A; Blanchard, Matthew P.

The use of ankle bracelets and electronic boxes connected to the Global Positioning System (GPS) is gaining prevalence among law enforcement as a means of charting the movements of sex offenders and domestic abusers.  Officers, and sometimes the victims, receive a page every time the offender comes within a certain distance of a sensitive area.  Police can also see the offender's position anytime on a Web site map and are alerted if someone becomes disconnected from the box or the bracelet.  Richard Nimer, program director of the GPS department in Florida, notes that the system is an effective deterrent to repeat offenses.  GPS tracking costs less money than housing someone in jail and has yet to spark any legal challenges.

"Senate OKs Use of Carnivore Against Terrorism"

InfoWorld (09/14/01); Costello, Sam On Thursday, the Senate passed a measure expanding the permissible uses of the FBI's Carnivore email surveillance system in response to the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon last week.  The measure will allows broader use of Internet tapping by law enforcement authorities and calls on the government to increase utilization of its new science and technology devices in fighting terrorism.  In the past, Carnivore has been criticized because of its potential to breach civil liberties of U.S.  citizens.  The approved measure is part of the "Combating Terrorism Act of 2001," which was included in an amendment to the 2002 appropriations budget for the departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, as well as Judiciary.  Following the approval of the bill, the Center for Democracy and Technology urged both the president and Congress to proceed cautiously and calmly on such matters.

"Hong Kong Expands Cyber-Police Force"

Newsbytes (09/19/01); Creed, Adam Hong Kong authorities have boosted the number of officers assigned to combat computer crime from 17 to 42.  The increase in personnel is directly related to the creation of a new cybercrime unit, the Technology Crime Division, which was established by Hong Kong's Commercial Crime Bureau.  The new division will be dedicated to the "development of accredited computer forensics, legal and technical research related to cyber policing, intelligence gathering, and liaison with industry professionals and overseas law enforcement agencies," according to the bureau's senior superintendent, Ng Kam-wing.  The division will hire 31 more cybercrime officers during the next two years. (www.newsbytes.com)

"Authorities Watching Gang Web Sites"

Los Angeles Times Online (09/04/01); Frith, Stefanie Police across the country are taking notice of gang members who use the Internet to discuss crimes and post membership applications.  Los Angeles Police Department Detective Chuck Zeglin says that the past few years have seen the number of gang-related Web sites climb into the tens of thousands, and some 20 percent to 30 percent are run by gang members--though he says that most of what the department's career criminal apprehension section finds is threats.  More and more police departments are monitoring the Web sites, though the information does not lead to significant criminal charges; officials say their main reason for monitoring the sites is the potential threat of children communicating with gang members online.  Experts contend that the Internet has not yet helped gangs widen their reach or increase enrollment, but former gang founder Leifel Jackson says that the sites attract young people.  (www.latimes.com)

"Treasury Sets Sights on Smart Card, PKI Use" Government Computer News Online (08/27/01)

The U.S.  Treasury Department is coordinating a multi-agency effort to understand smart-card and PKI technologies and determine how they could be leveraged by the government.  A team of technology and security experts from all of the Treasury Department bureaus is to form the Smart Card and PKI Managers Forum, which the U.S.  Secret Service will oversee.  Meanwhile, the Treasury CIO's staff is working with representatives from the Secret Service; the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms; and the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center to conduct a series of pilots that will be used to determine the return on investment the government can expect to see from smart-card and PKI technologies.  (www.gcn.com)

Soldiers with microchips British troops experiment with implanted, electronic dog tag
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- By Anthony C.  LoBaido © 2001 WorldNetDaily.com LADYVILLE, Belize -- The warrior of the future, as portrayed in films like "Universal Soldier," is often depicted as a part-man, part-machine entity called a cyborg.  However, in the real world of soldiering, the future is arriving in smaller doses.

Take, for example, the new experimental microchip ID program of the British Army.

"It is believed to be the first such program of its kind in history," a spokesman for British Intelligence told WorldNetDaily.

"If proven successful, it will revolutionize not only identification and tracking, but [also] administration and bureaucracy in the armed forces."

The microchip is placed in the back of the neck in a relatively painless procedure.  A red patch forms over the insertion point, but will fade away within a week.  While the chip is active, soldiers would be tracked by the central electronic management system or "ERMS" in Glasgow.

The idea of being implanted with a microchip of course does not have wide appeal in the British Armed Forces, or any other segment of society.  In the United States, some have opted to microchip pets or children for safety reasons.  The Digital Angel system has also garnered headlines for its ability to track humans.

The British Army’s experimental program is called APRIL, or Army Personnel Rationalization Individual Listings.  It is the offshoot of the UK’s "Passports for Pets" program.  The same technology is used for both.

Ministry of Defense officials in London told WorldNetDaily that the "entire British Army could be microchipped by the year 2010," if the trial program is successful.

"The chip, which is implanted in the neck, would have many uses," explained British Col.
M.W.  Jones, "one of which would be to replace the current ID card.  This would protect the identity of those in the armed forces and prevent lost ID cards falling into the wrong hands.  A continual database would show the whereabouts of every serving member of the armed forces, giving commanders much greater control on the battlefield.

"We could 'swipe' casualties to get their medical records, blood group or next of kin.
There would no longer be a need for an individual’s documents to be carted around the world."

A reduction in bureaucratic costs is expected to make the program attractive to the British government.

Monitoring soldiers' whereabouts while on leave, or facilitating the recapture of AWOL soldiers, are also issues to be considered.  Electromagnetic pulse weapons could leave the chip inoperable, say critics.

One British soldier, who asked that his name not be used, said: "It's creepy, they would be able to track us wherever we go.  To meet a girlfriend or to a nightclub.  It’s like George Orwell’s '1984.'"

Ministry of Defense officials say one feature being developed for the new microchip is an "off" function that will make the soldier untraceable when he goes on R&R or joins the Special Forces.

Why is it important to keep the identities of the Special Forces secret?

"We are very, very secretive about our Special Forces," British Maj.  John Knopp said.
"Much more so than other armies.  Even their training is kept secret."

While the French use the Foreign Legion to carry out clandestine activities, the British government uses the SAS for similar activities, including recent assassinations in the Balkans war, say British Army personnel and other observers.

"No journalist gets near the SAS," says Alan Harvey of the South African patriot-in-exile group, the Springbok Club.  "They are a rare breed.  Both the Ministry of Defense and British Intelligence guard their identities with great care."

The Ministry of Defense has been approached by supermarkets, theaters and restaurants in an effort to be kept abreast of new technological advances in the field.

Says British Army Lt.  Charlie Grist, "Technology can only take you so far, even in the modern army.  It is the man, the soldier that still counts most."

My, My, My!
Makes one wonder if this was all planned and not just by foreign terrorists!

"Prepare to show your ID." That is what New Yorkers were told as they emerged from subways returning to work on Monday after the 9-11 WTC attack.
Of course, it's not clear what good was made of the display of thousands of individual IDs, other than to make the city (and the nation) "feel like" something was being done to protect them.

That scene, as reported by the major news outlets, foreshadows the most obvious consequence of the September 2001 destruction of one of the icons of US dominance in the New World Order, the World Trade Center.  The simple-minded migrate to simple solutions -- like moths around a candle -- even if the "solutions" have not hope of working.

Unable to do anything to "punish" the actual terrorist perpetrators (the ones who are already dead), US officials now must look for ways to give the perception that government is "protecting Americans" from future attacks.
Predictably, the "solutions" being put for by promoters of the New World Order come in the form of "sacrifices by the American people" (i.e., less liberty in exchange for perceived security), and most notably, more-stringent, mandatory identification requirements.

A recent AOL Poll had the following results:

"Do you support tighter terrorism laws in the U.S.  even if it limits your freedoms?

Yes--------207499------71% Not sure----45118------15% No----------36711------12% Total votes:  289328 "Which of these security measures would you most support?

National ID cards-----------156274-----56% Video camera checkpoints-----74493-----26% E-mail/phone monitors--------27520------9% Car searches-----------------18832------6% Total votes:  277119
Why isn't one of AOL's "security measures" options a requirement that all Americans who fly must carry a firearm?  There is little doubt that, had the passengers been armed on that fateful day, all of the planned attacks might have been thwarted and any such future schemes would likewise be defeated.

In August of 1996, the ACLU reported that, "almost two-thirds of the public thinks that government will erode civil liberties in responding to such crimes, and almost as many believe that the anti-civil liberties response will not make us any safer."

[Most Americans Concerned About Losing Rights In Fight Against Terrorism] [http://www.aclu.org/news/w081996b.html] At the urging of US Attorney General John Ashcroft, Congress will soon form a special "Anti-terrorism Task Force" armed with far-reaching snooping and surveillance authority.  There is also talk of a government policing agency taking over security at the nation's airports.

In light of the new proposed anti-terrorism proposals, one is reminded that as recently as two years ago the FBI issued the "Project Meggido Report" which identified Bible-believing Americans who hold strong religious convictions among the primary objective in any anti-terrorism measures.


[Congresswoman] Bono urges constituents to be ready for sacrifices http://www.thedesertsun.com/news/stories/local/1000611418.shtml In a wide-ranging interview, Bono gave dire warnings of an immediate future she predicted could include intense scrutiny of airline passengers, a national system of fingerprinting and identification cards and the specter of chemical and biological attacks on the United States.

ID cards weighed by Congress http://www.msnbc.com/news/630118.asp?0si=-&cp1=1 Sept.  18 - In response to the Sept.  11 terrorist attacks, Congress is considering requiring all citizens and non-citizens to carry identity cards.
Those might be "smart cards" storing data such as fingerprints and travel records.


FBI Project Megiddo http://www.networkusa.org/fingerprint/page1b/publicmegiddo.pdf "The general trend in domestic extremism is the terrorist's disavowal of traditional, hierarchical, and structured terrorist organizations."

--- The New American Criminalizing Dissent http://thenewamerican.com/tna/1999/12-06-99/vo15no25_dissent.htm
---------------------------------------------------------------------- Social security is the bane of individual liberty.  - SAM
Don't believe anything you read on the Net unless:
1) you can confirm it with another source, and/or
2) it is consistent with what you already know to be true.

"Scanning of Prison Visitors Under Fire; Inaccurate Drug Detector Prompts Unfair Penalties"

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (08/27/01) P. B5; Bucsko, Mike

A scanner that registers traces of microscopic particles associated with 40 different types of drugs is coming under heat from visitors to the State Correctional Institution Pittsburgh in Woods Run, Pa., after apparently giving several false positive results, including one for a prison guard's shift commander. Normally, if tested positive for the first time, visitors are not allowed on prison grounds for six months, and the information is often shared with other law enforcement agencies, drawing heat from civil liberties organizations. The machine searches for particles that are gathered on paper used to wipe hands or clothing, or through a special vacuum. The scanner used in Pittsburgh is designed by Mass.-based Ion Track Instruments, which provides its Itemiser to federal and state prisons in 30 states, as well as more than 40 airports.


"Fake IDs: Battle of Technologies, Wits" Associated Press (08/25/01); Love, Norma

Some Web sites advertise fake IDs, complete with authentic holograms for every state and Washington, D.C., for teens trying to get into bars or buy cigarettes. To fight back, many states have begun to encode information on the back of driver's licenses, usually in the form of magnetic stripes or bar codes, which can confirm whether an ID is authentic and can verify the age of the person. Running from hundreds of dollars to thousands, the equipment necessary to read these cards is readily available to those who stand the most to lose from teens illegally gaining access to their products, such as bars and convenience stores. N.Y.-based Intelli-Check develops such equipment, some of which can be hooked up to a register, say in a bar, and locks it when an order of alcohol is made until an age is entered, thus providing a record that a check was made should one be needed. (www.ap.org)

"FBI's 'Carnivore' Might Target Wireless Text" Washington Post (08/24/01) P. E1; O'Harrow Jr., Robert

An association of telecommunications carriers are warning that the FBI could soon be using the Carnivore electronic eavesdropping device to capture wireless text messages. In a letter sent to the FCC, Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association general counsel Michael Altschul said that the telecom industry could not devise sufficient standards and procedures to allow FBI investigators to capture the contents of wireless text messages the same way they can listen in on analog communications. Such ability is required by law, and thus the industry's failure to provide the FBI with a solution could mean the use of Carnivore, which privacy and technology experts say gleans far more information than is needed by investigators. Carnivore has not been shown to be as selective in the gathering of information as targeted data collection carried out by ISPs, say privacy advocates. These distinctions--such as those between content and data packet origin and destination--have important legal and privacy ramifications.


NLECTC Law Enforcement & Corrections Technology News Summary Thursday, August 9, 2001 Reproduction of this text is encouraged; however copies may not be sold, and the NLECTC Law Enforcement & Corrections Technology News Summary should be cited as the source of the information. Copyright 2001, Information Inc., Bethesda, MD.


"Airports Trying Out Iris Identification"

Baltimore Sun (08/06/01) P.  1C; Greenman, Catherine The JetStream Passenger Processing System, an iris-scanning tool developed by EyeTicket, will be used by British Airways and Virgin Atlantic Airways at Heathrow Airport in London on a trial basis, to see if it can be employed to expedite passage through passport control.  About 2,000 American and Canadian passengers will have their irises scanned at the airport, the image of which will be converted into a code and stored in a database.  The next time the passenger arrives at the airport, he will proceed to a special line in the passport control area of the airline terminal, stand about 14 inches away from a camera, and wait for a few seconds as the system matches the image of his iris with those stored on the server.  Security experts say that iris-scanning technology is more secure then other biometric systems, such as facial recognition and digitized finger prints, because it has 240 unique areas that can be read.  Currently, similar equipment is being used for airline employees in Charlotte, N.C., to limit access to secure areas.  Inspass, which analyzes hand geometry, has been used since 1996 at Kennedy International Airport and Miami Airport, on about 65,000 travelers who are enrolled in the program.  (www.sunspot.net/)

"Alabama Bureau to Identify with Biometrics"

Cnet (08/06/01); Mariano, Gwendolyn New Jersey-based identification systems and technologies provider Visionics has announced it is working with the Alabama Bureau of Investigation (ABI) to offer a biometrics technology to identify fingerprints.  Known as FingerPrinter CMS, the live scan system does away with the inconvenience of using ink to obtain fingerprints.  The technology electronically prints and transmits fingerprints based on the employment of biometrics, which are processes of identifying individuals through behavioral or physical traits, including fingerprints, face recognition, voice, and signature.
Visionics says the system will allow ABI to perform background checks by acquiring applicants' fingerprints and then sending the images to the ABI.  The images will then be checked against the Alabama Automated Fingerprint Identification System database.  Visionics states that it got an order from the ABI for 30 live scan systems.  The company says the FingerPrinter will allow the state's prisons and courthouses to electronically submit fingerprint and demographic records in order to meet a recent law approved by the Alabama Legislature that requires agencies to conduct criminal backgrounds checks on individuals applying for jobs.  (www.news.com)

"F.B.I.  Use of New Technology to Gather Evidence Challenged"

New York Times (07/30/01) P.  C7; Schwartz, John The case of the United States v.  Scarfo has sparked a major debate over how law enforcement can use technology to collect information and when the accused can claim a violation of their right to privacy.  In the case of Nicodemo S.  Scarfo's case--which involves charges of overseeing gambling and loan shark operations for the Gambino crime family--law enforcement downloaded his personal computer, but after investigators discovered encrypted messages, they returned to Scarfo's house with a key logger system that records all keystrokes ever typed on a computer and found the encryption password that led to the discovery of illegal gambling and loan activities. Scarfo and his lawyers argue that law enforcement should have obtained an electronic communications wire tap order before searching Scarfo's computer with the technology, since the key logger is similar to a wire tap.  Government surveillance expert Mark Rasch is concerned about the key logger technology and suggests constitutional implications be considered before its continued use in the field.  (www.nytimes.com/)

"Sounding Out Snipers" Scientific American (07/01) Vol.  285, No.  1, P.  33

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is preparing law enforcement agencies for urban warfare by commissioning prototypes of specialized technologies.  BBN Technologies, a division of Verizon, has designed a sniper-detection device that will allow soldiers to track the direction of a bullet back to a hidden enemy, which can then be transmitted to a Global Positioning System.  The new battlefield technology will use microphones and a helmet-mounted compass, and the device can also be mounted on trucks, airplanes, streetlights, and buildings.  BBN's technology tracks snipers at long distance by picking up the acoustic vibrations from the muzzle blast and the supersonic crack of the bullet.  The technology is also able to detect the trajectory, caliber, and speed of the bullet.  (www.sciam.com/)

NLECTC Law Enforcement & Corrections Technology News Summary Thursday, July 5, 2001 The National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) provides the following information as a service to law enforcement, corrections, and forensic science practitioners.  The summary includes abstracts of articles from major national newspapers, business magazines, Web sites, national and international wire services, and periodicals focusing on law enforcement and corrections technology.
Please note that providing synopses of articles on law enforcement and corrections technology or the mention of specific manufacturers or products does not constitute the endorsement of the U.S.  Department of Justice or NLECTC.


"In U.S.  First, Tampa Cameras Study Crowds for Criminals"

Miami Herald (07/02/01) P.  5B Tampa, Fla., is the first U.S.  city to use face-scanning software linked to high-tech security cameras to search for wanted criminals along city streets.  "FaceIt," developed by Visionics, compares images taken by the cameras to mug shots in a database for people with outstanding warrants.  Some cities in Europe already utilize similar technology, as do government offices, casinos, and banks in the United States.
Tampa's system uses 36 cameras set up in the town's nightlife district, Ybor City.  FaceIt was also used in last years Super Bowl, generating 19 matches to people with outstanding warrants, though all for minor offenses.  To make a match, the computer program needs to line up between 14 and 22 of the 80 facial features it reads, and which time, an alarm is triggered, prompting an operator to make a visual comparison of the image taken and the mug shot in the database.

"New Explosives Detectors Will Doom Your Camera Film"

USA Today (06/29/01) P.  10D; Cadden, Many Travelers are advised not to pack unprocessed film in luggage that is being checked.  The Federal Aviation Administration is installing new explosives-detection systems to screen checked baggage that use the same technology as medical "CAT" scanners, and will likely damage film.  There are currently 116 devices operating at airports nationwide, with plans to expand to all airports in a few years.  (www.usatoday.com)

"Inmates Face Eye Test for Drugs"

Toronto Star (06/27/01) P.  A4 Ontario, Canada, will begin using technology developed by Md.-based PMI Inc.  on its inmate population to test if prisoners are under the influence of contraband drugs or alcohol.  Instead of taking a urine test, inmates simply have to look into a special viewfinder to determine whether they are currently on any illicit substance.  The system is being introduced in advance of new random drug testing policies that will go into effect in 2002.  (www.thestar.com/)

"Digital Data Network Closer to Reality"

Ottawa Citizen (06/30/01); Lee, Philip NASA's vision of a worldwide "Digital Earth" database is slowly becoming a reality.  Proponents of the so-called Digital Earth concept--which include Canada's Natural Resources department, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, as well as NASA--want to collect, process, and store vast quantities of cultural and environmental information to order to create a digital, multi-layered image of the Earth.  According to Fritz Hasler, a senior scientist at NASA's Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres, claims that the practical applications of such a database are limited only by people's imagination.  With such a database, land managers, for example, would be able to map climate change, biodiversity, urban sprawl, and deforestation, while law enforcement officials would be able to detect gang activity and crime patterns, and as a result, would be able to send police units to where they were most needed.
Nevertheless, Wayne Walsh, a New Brunswick, Canada, government engineer, who organized a recent Digital Earth conference in Fredericton, Canada, admits that such a database would bring with it certain unresolved issues concerning privacy.  As data collection devices and cameras on the ground are gradually combined with satellite technology, no one will any longer have any privacy.  Walsh added, however, that--because information can be used for both good and bad purposes--what is really important is how the information is managed.

"No Shot in the Dark: Thermal Imaging Takes Hide and Seek Out of Police Work"

Asbury Park Press (06/30/01) P.  B2; Larsen, Erik Paid for with a Department of Defense grant, the Barnegat and Stafford police departments in New Jersey have received three pieces of infrared, thermal-imaging, night-vision gear, which helps officers find suspects or dropped evidence using temperature and reflected light.  The equipment, which is worth about $30,000 and is supplied by ITT Industries and Raytheon, can only be used to search through walls for criminal activity after getting a warrant, according to a recent Supreme Court ruling.  The technology turns a dark area into a grainy image through a pair of night binoculars, which allows officers to see hiding suspects or concealed evidence.

NLECTC Law Enforcement & Corrections Technology News Summary Thursday, June 28, 2001 The National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) provides the following information as a service to law enforcement, corrections, and forensic science practitioners.  The summary includes abstracts of articles from major national newspapers, business magazines, Web sites, national and international wire services, and periodicals focusing on law enforcement and corrections technology.
Please note that providing synopses of articles on law enforcement and corrections technology or the mention of specific manufacturers or products does not constitute the endorsement of the U.S.  Department of Justice or NLECTC.


"Video System Opens New Doors Creator Pleased With Regional Jail's Use of Technology"

Charleston Daily Mail (06/21/01); Mossavat, Vada Over 1,100 inmates were arraigned in West Virginia courthouses this year, but none had to leave the jail facility, because of new technology.  First Virtual Communications, a Silicon Valley company, developed the audio and visual technology that will eventually be installed in the remaining 19 county courthouses; 36 county courthouses already have the equipment. Steve Canterbury, executive director of the Regional Jail Authority, said the technology will mean that jailhouse distance learning, telemedicine, and trials could eventually be done electronically.  (www.dailymail.com)

"As Crimefighters Turn to High-Tech Video, the Guilty Find No Defense"

Boston Herald (06/26/01) P.  28; Gatlin, Greg Avid Technology, which previously focused on providing digital video editing systems for television and film producers, has developed the dTective video evidence analysis system in partnership with Ocean Systems.  The system clears up blurry videotape images and allows tape to be broken down frame by frame.  The dTective product, which carries a price tag of approximately $28,000, has been purchased by about 50 North American law enforcement entities.  Grant Fredericks, an Avid employee and former Vancouver police officer, says that the department has won every case involving video evidence since it started using dTective.  Fredericks also points out that many crime suspects have pleaded guilty after being caught on film.  (www.bostonherald.com)

"State Boosts Felon's DNA Database; Crime-Fighting Cache Becomes Largest in U.S."

San Francisco Chronicle (06/25/01) P.  A1; Goodyear, Charlie; Hallissy, Erin The Berkeley DNA lab in California contains 200,000 genetic profiles of convicted felons, which makes it the largest DNA database of its kind in the nation.  The database covers murder, kidnapping, sexual assault offenses, and spousal abuse, but state Attorney General Bill Lockyer supports a proposal to add robbery, arson, and carjacking to the list.

The development of the database is even more impressive considering the system only had genetic profiles for 65,000 felons in October 1999.  Lockyer said the expansion of the database was made possible through $5 million in additional funding granted by the Legislature and Gov.  Gray Davis.  Lance Gima, who is in charge of the lab, reported that staff at the facility used an assembly-line system to convert thousands of blood and saliva samples taken from convicted felons into digitized DNA profiles.  The database was launched to solve the thousands of unsolved rapes and murders in California.
Currently, technicians check the database several times a month to determine if any recorded profile matches DNA evidence collected from 700 pending cases.  (www.sfgate.com/)

"Anti-Hate Site Excels With Speed, Accuracy"

USA Today (06/20/01) P.  3D; Kornblum, Janet The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) is helping law enforcement agents combat hate crimes by launching a Web site that will serve as an "instant resource" for hate crime information.  The site will feature information about different hate groups and a calendar of events related to planned extremist activities.
Anyone may visit the site.  Law enforcement groups have confidence in the integrity of the information provided by the ADL, says Douglas Scherzer, the vice president of the New Jersey Association of Chiefs of Police.  (www.usatoday.com) [The ADL site is available at http://www.adl.org/learn/]

"Program Tracks Teen Courts"

Civic.com (06/20/01); Morehead, Nicholas The Information Services Division of Eugene, Ore., has created a computer program to analyze data from teen courts in West Eugene and Bethel.  These courts conduct trials for juvenile first-time offenders who are willing to follow the mandates of a jury the members of which are between 12 and 17 years old, instead of facing juvenile court.  The software compiles statistics on such information as the rate of repeat offenders, jury make-up, program completion rates, and parental data.  The program can also automatically produce the quarterly report that is required by the federal Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants program, which gives $60,000 annually to the teen courts project.  Officials who handle peer courts in the cities of Fern Ridge and Springfield were so taken with the software's ability to save money and time normally spent on paperwork that they requested a copy and received one for the nominal charge of $1.  (www.civic.com)

"Technology & Innovation; What Goes Around - Comes Around Immersive, 360-Degree Panoramas are Proliferating Online" Boston Globe (06/25/01) P.  C1; Denison, D.C.

If you can imagine standing still watching as your surroundings turn and sweep around you that is what immersive imaging is about.  The technology is not new, but remains popular to enthusiasts for it's "coolness," yet it hasn't discovered a niche in industry yet to fulfill the grandiose dreams of huge profits it appeared to promise during the rise of dot-coms.  Additionally, business models for companies who do this type of work are few, resulting in the immersive imaging being sandwiched between being considered a really neat hobby and an overload of technology remaining unsought professionally.  Two enthusiasts, Ben Raynes and Holly Archibald, are hoping to sell their immersive expertise to educational institutions, by creating virtual tours of campuses and buildings.  The Boston-based Interactive Tactical Group intends to market their immersive technology to the security and safety industry.  Company operator Michael Quan says his services were conceived following the Columbine High School violence and will give firemen and police officers a detailed view of building interiors.  Until now, law enforcement officers had to rely on building blueprints to "see" inside, but the panoramic capabilities of immersive photography will even show them detail of panel boxes, light switches, writing, etc.  A number of years ago, the industry was thought to be a goldmine, but in reality, immersive imagery still has no huge application that will make it the latest and greatest idea, but it is gaining ground through solid, small applications.  (www.globe.com/boston)

"Mini-Devices May Soon Replace Combat Scouts"
USA Today (06/25/01) P.  5A; Stone, Andrea Tiny unmanned aerial devices may eventually replace the combat soldier scout for short-range field missions.  Military engineers are developing a broad range of microaircraft and pack-size vehicles for field surveillance.  Called UAVs, the units will be able to peek over the horizon or around a corner without putting a soldier at risk.  During times of war, many soldiers have been killed performing these same surveillance missions.  The Marines at Camp Pendleton, Calif., have been testing their five-pound UAV, called Dragon Eye, which has a 45-inch wingspan and comes apart in five easily stowable pieces for carrying in a backpack.  It is manually launched, slingshot style with a bungee cord, and controlled by a button in a soldier's vest.  The Army's MAV (micro air vehicle) is a mechanical eye shaped like a coffee can, some as lightweight as one pound and only six inches in diameter.  It is capable of flying as far as six miles away, carries video, infrared, acoustics, and metal detection sensors, and is able to perch and stare for weeks.  (www.usatoday.com/)

"Informix Software Unveils Law Enforcement Foundation for Biometrics -- Extending Its Vertical Market Bundling SStrategy" Business Wire (06/26/01)

At the upcoming International Crime Conference in San Diego, the release of the Law Enforcement Foundation for Biometrics will be announced by Informix Software.  The company had the help of Cogent Systems and Visionics in further implementing its plans of meeting the requirements of specific vertical markets through database-driven customized solutions. The new product incorporates fingerprint, palm, facial, voice, and iris recognition capabilities.  The Law Enforcement Foundation for Biometrics utilizes digital watermarking technology to ensure accuracy and to allow law enforcement to provide better security and protection with minimal disturbance to public settings.  Informix Software vice president of marketing Brian Staff says that the new system's ability to offer customized services and handle huge amounts of diverse data demonstrates the company's goal of meeting clients' needs. (www.businesswire.com/)

"Aether Announces StopTracker, Gives Police Departments First Wireless Solution to Meet Requirements of New Data Collection and Profiling Laws" Business Wire Online (06/26/01)

Aether Systems, a provider of wireless data products and services, has developed StopTracker for police officers' use on handheld devices and laptop computers.  The tool allows officers to record traffic stops and field interviews, including race, gender, age, reason for stop or interview, type of contact, vehicle make, and any property seized, which can improve efficiency and accuracy in police data.  The data is then exported to the department's central database, where it can be analyzed, tracked, and compared against department trends, local demographics, and other criteria used to combat profiling.  Information collected and produced by the system can be analyzed easily by independent organizations as well.
Another product, PacketCluster Patrol, can be combined with StopTracker to provide police officers with accurate motor vehicle and warrant information.  (www.businesswire.com/)

"Stop the Wandering: Electronic Gadgets Can Help Keep Track of Your Kids"

Atlanta Journal-Constitution (06/24/01) P.  1Q; Dilonardo, Mary Jo Technology has offered parents new ways to monitor the safety and behavior of their children.  Parents have different options, with everything from a device called the ChildPro Child Watch Monitor that sounds alarms if people talk to the child or if the child falls in water, to a device that uses Global Positioning technology to locate children during an emergency and mobile phone technology to dispatch police to that location.  Seven hundred law enforcements are using the child-monitoring technology called TRAK, Technology to Recover Abducted Kids, that allows quick missing person fliers to be made that include a high-resolution photo and are able to be electronically distributed to other law enforcement agencies, community groups, and the media.  (www.accessatlanta.com)

Wednesday, July 04, 2001 - First it was the photo-radar vans snapping pictures of Denver-area speeders.

Now, some fear Big Brother's roving eye soon will be watching all of Colorado with the arrival of a new European import called "face recognition."

The Department of Motor Vehicles, in an effort to prevent identity theft and driver's license fraud, is buying cameras that will map every driver's facial characteristics like a three-dimensional land chart.

The danger, critics say, is that the technology could eventually be expanded to monitor the comings and goings of ordinary Coloradans.

This week, Tampa, Fla., became the first city in the United States to install similar high-tech security cameras on public streets to scan crowds in the city's nightlife district. Images will be compared against a database of mug shots of people with active warrants.

"There is a danger," said Rep.  Matt Smith, a Grand Junction lawmaker and attorney who serves on a statewide task force studying the issue of privacy.  "The intended purpose of facial recognition is to help the state prevent the theft of identity.  Now the question is, "What will its future use be?' "There has to be a point where the government doesn't have its nose over every shoulder," he said.

Mug shots compared Old driver's license photos will be scanned into a computer database using the new technology.  Then, starting next July, new mugs will be compared with those on file to make sure people are who they say they are when they go to get, or renew, a Colorado driver's license.

It doesn't matter if you gain 200 pounds and go bald between photographs.  Short of plastic surgery, the camera will recognize you.

"Facial recognition deals with spatial details, where a nose is compared with the eyes," said Dorothy Dalquist, spokeswoman for the Colorado Department of Revenue. "Baldness doesn't count, and weight doesn't either.  It's the basic facial structure."

The state legislature authorized the technology during the last session.  State officials won't disclose the cost of the system until they meet later this month with officials from Polaroid, one of the companies involved in making the system.

In the beginning, face recognition will be used to try to prevent criminals from obtaining multiple driver licenses under others' names, Dalquist said.

"We know of cases where individuals steal personal information from other people, forge documents and go to six or seven driver license offices getting licenses with their pictures and other people's identities.  In theory, they have a legitimate license, but in actuality, they're not who they say they are," Dalquist said.  "Now, we will be able to say after the first one, "No, you can't have another one.'"

Or the police could be called in.

"My guess is if we saw something that is an egregious misuse of the system, we might alert law enforcement to that," she said.

The cameras can't prevent the types of fraud that now occur when people make their own driver's licenses using home computers and the Internet.  However, as part of the new program, invisible markers will be added to each new license so stores or banks can scan the card to see if it's genuine.

Privacy concerns The technology has raised concerns about privacy, ethics and government intrusion.
Privacy advocates are concerned that a database of photographs could itself spill into the Orwellian realm.

"We all want to catch as many criminals as we possibly can, but we also have to be concerned about the privacy issues," said Sen.  Ken Gordon, D-Denver, a member of a state task force set up to craft legislation aimed at protecting privacy.  "Information obtained for one purpose is sometimes used for reasons that were not contemplated by people who set up the system to begin with."

Gordon said Colorado already sells driver records to insurance companies for $5 million a year.

"If we're going to create a database of photographs of every driver in Colorado, will it be used only to protect against criminals?" Gordon asked.  "Or will it be used for commercial purposes or marketing or to produce books of people's photos.  We have to be careful."

Colorado's new system could pave the way for expanded use, say for instance tapping into a criminal database and finding out if someone getting a driver license is a fugitive.

"I'm sure law enforcement would appreciate it sometime in the future," Dalquist said.
"Right now, we're not hooking into their data process.  We're trying to protect citizens against identity fraud, and businesses, too."

But some say this latest technology could continue to grow into a Tampa-like monitoring system.

Last month, Denver police used low-tech, hand-held video cameras to catch rowdy partygoers celebrating the Colorado Avalanche's Stanley Cup victory.

"We haven't discussed it," said Denver police Sgt.  Tony Lombard, "not at this point."

Car spy pushes privacy limit

By Robert Lemos ZDNet News June 20, 2001 1:42 PM PT Car renters beware: Big Brother may be riding shotgun.
In a case that could help set the bar for the amount of privacy drivers of rental cars can expect, a Connecticut man is suing a local rental company, Acme Rent-a-Car, after it used GPS (Global Positioning System) technology to track him and then fined him $450 for speeding three times.

The case underscores the ways that new technologies can invade people's privacy, said Richard Smith, chief technologist at the not-for-profit Privacy Foundation.

"Soon our cell phones will be tracking us," he said.  "GPS could be one more on the checklist here.  Frankly, giving out speeding tickets is the job of the police, not of private industry."

Rental car companies have used GPS devices since the mid-1990s, installing systems to give drivers directions while they're on the road.  "Fleet management" companies such as AirIQ and Fleetrack are also selling newer tracking services that help companies monitor their vehicles.

The New Haven Small Claims Court case pits New Haven resident James Turner against Acme.  Turner also filed a claim with the Connecticut Department of Consumer Protection.

Turner paid for the rental car with a debit card last fall and, after returning the car, was shocked to find that an extra $450 had been taken out of his account, according to an article in the New Haven Advocate, where the case was first reported.

Turner could not be contacted for this article, and his attorney did not return phone calls.

When Turner contested the charges, Acme was able to point out on a map exactly where he exceeded the company's threshold speed of 79 mph.

For Acme, however, the policy is not about penalizing customers but about protecting its cars, said Max F.  Brunswick, the attorney representing the company.

Acme recently decided to equip its cars with GPS technology and uses tracking services from AirIQ to find stolen rental cars and charge customers for "dangerous" conduct.  The policy is stated in bold at the top of the rental agreement, Brunswick said.

"You have a problem in rental cars that people don't treat them like their own cars,"
Brunswick said.  "The main reason to put in the GPS receivers is not to track the people but to track the vehicles.  With this device you can track within a city block anywhere in the world."

That's not all that GPS and AirIQ can do.  Calls to Acme itself were not returned, but information on the company's Web site promotes the service's ability to track the vehicle's location, notify the company when the car has crossed into another country or state, alert for "excessive speed," and even disable the car remotely.

Other car companies and vehicle monitoring services have embraced GPS as well.
General Motors' roadside assistance service, known as OnStar, uses GPS to locate subscribers when they call for help.  The company expects its subscriber base to climb to 4 million by 2003.

However, both GPS and cell phone technologies have raised privacy concerns.

"The challenge right now is to ensure, before these services and capabilities are widely deployed, that rules are in place," said David Sobel, general counsel for the Electronic Privacy Information Center in Washington, D.C.

At present, both Turner and Acme have left the decision in the hands of the Department of Consumer Protection.  The judge in the small claims court case has delayed hearing the claim until the department has issued a ruling.

Brunswick said Acme plans to abide by the Department of Consumer Protection's ruling.
"If they say it's not a fair practice, we will give him his money back," he said.  "We are not out to make money on this."

'Digital Angel' set to fly tomorrow Implant technology to be beta tested on humans --------------------------------------------------------------- © 2001 WorldNetDaily.com

 Beginning tomorrow, Applied Digital Solutions will begin beta testing on humans an implant technology capable of allowing users to emit a homing beacon, have vital bodily functions monitored and confirm identity when making e-commerce transactions.

The first production run of "Digital Angel®" devices has begun, the Florida-based, NASDAQ-traded company has announced.

While the manufacturers of the technology bill it as a potential lifesaver, others fear the advent of the device threatens personal privacy – and even raises the ugly specter of the Bible's "mark of the beast." Applied Digital Solutions, an e-business-to-business solutions provider, acquired the patent rights to the miniature digital transceiver it has named "Digital Angel®." The company plans to market the device for a number of uses, including as a "tamper-proof means of identification for enhanced e-business security."

Digital Angel® sends and receives data and can be continuously tracked by global positioning satellite technology.  When implanted within a body, the device is powered electromechanically through the movement of muscles and can be activated either by the "wearer" or by a monitoring facility.

"We believe its potential for improving individual and e-business security and enhancing the quality of life for millions of people is virtually limitless," said ADS Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Richard Sullivan.  "Although we're in the early developmental phase, we expect to come forward with applications in many different areas, from medical monitoring to law enforcement.  However, in keeping with our core strengths in the e-business to business arena, we plan to focus our initial development efforts on the growing field of e-commerce security and user ID verification."

Dr.  Peter Zhou, chief scientist for development of the implant and president of DigitalAngel.net, a subsidiary of ADS, told WorldNetDaily the device will send a signal from the person wearing Digital Angel® to either his computer or the e-merchant with whom he is doing business in order to verify his identity.

But e-commerce is only one field to which Digital Angel® applies.  The device's patent describes it as a rescue beacon for kidnapped children and missing persons.  According to Zhou, the implant will save money by reducing resources used in rescue operations for athletes, including mountain climbers and skiers.

Law enforcement may employ the implant to keep track of criminals under house arrest, as well as reduce emergency response time by immediately locating individuals in distress.

The device also has the ability to monitor the user's heart rate, blood pressure and other vital functions.

"Your doctor will know the problem before you do," said Zhou, noting peace of mind is possible for at-risk patients who can rest in the knowledge that help will be on the way should anything go wrong.

Indeed, peace of mind is Digital Angel®'s main selling point.

"Ideally," the patent states, "the device will bring peace of mind and an increased quality of life for those who use it, and for their families, loved ones, and associates who depend on them critically."

Referring to the threat of kidnapping, the patent goes on to say, "Adults who are at risk due to their economic or political status, as well as their children who may be at risk of being kidnapped, will reap new freedoms in their everyday lives by employing the device."

Digital Angel®'s developer told WND demand for the implant has been tremendous since ADS announced its acquisition of the patent.

"We have received requests daily from around the world for the product," Zhou said, mentioning South America, Mexico and Spain as examples.

One inquirer was the U.S.  Department of Defense through a contractor, according to Zhou.  American soldiers may be required to wear the implant so their whereabouts and health conditions can be accessed at all times, said the scientist.

But for critics, military use of the implant is not at the top of their list of objections to the new technology.  ADS has received complaints from Christians and others who believe the implant could be the fulfillment of biblical prophecy.

The Book of Revelation states all people will be required to "receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark." (Rev.  13: 16-17)

In an increasingly cashless society where identity verification is essential for financial transactions, some Christians view Digital Angel®'s ID and e-commerce applications as a form of the biblical "mark of the beast."

But Zhou dismisses such objections to the implant.

"I am a Christian, but I don't think [that argument] makes sense," he told WND.  "The purpose of the device is to save your life and improve the quality of life.  There's no connection to the Bible.  There are different interpretations of the Bible.  My interpretation is, anything to improve the quality of life is from God.  The Bible says, 'I am the God of living people.' We not only live, we live well."

Sullivan, responding to religious objections to his product, told WorldNetDaily no one will be forced to wear Digital Angel®.

"We live in a voluntary society," he said.  According to the CEO, individuals may choose not to take advantage of the technology.

Zhou alluded to some Christians' objection to medicine per se, adding such opposition wanes when the life-saving, life-improving benefits of technology are realized.

"A few years ago there may have been resistance, but not anymore," he continued.
"People are getting used to having implants.  New century, new trend."

Zhou compared Digital Angel® to pacemakers, which regulate a user's heart rate.
Pacemakers used to be seen as bizarre, said Zhou, but now they are part of everyday life.  Digital Angel® will be received the same way, he added.

Vaccines are another good comparison, said the scientist, who noted, "Both save your life.  When vaccines came out, people were against them.  But now we don't even think about it."

Digital Angel®, Zhou believes, could become as prevalent as a vaccine.

"Fifty years from now this will be very, very popular.  Fifty years ago the thought of a cell phone, where you could walk around talking on the phone, was unimaginable.  Now they are everywhere," Zhou explained.

Just like the cell phone, Digital Angel® "will be a connection from yourself to the electronic world.  It will be your guardian, protector.  It will bring good things to you."

"We will be a hybrid of electronic intelligence and our own soul," Zhou concluded.

ADS, DigitalAngel.net's parent company, received a special "Technology Pioneers"
award from the World Economic Forum for its contributions to "worldwide economic development and social progress through technology advancements."

The World Economic Forum, incorporated in 1971 with headquarters in Geneva, is an independent, not-for-profit organization "committed to improving the state of the world."

When delivery and beta testing begin tomorrow, it will enlist the support of a limited number of pre-registered subscribers and end users and last for a period of 90 days.

NLECTC Law Enforcement & Corrections Technology News Summary Thursday, May 17, 2001 The National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) provides the following information as a service to law enforcement, corrections, and forensic science practitioners.  The summary includes abstracts of articles from major national newspapers, business magazines, Web sites, national and international wire services, and periodicals focusing on law enforcement and corrections technology.
Please note that providing synopses of articles on law enforcement and corrections technology or the mention of specific manufacturers or products does not constitute the endorsement of the U.S.  Department of Justice or NLECTC.

For more information on NLECTC and the web version of this news summary, please visit JUSTNET at http://www.nlectc.org.
NLECTC may also be reached at 1-800-248-2742.

Reproduction of this text is encouraged; however copies may not be sold, and the NLECTC Law Enforcement & Corrections Technology News Summary should be cited as the source of the information.  Copyright 2001, Information Inc., Bethesda, MD.


"Lawmakers Crack Down on Identity Theft"

Wall Street Journal (05/16/01) P.  B10; Gavin, Robert Washington is one of the most recent states to get tough on identity theft.  Gov.  Gary Locke passed into law last week a bill sponsored by state Sen.  Margarita Prentice that would allow identity theft victims to file police reports with credit agencies as a way to block negative credit reports.  The bill also imposes harsher punishments for identity theft crimes.  California and Idaho have similar laws on the books.
Florida, Alabama, and Arizona have also taken legislative action on identity theft.  Financial Services Roundtable President Steve Bartlett says that although identity-theft legislation is a good thing, it would be better addressed by the federal government rather than a patchwork of state laws.

"Will Robots Match Human Smarts?"

United Press International (05/09/01); Hearn, Kelly Before machine minds become like the minds of men, computers need to become much faster; human and machine interfaces need to become much more sensitive; algorithms that reflect the human brain's neurological processes need to be developed; and machines need to learn from, and react to, unpredicted circumstances.  Computer systems' understanding of human language also must be improved.  Researchers at Austin-based Cycorp have programmed a million or so common sense human rules into a computer that enable it to respond accurately and logically to spoken questions.  Such advances in the computer sciences are expected to contribute significantly to law enforcement, industrial, and uses.  The president of Cycorp said, "We have reached a point where the system now knows enough that it can productively, effectively help in its own growth, in its own education."

"River of Drugs; Smuggling Swelss as Cross-Border Trade Rises"

Fort Worth Star-Telegram (05/14/01) P.  1; Rodriguez, Rebeca The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) brings promising economic rewards and a welcoming atmosphere for goods to flow across the U.S.-Mexican border, but with it comes an increase in vehicles, and the likelihood of a rise in illegal drug smuggling.  Last year, inspectors seized more than a half-million pounds of marijuana, cocaine, heroine, and methamphetamines after inspecting more than 48 million passenger vehicles and 3.1 million commercial vehicles that crossed into Brownsville, Texas, from the El Paso-Mexican border.  Total confiscation of drugs was up by 71 percent for cocaine, 130 percent for marijuana, and 400 percent for methamphetamines.  At many international borders, special teams are waiting to inspect cars and officers still wander through the waiting traffic with drug-sniffing dogs, making spot checks of vehicles that appear in the least unusual. Armed with high-tech equipment, agents can now see inside a gas tank using a powerful scope.  Another gadget will detect areas of density inside a vehicle where drugs might be hidden; they are armed with brass hammers capable of striking fuel tanks without producing sparks and gamma-ray machines that can scan an entire truck in just three minutes.  In addition to all the gadgets, however, Roger Maier, an El Paso customs spokesperson, comments that inspectors must know how to read a situation and be able to spot unusual things, like someone's knees being abnormally high while sitting in the car, possibly indicating a false floor.  Likewise, inspector M.  Gomez spotted a nervous driver, and on closer inspection, found something odd about the car's trunk bed, which turned out to be hiding
98 pounds of marijuana worth $100,000 on the street.  Nearly $50 million has been allocated in the 2002 federal budget to help Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California counties effectively crack down on drug smuggling.

"Transit Cops' Camera Turning Up the Heat"

New York Daily News (05/10/01) P.  17; Donohue, Pete The $13,000 MSA Evolution 4000 TIC thermal-imaging camera is currently being used by the NYPD Transit Bureau to detect homeless trespassers in subway tunnels with body heat.
Heat-generated images are displayed for law enforcement officers on a hand-held screen and show body heat even if someone is hiding behind a pillar or under a blanket.  The camera can also display recent palm marks and footprints that point in the direction of travel.  Using the 68 cameras, the Transit Bureau's homeless squad found 14 people in tunnels who were trespassing.  Eventually, the technology will be used to find vandals and track fleeing suspects. (www.nydailynews.com/)

"Report: Wireless Snooping on the Rise"

Wireless NewsFactor (05/04/01); Wrolstad, Jay Wireless wiretaps accounted for 60 percent of all 1,190 federal court-authorized taps during 2000, according to an Administrative Office of the U.S.  Courts report.  Wireless taps include cellular and cordless phones, while electronic taps of pagers, emails, and faxes accounted for only 8 percent of federal court-authorized wiretapping.  As a result, the ACLU and Center for Democracy & Technology (CDT) have written the U.S.  Attorney General to question whether wiretapping of cell phones that can reveal an individual's physical location should be authorized under traditional wiretapping standards, suggesting instead that more stringent standards may be needed.  The CDT has charged the FBI with using wiretapping of cell phones as physical tracking, not authorized under the
1994 Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA), which covers wiretapping protocol.  The ACLU also used the letter to challenge the FBI's Carnivore email wiretapping program, suggesting that Carnivore technology should be turned over to ISPs to ensure the program is being used for court-prescribed narrow searches.  (www.ecommercetimes.com)

"Night and Day, Computers Collect Information"
Washington Post--Wired Life (05/16/01) P.  G10; O'Harrow , Robert Jr.

With marketing firms collecting data to harness profit from even the most mundane aspects of an individual's day, online and offline data collection is becoming a ubiquitous part of U.S.  society, a trend receiving attention from Congress, which in the last few years has passed laws protecting online medical data and restricting online data collection from children.  Web portals usually either collect data by implanting "cookies" on a user's hard drive to track movements over the Web, or voluntarily obtain data in exchange for portal access or product discounts.  All this information allows marketers to create personal profiles of consumers in order to target particular consumers with specific ads.
"Information allows marketers to try and bring the personal touch back in," says Jerry Cerasale, the Direct Marketing Association's senior vice president for government affairs.
"Part of the vibrant economy is that Americans have all the choices," Cerasale says.  "If we restricted that flow of information, it would reduce those choices." Law enforcement is increasingly turning to mass surveillance, most notably perhaps the FBI's Carnivore email filtering program.  In the workplace, companies are also turning to email and Internet monitoring to ensure employees use these tools for work purposes only.  (www.washingtonpost.com)

"'Cult of the Dead Cow' Invents Browser That Enables Oppressed to Circumvent Web Censorship"

Guardian, The (05/14/01) P.  8; Millar, Stuart Police report that the 'Cult of the Dead Cow,' a group of hackers, is developing a browser that would give users access to banned information found on the Web.  The group plans to launch the Peekabooty browser in July.  Since the browser uses the network for data storage instead of a central server and employs encryption technology, the browser offers secrecy for the person accessing the information.  Free speech advocates and law enforcement are at odds over the issue.  Law enforcement agencies fear the browser could be used to deliver illegal material, such as child pornography.  Police agencies outside the United States are also concerned about the potential for Peekabooty to conceal illegal information.  Tim Snape of the Internet Service Providers Association warns that the browser could circumvent Britain's Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act, which allows police to monitor data systems and forces those suspected of committing Internet crimes to disclose transcription keys.  (www.guardian.co.uk/)

"UK Government: Hi-Tech Scheme to Chip Away at Business Crime"
M2 Communications (05/08/01)

The United Kingdom's Chipping of Goods Initiative has developed two pilot projects to demonstrate the effectiveness of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology in its efforts to reduce property crime.  A silicon chip will be embedded into a boat's structure, will contain information about the manufacturer and owner of the boat, and the information and tag identifier will be entered into the TRI-Mex satellite tracking system.  The police will be able to use the system to identify stolen marine property by providing an audit trail, which traces where a boat has been and who handled it last.  About 10 to 20 sport boats and leisure craft are stolen per day.

"CyberExtruder Lands Series A Funding; Proceeds to Expand Market for CyberX3D Facial Imaging Technology"
PR Newswire (05/08/01)

After the announcement of the $600,000 financing deal between CyberExtruder Inc.  and undisclosed investors, CEO Larry Gardner commented that the financial backing would enable the firm to continue developing new ideas in conjunction with several technology associates.  Among the new product lines are a facial animation kit, called CyberX3D, for instant messaging and chat.  The application allows users to stream a photo to a secure Web site where it will be analyzed and distinctive facial characteristics traced, resulting in a recreation of the face in 3 dimension within seconds.  The new file is returned to the originator and can be used in video games or personal websites.  The uniqueness of CyberX3D is that it works from one photo and is completely automated.  And, although the patent is still pending, the technology is currently available on some Internet games.  Site visitors to www.cyberextruder.com can upload and convert as many as six photos at one time for conversion to a 3-D screensaver that can be downloaded for free.  The $20-billion Internet gaming industry is currently keeping revenue flowing into CyberExtruder, but the firm is in the process of securing licensing contracts from Web development firms, law enforcement, security, and medical applicants, as well as online advertisers that may want to use the CyberX3D as a media enhancement tool.  (www.prnewswire.com)

"Visionics FaceIt Ported to ViA's Next Generation Wearable Computer to Create Mobile Security System"
Business Wire (05/08/01)

Visionics Corporation and ViA have teamed up to install FaceIt, a facial recognition technology, into a mobile security system, or wearable computer.  The system captures a facial image and cross-references it with a database of images to confirm an individual's status.  The mobile security system can aide military police in their daily duties, improve effectiveness, and locate other personnel through a GPS data system.  The system could be applied to law enforcement, as well as to surveillance, banking, and information security.

"Armoring Patrol Cars" Law Enforcement Technology (04/01) Vol.  28, No.  4, P.  76;
Yates, Tom The cost of armoring police patrol cars plus the warranty complications it could entail does not outweigh the possibility of requiring it, according to law enforcement writer Tom Yates, who uses the comparison of having a parachute on an airplane: "when you need it, you really, really need it.  Vehicle manufacturers advise police departments who might be considering armoring their patrol cars to think about several things: level of protection, automobile weight restrictions, manufacturing warranty issues, and impact on occupants in a crash.  The extra weight carried by the auto may affect the performance and operation of other devices inside the car, which would mean warranties might not be honored if an upgrade such as armor were to negatively impact the standard operational values of otherwise covered parts and components.  Or, the extra weight may cause the car to exceed the GVW restriction.  Armor manufacturers deny that their product would affect car performance, but representatives from Ford and GM both said that although testing has not been done, they believe that the added weight would alter acceleration and braking.  Tests performed by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) produce the standards by which armor manufacturers rate their products protectiveness, by the means of categorizing the caliber of bullets from least to greatest threat levels.  Generally, manufacturers define their product as having a Level IIIA protection, which will protect the vehicle and occupants from .44 Magnum lead, semi-wadcutter, and gas checked and 9mm full-metal jacket rounds.  Both permanent armor that can be installed by police motor pool technicians and portable armor that can be attached to the car in modular pieces and stored in the trunk when not used are available.  (www.letonline.com)

"Making Crime Pay"

Teledotcom (04/16/01) Vol.  6, No.  8, P.  41; Prince, Paul Current economic conditions lend themselves to a move toward diversification, and cable and telecom firms are changing their focus from more conventional services to new areas.
These types of companies have the experience in wiring and connecting houses, customer service and billing, and managing network-monitoring facilities that are necessary to create a home security business.  Atlanta's Cox Communications is among the cable companies moving into the area of security and is working on a new kind of video security service that operates via broadband.  Cable companies are connecting with security firms, Internet service providers, and phone companies, hoping that new services will ensure customer retention and revenue.
Austin-based @Security Braodband Corp.  is working with Cox, Comcast Corp., Cablevision Systems, Charter Communications, and Rogers Communications to connect the security company to what is happening in a house, via video, through a system that would also offer Web-based audio security features to customers.  The company has tested the system and found it to be very reliable, without putting a large strain on the operator's infrastructure.  The service should go on the market in the United States in a few months.  No one knows yet, however, whether the public will buy into the concept.

"Collecting Traffic Stop Data Is a Means to Identify Profiling and Stop It in Its Tracks"

Law Enforcement Technology (04/01) Vol.  26, No.  4, P.  100; Garrett, Ronnie L Many people are uncomfortable with the idea that the police are collecting personal data when stopping traffic violators, and some individuals allege that it the information is unjustly used for racial profiling.  Racial profiling as defined by the Department of Justice is any collection of data initiated by police authorities that categorizes people by race, ethnicity, or national origin.  Today, however, those data banks are filling up with more than physical descriptions, including personal characteristics such as sex, age, dress, and type of vehicle.  According to a 1999 Gallup pole, over one-half of all Americans believe police authorities are engaged in the practice of racial profiling and 81 percent of Americans believe it is wrong.  Despite the ambiguousness surrounding the uses of the data collected and having gone to court in several class-action lawsuits on behalf of victims of profiling, the American Civil Liberties Union still advocates traffic stop data collection, because it means the difference between obtaining facts, as opposed to getting anecdotal experiences.  Years ago, state and local law enforcement agencies were trained by the Drug Enforcement Administrations (DEA)s Operation Pipeline to stop motorists by type definition; in other words, stop those who by their definition of likely suspects are more likely to be carrying drugs.  Because stopping someone for a traffic violation is really an officers choice, King believes biases may play a significant role in who they stop.  King points to the data collection recommendations of the Department of Justice as hiding racial profiling, especially in stop and search incidents.  Two significant problems exist in facing the profiling issues: how the data is gathered and how it is analyzed after the fact.  (www.letonline.com)


NLECTC Law Enforcement & Corrections Technology News Summary Thursday, May 3, 2001.

The National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) provides the following information as a service to law enforcement, corrections, and forensic science practitioners.  The summary includes abstracts of articles from major national newspapers, business magazines, Web sites, national and international wire services, and periodicals focusing on law enforcement and corrections technology.
Please note that providing synopses of articles on law enforcement and corrections technology or the mention of specific manufacturers or products does not constitute the endorsement of the U.S.  Department of Justice or NLECTC.

For more information on NLECTC and the web version of this news summary, please visit JUSTNET at http://www.nlectc.org.
NLECTC may also be reached at 1-800-248-2742.

Reproduction of this text is encouraged; however copies may not be sold, and the NLECTC Law Enforcement & Corrections Technology News Summary should be cited as the source of the information.  Copyright 1999, Information Inc., Bethesda, MD.

"Police Upgrade City's Helicopters to Go High-Tech With Software"

Sunday Oklahoman (04/29/01) P.  10; Plumberg, Jean Oklahoma City has finished testing technology that brings together the global positioning system (GPS) with the city's geographic information system.  The technology will allow police helicopters to locate addresses sooner.  The city's geographic information system has every location within Oklahoma city mapped out.  The pilot and copilot will be able to switch from the helicopter's current infrared system to the new system by pressing a toggle switch.  A mini keyboard and mouse is used to operate the system, which provides a detailed map of a crime scene when an address is entered.  The system also provides icons showing the helicopter's position in relation to its destination, and has a zoom in feature for a more detailed view of surrounding streets.  A trial of the system was conducted in September.

"Be Very Afraid, the Cyber Cops May Be Watching You"Guardian, The (04/26/01) P.  7;

Gaines, Sarah Detective Chief Superintendent Keith Akerman, who is also the Chairman of the Internet Crime Forum, had a key role in last week's launch of the National Hi-Tech Crime Unit ( NHTCU).  The unit consists of 40 cyber cops, which monitor the Internet's activities of suspected pedophiles.  Partnerships between police agencies of different nations is vital when dealing with crimes perpetuated over the Internet.  Online crimes have increased in frequency as more people use the technology.
According to Web Police, 640 online crimes were reported in 1993 and 47,000 were reported in 1998.  The NCIS has also seen a rise in the distribution of child pornography on the Internet, with incidents rising from 215 in 1997 to 1,124 in 1999.  The NCIS plans to enlist the aid of police agencies and computer experts from around the world.

"County to Decide on 'Reverse 911' System"
Tampa Tribune (04/30/01) P.  1; Samolinski, Candace J.

The Pasco County Commission will decide whether or not to accept a $72,400 grant from the state of Florida that pays for the initial costs of implementing "Reverse 911" technology, because if accepted, the county would have to pay $63,000 to make the system operational.  "Reverse 911" technology uses computer software, phone lines, and a residential telephone database purchased from local telephone providers to automatically call people in certain areas to warn of floods or other emergencies.  Law enforcement could benefit from the system, because a large group of people can be alerted about crimes and prevention techniques.  Pawn shop owners could also be contacted with the system to watch for specific stolen merchandise.  The county's 911 system could get a new communications dispatch center in Land O'Lakes.  "The county dealt with 145,900 calls to 911 last year, which is an average of 14,000 calls per month", says 911 manager John Schroeder. (http://www.tampatrib.com)

"Gadget Sees Through Concrete"

USA Today (04/26/01) P.  8D; Vergano, Dan A new radar "flashlight" has proven effective in detecting people hiding behind house siding, drywall, and wooden doors.
The Justice Department's Office of Science and Technology (OS&T) has been under pressure from its advisory body to develop long-range tools for weapons and perpetrator detection.  Besides the radar gun, other inventions currently being tested include night vision goggles, a concealed weapons detector that uses sound waves, and a magnetic screen that spots handguns.  Radar gun inventor Gene Greneker originally developed it for use in the 1996 Olympics for measuring an athlete's breathing and pulse rate from a distance after testing a theory about how target shooters synchronized their breathing and pulse by the pull of a trigger.  The detection device has raised issues regarding privacy rights, according to David Sobel, general counsel of the Electronic Privacy Information Center in Washington, D.C.  A man in Oregon recently went to court after police used a heat-imaging device to determine whether his house had marijuana grow lights inside.  Sobel feels that rules need to be established regarding how far technology can be permitted to intrude into people's privacy prior to the issuance of a search warrant. (http://www.usatoday.com)

"Law Enforcement and Private Security (Leaps) Conference to Showcase Technology as Key Crime Fighting Tool"
PR Newswire (05/01/01)

ADT Security Services, a part of Tyco Fire and Security Services, announced recently that it is taking part in the Law Enforcement and Private Security Conference (LEAPS) 2001.
During the conference, which will be attended by the Los Angeles Police Department, business leaders from a number of different industries, and other electronic security companies, ADT will provide real-life demonstrations of the capabilities offered by its SecurVision remote digital video surveillance system.  SecurVision is a powerful surveillance device that can distinguish a human intruder from other motion stimuli--such as changes in weather, lighting conditions, or animals--and can provide digital video recording and storage similar to a VCR for up to 30 days in the hard drive of a computer.
According to ADT West Regional Director of Sales and Marketing, Curt Hilliard, SecurVision helps provide accurate, around-the-clock monitoring that can enhance the efforts of law enforcement or security personnel.  Hilliard adds that the benefits of capturing and accessing the real-time images of a criminal act as it is taking place are pretty self-evident from a law enforcement point of view.  From a business management perspective, Hilliard says, CCTV and SecurVision in particular can provide added value in the area of alarm verification, employee job performance, training, operational audits, merchandising, and liability control.  The Leaps 2001 Conference, which is currently in its second year, is an outgrowth of alliances formed between private security companies and local police departments to share information and ideas and to work cooperatively toward the common objective of preventing crime.  Specifically, the conference provides a forum at which to raise awareness about advances in technology that could have a law enforcement application. (http://www.prnewswire.com)

"What Do Red-Light Cameras See?"

Atlanta Journal-Constitution (04/23/01) P.  2C; Ledford, Joey Red-light cameras have been in use since 1997 in Maryland, issuing 11,000 citations in March and reducing the number of crashes in accident-prone intersections by 43 percent.  Though Georgia's red-light cameras have not resulted in citations being issued to motorists, they have captured vehicles making improper lane changes, a school bus nearly missing another car, and motorists that could be exonerated if they were given a citation by a pursuing officer.  However, critics of the red-light cameras claim that in college towns, where students and individuals change addresses often, individuals might not receive their citations or summons since they are sent by regular mail instead of by certified mail or delivered in person as required by law.  However, those that receive the citations and photos in the mail often pay the fine without contesting the summons.  (http://www.asscessatlanta.com)

"U.S.  Ponders Letting 'Carnivore' Off Leash"

NewsFactor Network (04/20/01); Lyman, Jay Online privacy advocates such as the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC), recently lobbied Attorney General John Ashcroft to cancel the FBI's Carnivore email-reading program, which can scan millions of emails per second to retrieve targeted subject matter.  Ashcroft is reconsidering Carnivore, which has drawn criticism from such groups as EPIC and the ACLU, but law enforcement agencies have been urging Ashcroft to extend the program with increased measures to protect citizens' privacy.  Law enforcement has argued for using more refined search targets and maintaining a log of every user, which would protect privacy by limiting search areas and ensuring that Carnivore abuse can be tracked to specific users.  EPIC is hopeful that Ashcroft will work to at least curtail Carnivore.  Some ISPs have refused to open their networks to Carnivore.  EarthLink, for example, took the FBI to court and won the right to open its network only in conjunction with specific, targeted investigations.


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NLECTC Law Enforcement & Corrections Technology News Summary Thursday, May 10, 2001 The National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) provides the following information as a service to law enforcement, corrections, and forensic science practitioners.  The summary includes abstracts of articles from major national newspapers, business magazines, Web sites, national and international wire services, and periodicals focusing on law enforcement and corrections technology.
Please note that providing synopses of articles on law enforcement and corrections technology or the mention of specific manufacturers or products does not constitute the endorsement of the U.S.  Department of Justice or NLECTC.

For more information on NLECTC and the web version of this news summary, please visit JUSTNET at http://www.nlectc.org.
NLECTC may also be reached at 1-800-248-2742.

Reproduction of this text is encouraged; however copies may not be sold, and the NLECTC Law Enforcement & Corrections Technology News Summary should be cited as the source of the information.  Copyright 2001, Information Inc., Bethesda, MD.


"Those Dimples May Be Digits"

New York Times (05/03/01) P.  G1; Newman, Andy Casinos, driver's license registration places, and police departments are among the growing number of entities making use of face-recognition software.  The software converts images into a string of numbers that can be matched to strings in other images.  Problems with lighting, camera angles, cameras quality, and other factors have made the technology less useful for general law enforcement than it is for computer log-ins, security checkpoints, and casino surveillance.  Face recognition is also less effective when enough time has passed for a person's face to change.  Biometric Test Center director Jim Wayman states that police can make good use of facial recognition if they have reasonable expectations about its efficacy and realize that decreasing the number of possible suspects is still a positive step.  Face-recognition technology has incited the ire of privacy advocates in the United States and Britain, although a majority of residents in the Newham borough of London feel that the enhanced feeling of safety they get with the system is more important.  Viisage Technology and Visionics are the two main providers of software for the $10 million market.  (www.nytimes.com)

"Is Big Brother Taking a Drive on the GW Parkway?"

Washington Times (05/08/01) P.  A1; Sorokin, Ellen; Godfrey, John The Interior Department's Park Service has installed surveillance cameras on Virginia's George Washington Parkway by the CIA headquarters and near Gravelly Point.  House Majority Leader Dick Armey and others are opposed to the cameras because it would constitute an invasion of privacy, but the Park Service disagrees.  According to the agency, the parkway was not intended as a freeway and was not designed for that purpose, which has limited the availability of turnarounds or shoulders for police cruisers to monitor speeders.  However, red light cameras in the district have erroneously issued about 20,000 tickets.  (www.washtimes.com)

"Senate Passes Anti-Crime Bills" Associated Press (05/03/01)

The Michigan Senate has voted unanimously to pass bills broadening DNA sampling and mandating that DNA profiles of convicted felons and some misdemeanor assault perpetrators be stored by the state police.  The high-tech crime-fighting tools are meant to solve old, unsolved cases by matching crime scene evidence with the profiles of people already convicted for other transgressions, according to Sen.  William Van Regenmorter.  The House will now decide whether to enact the proposals into law.  (www.ap.org)

"Imagis Releases Biometric Facial Recognition SDK for New Security and Access Applications"
PR Newswire (05/02/01)

Imagis Technologies has introduced a new software kit called ID-2000 SDK which can easily and relatively quickly be integrated into any existing application to provide biometric facial recognition capabilities.  The system is designed for use in areas such as e-commerce, airports, customs and immigration, access control, and auto theft.  Field testing of the software proved it to be very effective in identifying millions of records in a matter of seconds.  The software is a mapping program that captures physical facial features in such detail that even characteristics obscured or disguised can be identified.  When law enforcement officials installed the ID-2000 SDK, the leader in the facial recognition technology sector of law enforcement, in the Toronto International Airport, they were rewarded by the recognition of individuals who, when investigated, turned out to be wanted criminals.


“The day will come when you put your finger on a scanning device to prove who you are before you engage in transactions at retail stores, ATMs, banks and even when you buy groceries.  One company making such a device is engaged in a pilot project with the nation's largest grocery chain.

Biometric Access Corp.  has teamed up with four Kroger stores in the Houston area to test a point-of-sale finger scanning device for retail transactions.  The pilot project has been under way for just over a year and is working well, even though some customers don't like it, according to Kroger spokesman Gary Huddleston.

The Kroger stores are using the device to provide positive identification for payroll check cashing, not for actual sales.  Huddleston says customer acceptance is one of the challenges that must be overcome if the device is to be used for all transactions.  ‘Many customers have seen the value of the security in the system.
The finger image is positive identification,’ Huddleston told NewsMax.com in a phone interview.  He said a personal identification number was not very secure.
‘Will the finger image scanner become common in all retail stores in the future?  I'm sure it will,’ said Huddleston.  ‘Customer acceptance is one challenge, and cost is the other challenge.  As soon as we overcome those’…"

Isn't this a crock of crap!

Cameras scanned fans for criminals Super Bowl fans had their privacy invaded by the technology, critics say.  Law officials cite security.

By ROBERT TRIGAUX © St.  Petersburg Times, published January 31, 2001 TAMPA -- Were you one of the 100,000 fans and workers to pass through the stadium turnstiles at Sunday's Super Bowl?  Did you smile for the camera?

Each and every face that entered Raymond James Stadium for the big game was captured by a video camera connected to a law enforcement control room inside the stadium.

In milliseconds, each facial image was digitized and checked electronically against the computer files of known criminals, terrorists and con artists of the Tampa Police Department, the FBI and other state and local law enforcement agencies.

Sunday's Super Bowl was the first major sporting event to adopt the face-matching surveillance system.  But the designers of the system expect other security-sensitive sporting events, ranging from the upcoming 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City to the hooligan-plagued soccer leagues in parts of Europe, to express great interest.

The point?  To gain immediate identification of people who have past ties to illegal activities.  Images of individuals captured by the database system are not stored permanently, but could be used on game day if there is criminal activity at the stadium or law enforcement officials see someone wanted for a serious crime.

The problem?  Most Super Bowl fans had no clue their faces were being checked for matches with criminals.

"I find it disturbing," said privacy expert Christine L.  Borgman, professor and presidential chair in information studies at the University of California in Los Angeles.  "It smacks of Big Brother societies that keep watch over people."

Security officials counter that the database system is no more and possibly less intrusive than videotape cameras already in use at convenience stores, shopping malls or schools.

In cooperation with the Tampa Sports Authority, the Super Bowl surveillance system was also used this past week at the NFL Experience adjacent to the stadium.

The system, which relies on "biometric" technology to recognize faces, continues to be used by the Tampa Police Department in Ybor City, where 22 cameras monitor the entertainment district.  Police have used cameras to watch for fights and crime in Ybor for several years, but recently those cameras were linked directly to the police department's own database of mug shots.

"Places where large crowds are present, such as sporting events, are tempting targets for all types mischief, criminal behavior and larger threats," said Tom Colatosti, president of Viisage Technology in Littleton, Mass., whose software runs the face-identification system known as "FaceTrac."

"The security undertaking for a game like the Super Bowl is extraordinary," he said.  "Law enforcement is concerned about potential problems ranging from scalping tickets and pickpockets to aerial anthrax attacks."

At Sunday's Super Bowl, any individuals matched with photo files in the database could be questioned or detained by officers of the joint task force who were circulating throughout the stadium complex.

Several technology executives said Tuesday that their surveillance system did match a few fan faces with database mugs during the Super Bowl event.

However, Tampa Police Department spokesman Joe Durkin said the system did not match any known con artist or terrorist, and there were no resulting arrests.  The Police Department's network of cameras operating in Ybor's entertainment district was upgraded and tied to the new face-recognition system "within the last couple of weeks,"
Durkin said.

Is the new surveillance system the latest twist on Big Brother?  Face-matching surveillance already is well established at more than 70 casinos.  But the system's biggest opportunities lie in more benign functions: Identifying customers at ATMs or participants in welfare programs, and screening people who want to enter secure workplace areas.

At Raymond James Stadium, surveillance system cameras were focused only on people entering at turnstiles.  No cameras were used inside to pan the fans inside.  But cameras did sweep the crowds at the NFL Experience, indicating the growing reach of database systems to try and match faces even in large groups.

At UCLA, professor Borgman questioned the technical ability of a system to identify individual faces so quickly.

"If these surveillance systems spread, there may be a considerable margin of error in determining the identity of people who get snagged," she said.  "And that is a big price to pay for your civil rights."


ABCNews.com reports: &ldquo;A new system which uses fingerprint scanners to let kids pay for school lunches is getting raves from students and school administrators, but is making privacy advocates nervous.  The scanners make stealable lunch money, lose-able swipe cards and the stigma of being known as the free-lunch kid things of the past, says Walter Curfman, superintendent of the Tussey Mountain School District in western Pennsylvania.  "You always have your finger with you, unless you cut it off,&rdquo; he said.
But Andrew Shen of the Electronic Privacy Information Center worriesabout how well the information will be protected from being spread aroundthroughout the government.  "Once you have a collection of fingerprintsstarting from such an early age, I can imagine this being used for otherpurposes in the future" such as law enforcement, he said.

The system from Altoona, Penn.-based Food Service Solutions is currently being piloted in middle and high schools at Tussey Mountain and neighboring Penn Cambria School District in rural western Pennsylvania, and Lower Merion School District in suburban Philadelphia.  So far, it&rsquo;s unique tothe Keystone state, FSS president Mitch Johns said.  It works on a debit account system -- parents put money in, and students order food.  When the account runs low, a letter goes out to the parents.  Parents can also restrict students&rsquo; shopping &ldquo;a la carte" -- buying extra foodnot on the day&rsquo;s set menu.  Students can also choose to buy itemswith cash.

FSS wants to expand its fingerprint system for use in attendancetaking and on school door locks, as the use of biometric scanners is spreadingin U.S.  schools.  Eagen High School in St.  Paul, Minn.,for instance, has been using fingerprint scanners to check out books atthe school library since last academic year"

NLECTC Law Enforcement & Corrections Technology News SummaryThursday, January 4, 2001 The National Law Enforcement and CorrectionsTechnology Center (NLECTC) provides the following information as a serviceto law enforcement, corrections, and forensic science practitioners. The summary includes abstracts of articles from major national newspapers,business magazines, Web sites, national and international wire services,and periodicals focusing on law enforcement and corrections technology.Please note that providing synopses of articles on law enforcement andcorrections technology or the mention of specific manufacturers or productsdoes not constitute the endorsement of the U.S.  Department of Justiceor NLECTC.


"Fingerprints Go High-Tech in Beaumont: Police Can Identify Bad Guys in Minutes With Their New Computerized Live Scan System"

Riverside (Calif.)Press-Enterprise (12/28/00) P.  B1; Moore,Steve In California, the Beaumont Police Department will shortly be usinga Live Scan computerized fingerprint identification system from a Sunnyvale,California based company, according to the department's support servicesanalyst, Kari Mendoza.

Lt.  John Acosta says that everyone arrested by Beaumont police will be fingerprinted from now on, regardless of whether they were arrested for a felony or a misdemeanor.  In the past, Acosta said, some misdemeanor suspects were not fingerprinted.
Prisons and jails are already using the technology, and throughoutthe area, a number of law enforcement agencies are using the fingerprintmachines.

"Cleveland Man's Invention Will Pinpoint Criminal Activity"

Chattanooga Times (12/27/00) P.  B2; Lusk, Kevin The owner ofCleveland, Tenn.'s Cleveland Electronics, Richard Mifflin, claims to havedeveloped a microchip that could be used to locate stolen property, kidnappedchildren, and escaped convicts.  According to Mifflin, the microchipcan be fitted in a keychain or wrist watch, and it can be located anywherein the world within a city block by using the Global Positioning System,a satellite system that provides receivers on the ground with accuratepositioning information.  Mifflin recently received a provincial patenton the microchip, which grants him the rights to the product for one yearin both North and South America.

"Database Protection, or a Kind of Prison?"

Washington Post (12/29/00) P.  A31; Hopper, D.  Ian Moreand more states are putting up online databases of inmates and parolees,so citizens can look up convicted neighbors and employers can screen jobapplicants. However, civil liberties groups say that such sites makeit harder for ex-convicts to reenter society.  Eighteen states haveWeb sites with names, records, sentences, and photos of current inmatesand parolees, and some have federal records as well.  Others havelimited databases for sex offenders, fugitives, and death row inmates. Florida was one of the first states to create such a site, and officialsthere say the information is public record and can contribute to publicsafety; in addition, once parolees finish parole, their names are removedfrom the site.

Although the listings appear to be popular, American Civil Liberties Union legislative counsel Larry Spalding notes that the databases can harm people who are trying to rebuild their lives after prison.  Formerfederal inmate William Stillwell says his record made it hard for him tofind housing or work.
Stillwell says he favors public information on those who presenta risk to society, but that a listing for everyone is unreasonable. Center for Democracy and Technology policy analyst Ari Schwartz says puttingsome records online can expose people to identity theft, bank fraud, andother problems.

"Shell Would 'Kill' Electronic Equipment but Not Humans"

Washington Times (12/27/00) P.  A11; Smith, Michael A secretgroup of researchers in Britain has created an artillery shell that canrender electronic equipment useless without killing anyone.  The weaponcould be used in a conflict with a foreign power to disable their militarycapabilities and disrupt their command infrastructure.  The rockethas several grams of explosives that are set off in order to open up theprojectile as it approaches a target.  When opened, the rocket sendsout aerials used to transmit a sudden burst of radio frequency that renderselectronic equipment with its vicinity useless.  The rocket is evencapable of disabling computers in sophisticated equipment, such as tanksand airplanes.

"High-Tech Homing Devices Worry Privacy Advocates"

Scripps Howard News Service (01/01/00); Deibel, Mary Startup companies such as eWorldtrack and larger players such as Siemens are filling a nascent market niche for tracking devices that allow parents to keep tabs on their children's whereabouts.  Some 350,000 children are kidnapped by family members every year, with most of the nabbings occurring during custodybattles, according to the FBI.  Trucking companies and backwoods hikers,among others, have also found a use for the tracking devices.  Someof the devices are about the size of small cell phones, and eventuallythey are expected to shrink to the size of computer chips.  The deviceshave raised the hackles of privacy advocates, who foresee a future wherepeople's locations are constantly monitored.  "This technology isgoing to happen, and we have to find ways to put people in control of howinformation about their location is collected and used," says David Sobelof the Electronic Privacy Information Center.  But one of the foundersof eWorldtrack, Bill Brown, says that the privacy concerns are overblownbecause the devices use personalized Internet numbers and codes. "Parents are the best judge of a child's privacy and safety," says Brown. Meantime, the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children says thatits Web site and computer imaging technology have played a large part inraising the recovery rate for children to 90 percent, up from 66 percentin 1989.

For more information about the NIJ Ballistic Resistant Body ArmorCompliance Testing Program, visit The National Law Enforcement and CorrectionsTechnology Center's Body Armor Compliance page at http://www.nlectc.org/National/bodyarmor.html.

"Iowa Puts the Shackles on Offenders"

Government Technology (12/00) Vol.  13, No.  16, P.  9; McKay, Jim In Des Moines, Iowa, authorities are equipping some high-risk criminal offenders with surveillance devices to monitor where they go and what they do.  Usually, the global positioning surveillance devicesgo on criminals on parole or work release.  Information concerningthe equipped person's whereabouts is transferred to a monitoring station,which also holds data concerning where an individual should not be. The equipment includes an ankle bracelet, a small box with a cellular telephone,a motion sensor, and a clock device.  The equipment is designed towork together to alert authorities of where an offender is and where andhow fast he or she is going.  The phone allows communication betweenthe offender and authorities.

"AuthenTec Sees Wide Use for Fingerprint ID" Wall Street Journal(12/14/00) P.  B12;

Williams, Molly AuthenTec recently unveiled a new chip that recognizes fingerprints and is expected to be integrated into the products of computer makers, cell phone companies, and other hardware manufacturers.  The technology, backed by 36 patents, could be used to start computers or access sensitive emails or Web sites, including online bank accounts.  Corporations could also use finger scanning to save money on password maintenance, and could employ the scanners in lieu of keys or number combinations to limit access to buildings and rooms.
Biometric Group says sales of hardware and software that uses uniquephysical characteristics to identify users will jump from $58.4 millionin 1999 to $594 million in 2003, with finger scanning comprising 46 percentof the biometric market share by 2003, up from its current 34 percent. As the size of scanners get smaller, prices go down, and accuracy increases,they will become much more attractive to corporations, experts say.

U K News

Secret plan to spy on all British phone calls Kamal Ahmed, political editor Sunday December 3, 2000 Britain's intelligence services are seeking powers to seize all records of telephone calls, emails and internet connections made by every person living in this country.

A document circulated to Home Office officials and obtained by TheObserver reveals that MI5, MI6 and the police are demanding new legislationto log every phone call made in this country and store the informationfor seven years at a vast government-run 'data warehouse', a super computerthat will hold the information.

The secret moves, which will cost millions of pounds, were last night condemned by politicians and campaigners as a sinister expansion of 'BigBrother' state powers and a fundamental attack on the public's right toprivacy.

Last night, the Home Office admitted that it was giving the plansserious consideration.

Lord Cope, the Conservative peer and a leading expert on privacyissues, said:
'We are sympathetic to the need for greater powers to fight moderntypes of crime.  But vast banks of information on every member ofthe public can quickly slip into the world of Big Brother.  I willbe asking serious questions about this.' Maurice Frankel, a leading campaigneron per sonal data issues, called the powers 'sweeping' and a cause forworry.

The document, which is classified 'restricted', says new laws areneeded to allow the intelligence services, Customs and Excise and the policeaccess to telephone and computer records of every member of the public.

It suggests that the Home Office is sympathetic to the new powers,which would be used to tackle the growing problems of cybercrime, the useof computers by paedophiles to run child pornography rings, as well asterrorism and international drug trafficking.

Every telephone call made and received by a member of the public,all emails sent and received and every web page looked at would be recorded.

Calls made on mobile phones can already be pinpointed geographically, as can those made from land lines.  The police would be able to use'trawling' computer techniques to look through millions of telephone andemail records.
Campaigners say innocent people could have such highly personalinformation accessed.

The document admits the moves are controversial and could clash with the Human Rights Act, which gives people a right to privacy, European Union law and the Data Protection Act, which protects the public against official intrusion into private lives.

The office of the Data Protection Commissioner, Elizabeth France,has already expressed 'grave concerns' .

'A clear legislative framework needs to be agreed as a matter ofurgency,' says the document, which is dated 10 August and is thought tohave been sent to Home Office Minister Charles Clarke.

'Why should data be retained?  In the interests of justice,to preserve and protect data for use as evidence to establish proof ofinnocence or guilt.  For intelligence and evidence gathering purposes,to maintain the effectiveness of UK law enforcement, intelligence and securityagencies to protect society.' The document is written by Roger Gaspar,the deputy director-general of the National Criminal Intelligence Service,the Government agency that oversees criminal intelligence in the UnitedKingdom.  Gaspar, as head of intelligence for NCIS, is one of themost powerful and influential men in the field.

The report says it is written 'on behalf of Acpo [the Associationof Chief Police Officers], HM Customs and Excise, security service, secretintelligence service and GCHQ [the Government's secret listening centrebased at Cheltenham]'.

Gaspar argues telephone companies should be ordered to retain allrecords of phone calls and internet access.

At the moment many telephone and internet service providers keepdata for as little as 24 hours.

'In the interests of verifying the accuracy of data specificallyprovided for either intelligence or evidential purposes, CSPs [communicationservice providers such as telephone or internet companies] should be underan obligation to retain the original data supplied for a period of sevenyears or for as long as the prosecuting authority directs,' the documentsays.

'Informal discussions have taken place with the office of the dataprotection commissioner.  Whilst they acknowledge that such communicationsdata may be of value to the work of the agencies and the interests of justicethey have grave reservations about longer term data retention.' The documentsays the new data warehouse would be run along similar lines to the NationalDNA Database for profiles of known criminals.

It would cost about £3 million to set up and £9m a year to run.

The report demands that the Government 'should be prepared to defend our position'.

A spokesman for NCIS refused to be drawn on the report.  'Iam not going to comment on a classified document that is in unauthorisedhands,' he said.

Meanwhile a Home Office spokesman said it had received the proposals and was considering them.


USA Today reported: A short walk from Arlington National Cemetery, up a hill from the Pentagon, there is an inconspicuous two-story brickbuilding in which a group of technicians monitors the activities of millionsof Americans over closed-circuit television.

This is neither a super-secret spy network nor an Orwellian mind-control project.  This is the domain of Carlene McWhirt, a supervisor withthe Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles, accustomed to 'Big Sister' jibesfrom co-workers.  She and a team of technicians observe and controlthe flow of traffic along nearly 100 miles of the interstates linking Washington,D.C., to its booming suburbs. Whether as motorists or pedestrians; as visitors to convenience stores, banks, ATM machines or the post office; as shoppers with credit cards or telephone users; even at leisure, in parks, playgrounds and golf courses, we're constantly on candid camera.  Full-time surveillance is a reality of modern life. But if improperly used that equipment coulde asily see into the homes and offices along the interstates. Your expectationsof privacy depend on where you are in public, on your own property orsomeone else's, says law professor Michael Froomkin of Miami Universityin Florida. With some technical ingenuity, authorities today can easilyreconstruct large portions of an individual's life using cameras andother equipment at banks and office buildings, on street corners and highways,in parking garages, subways and buses...

NLECTC Law Enforcement & Corrections Technology News SummaryThursday, November 30, 2000 The National Law Enforcement and CorrectionsTechnology Center (NLECTC) provides the following information as a serviceto law enforcement, corrections, and forensic science practitioners. The summary includes abstracts of articles from major national newspapers,business magazines, Web sites, national and international wire services,and periodicals focusing on law enforcement and corrections technology.
Please note that providing synopses of articles on law enforcementand corrections technology or the mention of specific manufacturers orproducts does not constitute the endorsement of the U.S.  Departmentof Justice or NLECTC.

Reproduction of this text is encouraged; however copies may not besold, and the NLECTC Law Enforcement & Corrections Technology NewsSummary should be cited as the source of the information.  Copyright1999, Information Inc., Bethesda, MD.


"Computer Technology Aids Criminal Justice System"

Detroit News (11/22/00) P.  4; Lynch, Kevin

Officials in Michigan's Oakland County are hoping that a new computer system known as Probation Automated Management will help them manage suspects awaiting trial.  Probation Automated Management (PAM) is currentlybeing used to keep track of criminals on probation and parolees. Using the PAM system, a person awaiting trial uses an unstaffed computerkiosk to periodically check in with the jail.  A scanner confirmsthe suspects' fingerprints to prove that they have not fled before theirtrial.  George Miller, Manager of the Oakland County Community CorrectionsDivision, commented that "the criminal justice system is finally comingto understand that there needs to be a continuum of restriction. We need to move people gradually from the more restrictive settings tothe lesser ones because our ultimate goal is to move them back into a freesociety."

"The Big, Bad, Fun Gun"

New York Times Magazine (11/26/00) P.  106; Porter, Bruce

The .50-caliber sniper rifle has been attracting more attention from proponents of gun control as its popularity has increased.  Supporters of gun control say that citizens should at least have to go through anextensive background check before being allowed to purchase the weapon. Presently, purchase requirements for the .50 caliber are equivalent tobuying a .22 caliber rifle: a purchaser of the weapon only has to passthe Federal Brady test, which only inquires about general information,such as felony arrests or stays at mental institutions.  The .50 caliberhas become a favorite target of anti-gun activists because of its use ofthe Browning machine gun round.  The ammo, which was initially developedto pierce German armor during World War I, was not used extensively untilWorld War II.  The cartridge weighs roughly one-third of a pound andmeasures close to six inches.  When shot from semiautomatic or single-shotrifles, the bullet reaches speeds close to 3,000 feet per second and canaccurately hit targets over four miles away.  When an instructor atthe Marine Corps Scout Sniper School demonstrated the rifle last year beforestaff members of the House Subcommittee on Government Reform, the destructivepower of the rifle became more widely apparent: a shot made from a .50-caliberat 200 yards pierced through a three-and-a-half inch mancover.  Thegun's performance, especially in Desert Storm, has increased its popularityamong gun enthusiasts.  After the war, gun producers went from makinga small amount of .50-calibers per year to increasing production to thepoint that over 20,000 guns to date have been sold.  But some politiciansin Washington have been concerned about potential misuses of the weapon. In fact, Rep.  Henry A.  Waxman of California, Rep.  RodR.  Blagojevich of Illinois, and California Sen.  Dianne Feinstein have proposed identical bills in both houses of Congress that call forpotential and present owners of .50-caliber weapons to meet the requirementsestablished under the National Firearms Act 1934.  While the act,which applies to such military-style weapons as flame-throwers, does notprohibit consumers from purchasing a .50-caliber, it does require an extensiveregistration procedure and a $200 tax payment.  However, the presentpolitical climate of the country does not appear to favor the added restrictions,since both bills have not moved through committee.

"Nobody's Watching Your Every Move"

Business Week (11/13/00) P.  16; Blank, Dennis

The growing field of motion-recognition security is making humansurveillance of monitors obsolete.  One of the first significant commercialtests of electronic monitoring will begin in November in Orlando. The city has installed four surveillance cameras in one of its high-crimeneighborhoods. The system, which replaces a lot of mindless monitor watching,can detect fires and any "unusual" body movements.  After the camerasdetect any suspicious movements, it alerts a live officer to investigate.


USA Today reported: &ldquo;A short walk from Arlington National Cemetery, up a hill from the Pentagon, there is an inconspicuous two-story brickbuilding in which a group of technicians monitors the activities of millionsof Americans over closed-circuit television.

This is neither a super-secret spy network nor an Orwellian mind-control project.  This is the domain of Carlene McWhirt, a supervisor withthe Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles, accustomed to 'Big Sister' jibes from co-workers.  She and a team of technicians observe and controlthe flow of traffic along nearly 100 miles of the interstates linking Washington,D.C., to its booming suburbs. Whether as motorists or pedestrians; as visitors to convenience stores, banks, ATM machines or the post office; as shoppers with credit cards or telephone users; even at leisure, in parks, playgrounds and golf courses, we're constantly on candid camera.  Full-time surveillance is a reality of modern life. But if improperly used that equipment couldeasily see into the homes and offices along the interstates. Your expectationsof privacy depend on where you are in public, on your own property orsomeone else's, says law professor Michael Froomkin of Miami Universityin Florida. With some technical ingenuity, authorities today can easilyreconstruct large portions of an individual's life using cameras and otherequipment at banks and office buildings, on street corners and highways,in parking garages, subways and buses...

E-mail surveillance shows its full power FBI says courts will limitCarnivore use Associated Press WASHINGTON -- The FBI's controversial e-mailsurveillance tool, known as Carnivore, can retrieve all communicationsthat go through an Internet service -- far more than FBI officials havesaid it does -- a recent test of its potential sweep found, according tobureau documents.

An FBI official involved with the test stressed Friday that although Carnivore has the ability to grab a large quantity of e-mails and Web communications, current law and specific court orders restrict its use.

Nevertheless, privacy experts said they are worried about the breadth of Carnivore's capability and questioned why the FBI even conducted sucha test in June if it intends to use the tool only for narrow purposes.

"That really contradicts the explanation that the FBI has providedas to the purpose of the system and how it works," said David Sobel, general counsel for the Washington-based Electronic Privacy Information Center.
"We've been led to believe that the purpose of Carnivore is to filterand pinpoint the particular communications that the FBI is authorized toobtain.  If that's true, then why are they testing the system's abilityto store and archive everything?"

Sobel's group recently obtained the FBI documents providing the test results as part of litigation it brought under the Freedom of Information Act.

In the lab report, FBI officials said Carnivore "could reliably capture and archive all unfiltered traffic to the internal hard drive" and couldsave the information on removable disks as well.

Marcus Thomas, head of the FBI's cybertechnology section, said inan interview with the Associated Press that the test was only done to checkCarnivore's "breaking point." He said the tool wouldn't be used to capturebroad swaths of Internet communications in a real-world situation.

"Certainly, in operation, you could set the filters up to do nothing," Thomas said.  "But our procedures are very detailed, we'll only dowhat we're allowed to in a court order."

The difference of opinion is the latest in what has become a debate between Carnivore's capabilities and its actual use.

While law enforcement officials have admitted that Carnivore cancapture much more than e-mail, including Internet chats and Web browsing,FBI officials insist it is only used to copy e-mail to or from a criminalsuspect in accordance with a court order.

Opponents say the "black box" nature of the system keeps the public from knowing what it can really do, and its installation at an Internetprovider may cause network problems.

NLECTC Law Enforcement & Corrections Technology News Summary
Thursday, November 9, 2000
"Fingerprinting to Go" Police (11/00) Vol.  24, No.  11,P.  70; Moore, John

I read about this some months back and sentout an email to selected individuals about it. The problem with this sortof fingerprinting is that everyone that is fingerprinted will now havetheir prints automatically stored in the FBI database whether they arecriminals or not. There is no reason for law abiding and innocent US citizensto have their fingerprints stored. This sort of action is just anotherstep towards complete surveillance of American citizens!

The New Jersey State Police Department is considering a new program that uses a mobile scanner to identify drivers by their fingerprints.  State troopers would use handheld fingerprint scanners to identify wanted and missing persons who are stopped on the highway.  The scannersconnect to the Federal Bureau of Investigation's new National Crime InformationCenter 2000 database, which stores fingerprint templates of individualsconvicted of crimes, as well as missing persons.  Officers can callthe database and remotely compare a suspect's fingerprints to those storedin the computer.  After the officer scans the suspect's print, theprint is stored as a digital fingerprint image.  A mobile computerreceives the file, which transfers the information to the FBI computerfor comparison.  The entire process takes about four minutes. Cross Match Technologies of West Palm Beach, Fla., manufacture the scanners,which are expected to sell for about $1,000.  Cross Match expectsto test the systems with several other law enforcement agencies withinthe next several months, says Scott Clinton, Cross Match Marketing Manager. As for the state of New Jersey, several unresolved issues remain.  The implementation of the system requires the state attorney general office's approval, and the legality of the new procedure is unclear regarding civil rights issues.

According to officials, New Jersey laws do not specifically allowpersons to be fingerprinted outside of police stations. Fingerprint scanningtechnology may also be beneficial to the private sector, such as for entryauthorization, weapons purchase background screenings, and check fraudscreenings.

NLECTC Law Enforcement & Corrections TechnologyNews Summary Thursday, November 2, 2000

The National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) provides the following information as a service to law enforcement, corrections, and forensic science practitioners.  The summary includes abstractsof articles from major national newspapers, business magazines, Web sites,national and international wire services, and periodicals focusing on lawenforcement and corrections technology. Please note that providing synopsesof articles on law enforcement and corrections technology or the mentionof specific manufacturers or products does not constitute the endorsementof the U.S. Department of Justice or NLECTC.


"Hemisphere's Police Chiefs Go High-Tech"

Miami Herald Online (10/26/00); McDaniels, Andrea Twenty-nine police chiefs from Central, South, and North America recently had the opportunity to view new crime-fighting technology at the annual Hemispheric Conference of Chiefs of Police.  Booths displaying the new technology includedone for the Sigssg 3000, a 16-pound, four-foot-long sniper rifle with atelescopic lens that runs about $6,000; the rifle will aid in hostage situations.  Technology that resembles a walkie-talkie that locates audio bugs can bepurchased for $700 at the conference.  The police chiefs also attendedseminars on such topics as extraterritorial kidnapping investigations,anti-terrorism countermeasures, globalization of crime, and solutions tothe illegal drug problem.

"Eurocopter to the Rescue: Sheriff Shows Off Sleek New Craft; High-Tech Unit Lights Up Blocks, Tracks Criminals"

Ft.  Lauderdale Sun-Sentinel (10/27/00) P.  6B; O'Boye,Shannon Broward County, Fla., has a new $3.8 million helicopter calledthe Eurocopter EC135.  The chopper can reach 145 mph, which gets accidentvictims to the hospital in minutes.  It can also track criminals usinginfrared technology.  The newest addition to the Fort Lauderdale airporthas room for two trauma patients, instead of one.  The Broward CountyFire-Rescue department has three other helicopters called Eurocopter AStars. Capt.  Mark Cohen said theses new helicopters allow medical proceduresto be done en route to hospitals.  Palm Beach County has two Sikorskyhelicopters at $6.7 million each, which carry two patients as well. Broward County provided two-thirds of the cost for the new EC135, and thesheriff's office paid one-third with the Law Enforcement Trust Fund.

"A Tattoo Is a Mark That Police Will Recall"

Minneapolis Star Tribune (10/30/00) P.  1A; Haga, Chuck Lawenforcement agencies are filling their databases with digital images oftattoos.  Officials at the Wright County, Minn., jail photograph visibletattoos and enter them into a computer when they book people, and the adult-inmatedatabase of the Minnesota Department of Corrections includes digital photographsof tattoo with mug shots.  However, local departments face a challengeas they attempt to share information about tattoos.  Although thestate has funding to develop a photo imaging center, the focus of the projectwill be a mug shot database.  Furthermore, law enforcement agenciesacross the state would need equipment and uniform descriptive languageto participate in a central repository of tattoo descriptions and images. Wright County Sheriff's detective Dave Clemence says tattoos are stillimportant to law enforcement officials, even though body art is more commonthese days.  One in 10 Americans is now believed to have a tattoo.

"Use of DNA Evidence Expands; State Lab Testing Saliva on Envelope"

Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (10/26/00) P.  1B; Sink, Lisa; Spice, Linda DNA testing is being used more often in routine investigations, according to Mike Camp, director of the State Crime Laboratory in Milwaukee, Wis.  DNA is used in burglaries, robberies, letters, and kidnapping, since samples can be taken from ski masks, saliva, or cigarettes.  Menomonee Falls police received permission to take blood from two suspects of a mailedbomb threat.  They will compare the blood tests to saliva found onthe stamp of the mailed letter.  According to Menomonee Falls policeLt.  Jim Konopacki, DNA technology is useful in reopening old casesin law enforcement.  Old cases can be solved if DNA is available inthe evidence.  Pewaukee police recently used blood on a broken windowto trace a burglary to a case's suspect.  The state's databank ofDNA evidence from sex offenders also helps solve sexual assault cases. A brochure from the National Institute of Justice called "What Every LawEnforcement Officer Should Know About DNA" advises officers that all theyneed for evidence is a skin cell or drop of blood.

"Across the USA: Alabama"

USA Today (10/27/00) P.  11A The Mobile, Alabama, police nowinclude a Taser gun, which fires a five-second jolt of electricity to incapacitate a person, as part of their arsenal.  Officers are training with DGGTaser, the company that sold the department 100 of its M-26 Advanced Tasers.

"Prototype for a Digital Detective"

Washington Times (11/01/00) P.  B7; Jesdanum, Anick The Digital Angel technology uses existing wireless communications networks and theGlobal Positioning System to pinpoint the location of luggage, a pet, oranything it is attached to within the size of a tennis court.  Currently,the technology is not used in a product, but is in the form of a microchipthe size of a quarter.  The chip has the potential to continuallymonitor wearers' vital signs and obtain location readings in the eventof a medical emergency.  The chip could also be triggered by the servicecenter so parents could request the location of their children.

"State Still Without DNA Data Bank Despite 1997 Law"

Times-Picayune (10/30/00) P.  1; O'Brien, Keith Louisiana'sstate officials say budget woes have prevented the state from getting aDNA data bank up and running by Sept.  1,
1999, the date the Legislature ordered the technology to be in operation.  Officials believed the state would face a shortfall of $250 million earlier in the year, which prompted lawmakers to pass tax cuts to make up the difference.  Although the state is strapped for cash, Louisiana could have receivedsome financial assistance from the federal government, which had made $14million available to states trying to process DNA for their data banks,if the state had carried out the Legislature's order.  Rep. Hunt Downer (D-Houma) sponsored the 1997 legislation that called for thecreation of a data bank of DNA information on individuals arrested, convicted,or already incarcerated for felony sex offenses and other crimes. The DNAdata bank is expected to cost the state $3.6 million.
Louisiana is among the seven states that have not set up a databank system.

"When It's Clear the 'Word is Not Enough,' Reach for Technology"

Police (10/00) Vol.  24, No.  10, P.  60; Valdez,Al Field operations, including surveillance, informant contact, and undercover work, are common when investigating gangs. Remotely operated videotapeshave become useful in monitoring gangs, and personally worn equipment isnecessary for undercover cops.  New technology like a self-containedbutton video color camera, found at Martel Electronics in Yorba Linda,Calif., helps officers in these situations.  Martel Electronics takesa Sony videotape recorder and attaches an audio microphone, which is wornin a waist pack.  The only drawback is converting a tape into thecorrect VHS format for evidence.  Taping a phone conversation is possiblethrough a small audiotape recorder and a speaker earpiece that is miniaturized. Using the earpiece to record a telephone call is easy and can be done anywhere. Electronic photographs are useful, and available to all agencies throughdigital cameras or standard 35 mm cameras; it simply depends on the conditionsof storage and necessary software.  Funding to buy these productscan be obtained through federal grants, by either calling the U.S. Department of Justice Call Response Center, or visiting a local electronicsstore and seeing if they have loan equipment.

"E-Learning Moves Out of the Office"

InformationWeek Online (10/23/00); Schactmann, Noah Employees ofprisons and fire stations, among others, are using online learning technologyto advance their careers, increase their knowledge, and save their employerstime and money.  Firefighters in Indiana are learning the newest waysto respond to emergencies that involve hazardous gases and materials--withouthaving to travel to training centers in other states--by participatingin a new Internet training program offered by Train4Life.com.  Train4Life.comcan provide information that is constantly updated over the Internet moreeasily than do specialized classrooms.  Correctional officers in NewYork City must have 60 college course credits to hold a supervisory position,which is hard to do while working because of a rotating shift.  EducationalVideo Conferencing Inc.  (EVCI) is providing officers with an onlineeducation pilot program which has courses from local education institutionsavailable to all officers that have access to digital subscriber lines,asynchronous transfer mode, T1, cable modem, or satellite connection. The program is allowing more correctional officers to complete their coursesand advance their careers.  Officers that agree to take 15 undergraduatecourses can even receive a free Pentium II or III computer and high-speedInternet access while they are studying from EVCI.  The program willallow correctional officers to advance their careers and better qualifythemselves for a job.

"Documents Reveal Plans to Develop Carnivore"

InfoWorld (10/19/00); Johnston, Margret The FBI's plans for futureversions of its Carnivore Internet surveillance program are detailed indocuments the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) obtained asthe result of a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) lawsuit.  The FBIhas a contract for two new versions of the program and is now working on"Enhanced Carnivore," says EPIC general counsel David Sobel.  EPICreceived 565 documents from the FBI on Oct. 2, although more than a thirdof the material was blacked out. Still, EPIC discovered that future versionsof Carnivore might intercept the VoIP communications used to make phonecalls over the Internet.  The documents also reveal that in additionto email surveillance, Carnivore extracts packets of information aboutWeb sites a person has visited and other communications, Sobel says. The FBI has used Carnivore in at least 25 investigations and insists thatthe tool is legal. Congress is now investigating the legality of the program,and EPIC is seeking public disclosure of all of the FBI's Carnivore records.

"Questions Surround CALEA Requirements"

Wireless Week (10/23/00) Vol.  6, No.  43, P.  16;Vaughan, Allyson The Federal Communications Commission is asking for publiccomments on the digital wiretap standards included in the CommunicationsAssistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA), at a time when there is considerabletension between privacy groups, law enforcement, carriers, and manufacturersover compliance with the act.  In particular, the FCC is requestingfeedback on four so-called punch list items or calling features, includingone that pertains to what is referred to as party hold and join and dropinformation.  Privacy groups have argued that law enforcement shouldnot be allowed to tap conference calls because of individual's rights toprivacy. The FCC is also looking for industry feedback on how much it wouldcost the industry to install software in handsets that would enable lawenforcement to access conference calls.  This follows a ruling inAugust by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbiathat the FCC had to determine both cost and privacy issues with the punchlist items.  According to Rob Hoggarth, senior vice president of governmentrelations at PCIA, the FCC should listen to what industry engineers say,in particular about whether the kind of surveillance law enforcement wantsis technologically reasonable.

Digital Angel unveiled Human-tracking subdermal implant technologymakes debut © 2000 WorldNetDaily.com

A NASDAQ-traded company has finally unveiled its long-touted andhighly controversial "Digital Angel" -- a subdermal microchip implant designednot merely for keeping tabs on pets, but for widespread, worldwide usein tracking human beings.

The high-tech device, engineered by Applied Digital Solutions, Inc.  had its debut Monday before an overflow crowd of more than 300 invitedguests at Cipriani 42nd Street in New York City.

The audience included U.S.  Secretary of Commerce Norman Mineta, who addressed the crowd, as well as other government officials, potential joint-venture/licensing partners and press representatives.

Richard J.  Sullivan, Applied Digital Solutions' chairman andCEO, waxed eloquent about the market potential of Digital Angel, claimingthe company has "uncovered a total marketplace that is conservatively estimatedto exceed $70 billion."

Randy Geissler, chairman and CEO of Digital Angel.net Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary, zeroed in on potential applications.

"Our analysis shows that we are well-positioned to move quickly into certain applications while developing a number of others.  Two areas ofparticular interest are in the healthcare arena," he said, "monitoringheart disease and respiratory disease patients." The tracking and monitoringof pets, he added, is also "right up our alley."

The demonstration, which was conducted by Dr.
Peter Zhou and Dr.  Keith Bolton, showed how Digital Angel"can be used to monitor a person's key body functions -- such as temperatureand pulse -- and transmit that data wirelessly, on a real time basis, alongwith the accurate location of the person, to a web-enabled ground stationor monitoring facility," according to a press statement.

The technology consists of a miniature sensor device, designed tobe implanted just under the skin, that captures and wirelessly transmitsthe "wearer's" vital body-function data, such as body temperature or pulse,to an Internet-integrated ground station.  In addition, the antennareceives information regarding the location of the individual from theGPS satellite. Both sets of data -- medical information and location --are then wirelessly transmitted to the ground station and made availableon Web-enabled desktop, laptop or wireless devices.

A more sophisticated version of microchip technologies currentlyused as electronic ID tags for pets, Digital Angel is powered electromechanically through muscle movement, or it can be activated by an outside monitoringfacility.

As WorldNetDaily has reported, in addition to locating missing persons and monitoring physiological data, Digital Angel will be marketed as ameans of verifying online consumer identity for the burgeoning e-commerceworld.

In August, Sullivan told WND, "We are currently talking to a watchmaker who is interested in placing the device on the back of their watches."He added that "technology is being developed that would allow Digital Angelto function from the back of a cellular phone, transmitting bio-sensorinformation when carried by the user."

And in an interview last March, the chief scientist, Zhou, told WorldNetDaily he believes the implant will be as popular as cell phones and vaccines.

Digital Angel "will be a connection from yourself to the electronic world.  It will be your guardian, protector.  It will bring good things to you," said Zhou.

"We will be a hybrid of electronic intelligence and our own soul,"he added.

NLECTC Law Enforcement & Corrections Technology News SummaryThursday, October 26, 2000.

For more information on NLECTC and the web version of this news summary, please visit JUSTNET at http://www.nlectc.org.
NLECTC may also be reached at 1-800-248-2742.

Reproduction of this text is encouraged; however copies may not besold, and the NLECTC Law Enforcement & Corrections Technology NewsSummary should be cited as the source of the information.  Copyright1999, Information Inc., Bethesda, MD.


"Adaptive Cruise Control Offers Glimpse Into Safer Future for Cars"

Detroit Free Press (10/19/00); Ulrich, Lawrence The Mercedes S-Class and Lexus LS 430 offer adaptive cruise control, which can help cars avoid collisions and navigate properly.  Such systems would protect lives, shielding passengers with an electric cocoon of safety.  Mercedes'cruise control allows the car to stay behind another vehicle at a set distance.  The Lexus system has a laser beam that works to accelerate, slow, or brake to stay with the pace of traffic.
These systems take away the need to reset cruise control. The complex technology makes driving more relaxing, says Michael Schamberger,president of Automotive Distance Control Systems GmBh.  Cameras canoffer drivers a 360-degree view so that blind spots can be located. If steering and braking is controlled through technology, the system couldhelp keep a car on course.  The 2002 Ford Explorer offers a rolloversafety curtain that deploys a curtain before the car rolls, while GlobalPositioning Satellite systems can pinpoint a car's location, ending losthighways.  Law enforcement may eventually use satellite traffic datato track suspects of crime and speeders, if privacy issues can be settled. It will, however, take greater acceptance of technology to lead to satellite-controlledtraffic.

"Canadians Master Matching Mug Shots"

National Post (10/19/00) P.  C03; Francis, Diane A Vancouver-based public company, Imagis Technologies, has become a major software developer of biometric programs, which are used to recognize people through suchphysical characteristics as facial features, retinas, gait, voice, irises,and fingerprints.  According to Buck Revell, a director of Imagisand a former second-in-command at the Federal Bureau of Investigation inWashington, D.C., the company's technology is currently the most sophisticatedin the world.  The software, he says, measures 250 points of facialgeometry so that mug shots can be matched and is a great tool for law enforcement. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police is currently the company's biggest customer,although other police forces in Canada have also purchased the software,as have Las Vegas' Desert Inn and British Columbia's Gateway Casinos. In addition, according to Iain Drummond, the president of Imagis, the companyrecently received a $1.8 million order from a number of police departmentsin Los Angeles, has just signed a deal with French company Groupe Bullto market Imagis' software in the European Union, and is currently holdingdiscussions with the FBI.

"Toward Ultimate Security; Biometrics Employs Biology to ProtectComputer Privacy"

Orlando Sentinel (10/19/00) P.  K3; Burnett, Richard The biometrics industry consists of a worldwide consortium of companies making "futuristic" security technology a reality.
Some of the current technology, such as fingerprint sensors or retinal scanners, are used for identifying unique human features.  Biometric systems are being employed in multiple industries, including banking andfinance, correctional systems, defense, industrial, and corporate security. One of the central areas for future prospects in biometrics is in the areaof e-commerce.  Computer giants like IBM are bringing biometric-compatible PCs to the marketplace.  IBM's NetVista A40 and S40 PCs, introducedlast month, support a plug-in fingerprint sensor.  The key featurein products such as these is a high-level security chip.  The chipenables the user to send anything over the Internet in an encrypted securitycode.
Furthering the integration of a new generation of online PC securitysystems is the Trusted Computer Platform Alliance.
The Alliance, with members that include Intel, Microsoft, HewlettPackard, and Compaq, is a clearinghouse for sharing ideas concerning biometrics.  According to industry experts, the PC of the past has been a hacker's best tool.  According to George Meyers, senior director of marketing forDigitalPersona, a California-based IBM business partner and fingerprint-IDsystems developer, meshing biometrics with encryption technology can provideconsumers and businesses with needed assurances.

"Government: A Welcome New Addition"

Florida Times-Union (Jacksonville, Fla.) (10/17/00) P.  B-6Consumers can now go to the Florida Department of Law Enforcement's Website to find out if products they are considering purchasing were stolen. People can enter identification numbers from guns, vehicles, vehicle parts,license plates, and boat parts, to check to see if they were stolen. The service was created due to the high amount of theft that takes placein Florida.  If an item researched on the site is identified as stolen,additional information about the item is provided on the site, and userscan notify law enforcement officials about the location of the item.

"Network Switching Puts Police on Faster Track"

Chicago Tribune (10/19/00) P.  21; Shope, Dan Padcom has created TotalRoam for allowing automatic switching between wireless networks.  The technology also enables the networks to retain the original connection when switching.  By employing the system, police can use laptop computers from their vehicles to access critical information.  Under the previous system, officers had to use a computer placed at their headquarters toaccess such information.  During most vehicle pursuits, police officersare unaware of the reasons why a driver is trying to get away.  Padcom's technology enables officers to use their mobile computers to quickly gain answers to such questions.  The system is presently being deployedby Berks County in Pennsylvania, Western Massachusetts Law Enforcement,and the California Highway Patrol.  In addition to the law enforcementapplications, Padcom CEO David Whitmore said the system could be used bya wide variety of industries, including financial institutions throughoutthe world to verify various transactions.

"New Technology Can Pinpoint Cell-Phone Users' Locations"

San Francisco Chronicle (10/23/00) P.  C8; Kirby, Carrie Technology, which allows wireless companies to pinpoint the location of cellphone users in order to help them locate the nearest cash machine, gas station, orpolice station, is being tested by the California Highway Patrol in anattempt to help 911 callers.  By October 2001, all wireless serviceproviders must have the capability to find out their users' locations,according to a requirement from the Federal Communications Commission. This mandate could mean police departments will have access to the technologyto pinpoint distressed callers that cannot give their locations. However, the technology has the potential to invade users' privacy andsafety by giving wireless companies the ability to report their exact locationsnot only to the police, but to retailers as well.  Under current laws,law enforcement officers are allowed to listen in on calls of potentialcriminals and obtain location details relevant to any case.  AlanDavidson, staff counsel at the Center for Democracy and Technology andan opponent of such technology, believes it is invasive and like an "Orwelliannightmare," depending on how the technology is used.

"ImageWare Systems Awarded Contracts From City of Milwaukee and City of Cleveland Police Departments"
PR Newswire (10/20/00)

ImageWare Systems recently announced that it had been chosen to supply the Cleveland and Milwaukee police departments with integrated digitalmug shot systems, worth about $99,000 and $362,000, respectively. The company's Crime Capture System will be used to create digital databasesof arrest records for people arrested in these two cities.  Moreover,the city of Milwaukee's system will be linked to a similar system in MilwaukeeCounty, which was installed by the company in 1999, and which will enablethe two jurisdictions to share digital records on a real time basis.

"Sylvan/Identix Adds Eight Applicant Fingerprinting Locations inCalifornia"
PR Newswire (10/24/00)

Identix Incorporated, a global leader in providing biometric identification, security, and authentication solutions, announced recently that Sylvan/Identix Fingerprinting Centers, its joint venture with Sylvan Learning Systems,has added eight more applicant fingerprinting locations in California overthe last six months, bringing the total number of fingerprinting locationsin California to 31.  Each location is equipped with an Identix TouchPrint 600 Live Scan system, a fingerprint workstation that can optically scanand capture an individual's fingerprints and electronically transmit thedata to the California Department of Justice, for comparison against bothFBI and State of California criminal history records.  According toRon Wadsworth, president of Sylvan/Identix, the demand for civil fingerprintingservices at the company's locations in California alone has more than doubledover the last 12 months, and is averaging about 200,000 applicants peryear.  California has witnessed a major rise in civil fingerprintingrequests as more and more private enterprises, as well as government agencies,ask for background checks before hiring people.

"Visionary Keys"

Washington Techway (10/09/00) P.  50; Shifrin, Carole EyeTicket, formerly known as Spring Technologies, has developed an advanced iris-imaging device, called IrisScan, which digitally codes and stores the image ofan iris, to be compared later with the real-time image.  The technology has been implemented into systems designed specifically for airline passenger and baggage processing; airline and airport employee security; and admission to sports, entertainment, and related venues and businesses.  Thecompany's "EyePass" system was used at the Olympic Games in Sydney. Meanwhile, EyeTicket has been demonstrating its iris recognition technologyto control entry into secure areas at the Charlotte/Douglas InternationalAirport in North Carolina.  Those who will use the system are "enrolled"initially by standing briefly in front of a video camera so the characteristicsof the iris can be recorded and a 512-byte digital code can be createdand stored in the database.  Then, for admission, the "enrollee"
looks again at the optical camera for an identity check before beinggranted entry.  Currently, the technology is being used by the TreasuryDepartment for access control, as well as at the Legislative Counsel ofthe House of Representatives for computer security, and by Washington Hospitalfor patient identification.  EyeTicket expects the product to be profitableby 2001.  The company has invested more than $3 million in developmentcosts so far.



 According to an official news release: "Applied Digital Solutions, Inc.  (NASDAQ:ADSX) , a leading, single-source provider of e-business solutions&hellip;announced that it will hold its much-anticipated demonstration of its Digital Angel(TM) technology at Cipriani 42nd Street on October30, 2000.  The company had previously announced that the event wouldbe held on October 26th at a different location in Manhattan.  Commentingon the announcement, Richard J.  Sullivan, Chairman and CEO of AppliedDigital Solutions, said: &lsquo;We've been overwhelmed with requests for invitations.  In order to accommodate more people and at the same time a more centralized location, we decided to look around for a different venue.  Unfortunately, on such short notice we had trouble finding a suitable site on October26th.  But we're delighted that Cipriani 42nd Street was availableso close to our original date.  This change allows us to hold thisimportant event in a world-class facility right in the middle of midtownManhattan.&rsquo; The company now expects to issue as many as 250 to 300 invitationsto interested members of the national media, potential joint-venture/licensingpartners and selected Wall Street analysts.  Attendees will witnessa Digital Angel breakthrough: the first-ever operational combination ofbio-sensor technology and Web-enabled wireless telecommunications linkedto GPS location-tracking systems..."

 "...In December of 1999, Applied Digital Solutions announcedthat it had acquired the patent rights to a miniature digital transceiver-- which it has named Digital Angel.  In some of its applications,the tiny device is expected to be bonded closely to the body or implantedjust under the skin.  The Company believes Digital Angel will be ableto send and receive data and be located by GPS (Global Positioning System)technology.  In addition to monitoring the location and medical conditionof at-risk patients, the Company believes Digital Angel could have otherapplications that will prove to be extremely popular in the marketplace. These applications include locating lost or missing individuals or householdpets; tracking endangered wildlife; managing livestock and other farm-relatedanimals; pinpointing the location of valuable stolen property; findinglost airline baggage and postal packages; managing the commodity supplychain; preventing the unauthorized use of firearms; and providing a tamper-proofmeans of identification for enhanced e-commerce security..."

"High Tech Prison Reform"

Austin American-Statesman (10/06/00) P.  H1; Moore, CharlotteA heartbeat monitor is among the first technological investments that theTexas Department of Corrections has made under the newly formed TechnologyReview Team (TRT).  These investments are made, in part, to reducethe time it takes to perform menial tasks, such as the one for which theheartbeat monitor was created.  Trucks take decomposed food from correctionalfacilities to farmers to feed their pigs.  The heartbeat monitor readsthe contents of the truckbed to prevent a prisoner from hiding in the slopwhen the truck leaves.  Without the monitor, a guard would prod astick or rod through the slop.  Meanwhile, Los Angeles County's TwinTowers Correctional Facility puts the latest technology to practical use. The $400 million project boasts of glass doors in the maximum securityfacility; automatic locks equipped with manual override; state-of-the-artcamera equipment placed throughout the building; intercom systems thatallow officers to communicate easily; climate controlled inmate cells;and fingerprint scanning.  Numerous United States prisons are pilotinga PepperBall Launcher, thermal images to detect heat sources, ionspectometrydevices to detect narcotics and the B.O.S.S.  (Body Orifice SecurityScanner) to find metal objects hidden in body cavities.

"Dab of DNA Helps Keep Counterfeiters at Bay"

USA Today (10/05/00) P.  9D; Vergano, Dan A foreign affiliateof DNA Technologies has created a method to beat counterfeiters by usingDNA strips to put code marking on clothes and other items signed by Olympicathletes.  DNA from several unnamed Australian athletes was mixedwith ink to mark officially licensed goods, and the technology may nowbe used to mark artwork or "one-of-a-kind" sports souvenirs.
However, it remains to be seen whether the DNA will survive a long-term wear and tear, such as repeated washings.  It is suggested that those people who purchased such souvenirs at the Olympics keep them out of thesun and do not put bleach on them. (I'm sure thiswill lead to everything being marked with DNA!!)

"Sen.  Edwards Intro's 'Spyware Control Act'"

Newsbytes (10/09/00); Krebs, Brian Sen.  John Edwards (D-N.C.) has introduced legislation that would help protect the privacy of Web users' surfing habits.
The Spyware Control and Privacy Protection Act mandates that companies provide a clearly worded and highly visible privacy warning on productsthat contain data-collecting spyware code.
This warning would inform customers as to how their data would becollected and how it would be shared.  Just as important, Edwards'legislation would allow consumers to disable the spyware.  The billfurther empowers consumers with the FTC's Fair Information Practices' Accessand Security sections, which give consumers the right to access collecteddata and change errors found therein.  Consumers could sue for damagesof $50,000 each time a software maker violates its own policy. Edwardssays he has a long-time interest in privacy, but remains shocked at howoften new forms of privacy invasions crop up.  "Spyware is among themore startling examples of how this erosion is occurring," Edwards said.

"Area Municipalities Are Enthusiastic About New Speed MonitoringDevices"

St.  Louis Post-Dispatch (10/09/00) P.  1; Moore, DougJerry Dinges, an alderman in Belleville, Ill., suggests that the city emulateO'Fallon by purchasing a traffic device that tells drivers what speed theyare moving compared to the speed limit.  When the radar trailer wastested in Belleville, Dinges notes that many motorists slowed down afterviewing their speed.  Southwestern Illinois Law Enforcement Commissiondirector Roger Richards says that the device's ability to lower speedshelps address one of the top concerns of residents.  The number ofspeeding tickets issued can be decreased when people are gently warnedto drive slower, states Gerrit Gillespie, police chief of Collinsville.O'Fallon police use the radar trailer and other equipment to help determinewhere extra police are needed or where the speed limit should be amended. Dinges is hoping that Belleville will purchase a high-end radar trailerthat has the ability to photograph passing license plates.

"Cameras to Put Local Motorists on Red Alert"

Los Angeles Times (10/08/00) P.  B1; Risling, Greg The Los Angeles Police Department will install four cameras at dangerous intersectionsin Los Angeles in an attempt to reduce red-light running and the accidentsit causes.  The camera will take a photograph of any vehicle and itsdriver when it enters an intersection after the light turns red. The city will receive one-third of the resulting fines, but will pay nothingfor the cameras, their installation, maintenance or monitoring, which willbe the responsibility of the manufacturer, Lockheed Martin IMS, who willget the remaining portion of the fine.  The cameras shoot two picturesin which the front-license plate and the driver must be visible for a citationto be issued; the system has a 60-70 percent success rate.  The cameraswill be challenged by civil liberty lawyers as an invasion of privacy andother cities, notably San Diego, have witnessed local news media criticismof the cameras.

Local law enforcement sees the cameras as useful, however. "I don't see this program as one of enforcement, but rather one of education," said Lt.  Al Munoz-Flores of the Beverly Hills Police Department.  "When people see these cameras, they generally aren't going to push theenvelope."


The JUSTNETNews Mailing List is maintained by the National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center.  Regular postings include the weekly Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology News Summary and announcements from NLECTC and the National Institute of Justice Office of Science andTechnology (NIJ/OS&T).

Senate bill rewrites search-seizure laws Congress likely to 'stuff'provision in last-minute spending legislation By Patrick Poole © 2000WorldNetDaily.com Just months after a public outcry scuttled a bill sailingthrough Congress that would have given federal law enforcement authoritiesthe right to conduct secret searches, a new threat to the Fourth Amendmenthas arisen that will allow federal agency employees, rather than judges,to authorize certain searches of personal information.

In May, WorldNetDaily reported on a bill, the Methamphetamine Anti-Proliferation Act, which contained a section that would have authorized federal agentsto enter a citizen's home or office with a warrant, to search and copyfiles from his computer and not tell him what items were taken until monthsafterwards.  The bill also exempted law enforcement officials fromever telling suspects that certain "intangible" items were seized or copied.

After a bipartisan coalition of Republican and Democratic membersof the House Judiciary Committee, including Rep.  Sheila Jackson Lee.D-Texas, and Rep.  Bob Barr, R-Ga., expressed serious reservationsabout the so-called "sneak-and-peak" searches, the measure was pulled fromthe bill.

The latest assault of the Fourth Amendment is contained in section3(g) of the Fugitive Apprehension Act, S.  2516, which would authorizethe attorney general to issue "administrative subpoenas" for personal informationand records without court authorization.  A delayed reporting requirementalso found in the bill allows Department of Justice attorneys to ask thecourt to conceal the subpoena from the target of the investigation.

The bill has already passed the Senate, and opponents of the measure are concerned that it might be brought to a vote in the House as earlyas this week.

David Kopel, an attorney and constitutional expert for the Denver-based Independence Institute told WorldNetDaily the U.S.  Marshall Service is pushing the administrative subpoena provision to broaden their searchpowers in fugitive cases, but that the provision is unneeded.

"There is absolutely no reason for this provision, because any agency pursuing a fugitive can go to court and get the search warrants they need almost immediately," Kopel said.  "What this provision does is cutthe court out of the process, which is a very dangerous precedent. The Fourth Amendment envisions courts issuing warrants, not unaccountablebureaucrats."

Rachel King, legislative counsel for the ACLU's Washington, D.C.,office, says the current battle illustrates the problems of protectingpersonal privacy in the digital age at a time when government officialsare playing with the boundaries of the search and seizure requirementsof the Constitution.

"A lot of this debate is what kind of privacy you have with personal documents and information that used to be kept by individuals in theirhomes, but now is kept by third parties," King said.  "Now that mostprivate records are not kept solely at home, the government is arguingthat the Fourth Amendment doesn't apply any longer.  Not recognizingthe constitutional protection that the Fourth Amendment gives to itemslike this would give the government huge power and access to most of ourpersonal information."

King also said that while House leaders may not allow the bill tobe brought up to a vote, it could reappear in the closing days of thissession in one of the mammoth appropriations bills that will need to bepassed before Congress adjourns before the November elections.

"The problem with something like this is that the threat is not somuch that it might pass the House, which we are trying to stop, but thatit will end up getting stuffed in one of the spending bills in the nextfew weeks, and then we will never be able to get it taken out," King said.

If supporters of the administrative subpoena authorization are able to get the provision inserted into appropriation legislation, the entirespending bill would need to be voted down in order to defeat the measure.

Events at the end of congressional sessions in recent years indicate that such a scenario might be likely:

In 1998, Rep.  Bill McCollum, R-Fl., successfully inserted aroving wiretap provision into the "Intelligence Authorization Act," a spendingbill that funded various intelligence agencies, after that bill had alreadybeen voted on by both the House and Senate.

In 1996, Rep.  Lamar Smith, R-Texas, included a bill establishing national ID card regulations in the 1,600-page Omnibus Appropriations Act.  After a massive response by the public to the regulations issued by theDepartment of Transportation, Congress revisited the issue and de-fundedthe program.

In 1994, Congress enacted the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act in the closing hours of the congressional session, which required telephone firms to make it easy to wiretap the nation's communication system, evenafter Justice Department lobbyists had told civil liberties groups thatthey would not push the measure. (This was (is) anasty bill.)

   Volume 7.17                                 September 25, 2000

        Published by the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) Washington, D.C.


Table of Contents

[1] EPIC and PI Release Third Annual Privacy and Human Rights Survey [2] It's Baaack ...  Mandatory Filtering Returns to Congress [3] Banned Books Week Celebrates Freedom of Expression [4] Privacy Foundation Investigates :CueCat Scanning Device [5] Int'l Data Protection Conference Brings Together NGOs [6] Upcoming Forum Presents ICANN Candidates [7] EPIC Bookstore -Privacy & Human Rights 2000 [8] Upcoming Conferences and Events

[1] EPIC and PI Release Third Annual Privacy and Human Rights Survey

On September 19, EPIC and Privacy International (PI) released their third annual Privacy and Human Rights survey.  "Privacy and HumanRights 2000: An International Survey of Privacy Laws and Developments",reviews the state of privacy in over fifty countries around the world.

The report finds worldwide recognition of privacy as a fundamentalhuman right.  Many countries around the world are enacting comprehensivedata protection laws to safeguard individual privacy.
Many of these countries, especially in South America, South Africaand Central Europe, are introducing such laws to remedy privacy violationsthat occurred under previous authoritarian regimes.  Others, suchas in Asia, are developing information privacy laws in an effort to promoteelectronic commerce.  Others still, such as countries in Central andEastern Europe, are hoping to become members of the European Union andare adopting laws based on the 1995 European Union Data Protection Directive.

At the same time, both law enforcement agencies and private corporations are extending surveillance powers through the use of new technologies.  The report notes that many of the recent threats to individual privacyresult from new Internet-based commercial services, such as interactivetelevision -- or "SpyTV" -- that record the preferencees of individuals. The report recommends improved oversight and stricter enforcement of currentlaws to prevent such practices.

The report also argues that the United States government is leading a multi-tiered effort to limit individual privacy and enhance law enforcement surveillance powers.  For example, on the domestic front, it is promoting domestic laws such as the Communications Assistance for Law EnforcementAct (CALEA) that make it mandatory for all companies developing telephoneswitching, cellular, and satellite communications technologies to buildin surveillance capabilities.
The government has also sought to limit the development and dissemination of encryption products that protect individuals' private communications.  At the international level, the report finds that the U.S.  has been vigorously promoting greater use of electronic surveillance and pressurizing countries, such as Japan, into adopting wiretapping laws.  It hasalso been working through international bodies such as the European Union,the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), theCouncil of Europe and the G-8 to promote surveillance and place restrictionson online privacy, anonymity, and encryption.

"Privacy and Human Rights 2000: An International Survey of PrivacyLaws and Developments" by David Banisar is available at:


[2] It's Baaack ...  Mandatory Filtering Returns to Congress

In what is becoming a perennial end-of-session strategy, proponents of mandatory Internet filtering are again trying to push legislation through Congress.  Sen.  John McCain (R-AZ) and Rep.  Ernest Istook (R-OK) have attached a federal filtering mandate to the appropriationsbill for the Departments of Labor and Health and Human Services (HHS).The "Children's Internet Protection Act" would require all public schoolsand libraries that receive federal funding for Internet access to installInternet blocking software on their computer terminals.

Proponents of controversial measures often attempt to attach themto major appropriations bills when it appears unlikely that the legislationwould survive if considered independently.  Supporters of Internetcensorship and filtering have often resorted to such tactics; the ChildOnline Protection Act (since ruled unconstitutional) was attached to anomnibus spending bill last fall, and there have been several unsuccessfulattempts to enact filtering requirements in similar fashion.  Withthe election campaign now in full swing, members of Congress are likelyto feel political pressure to support efforts to "protect" children, nomatter how misguided or ineffective they might be.

The McCain-Istook mandate would deny local schools and librariesthe ability to establish Internet policies and practices that conform withthe values and desires of their communities.  For instance, the citizens of Holland, Michigan rejected a mandatory library filtering initiativeearlier this year (see EPIC Alert 7.04), despite a strong campaign financedby a national pro-filtering group.  That community decision, however,would be overturned by the "one-size-fits-all" filtering requirements nowpending before Congress.  In an effort to preserve local choice, mostof the major education and library organizations are opposed to the McCain-Istookamendment.

More information on Internet filtering, including ways to weigh inon the pending legislative mandate, is available at the Internet Free Expression Alliance website:


[3] Banned Books Week Celebrates Freedom of Expression

A group of publishers, booksellers, and libraries have launched the Nineteenth Annual Banned Books Week, to run from September 23rd throughthe 30th.  The week-long event highlights the importance of FirstAmendment freedoms and the need to protect controversial expression againstattempts at censorship.

For the period 1990-1999, 5,718 attempts to remove or restrict materials have been reported to the American Library Association's Office of Intellectual Freedom.  The top ten list of most challenged books for the decadeincludes works such as "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" by Maya Angelou,"The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" by Mark Twain, and "The Catcher inthe Rye" by J.D.  Salinger.  In 1999 alone, there were 472 challengesto various publications.  The popular Harry Potter books topped thelist of the past year's most challenged books due to the series' referencesto wizardry and magic.

As an illustration of the need for protecting free expression, one-third of the Modern Library's list of the 100 best novels of the 20th centuryhave been previously banned or challenged in bookstores, libraries, orschools.  The banned books include notable works such as "The Grapesof Wrath", "The Great Gatsby", and "Brave New World".
In the words of past ALA President Ann K.  Symons, "Ideas canonly flourish-and democracy survive-if the right of everyone to choosefor themselves what they wish to read, hear and view is guaranteed".

More information about Banned Books Week is available at:

http://www.ala.org/bbooks/index.html Exercise your right to free expression at the EPIC Bookstore:


[4] Privacy Foundation Investigates :CueCat Scanning Device

The Privacy Foundation, a privacy research center based in Denver,has completed an analysis of a new product produced by Digital:Convergencecalled :CueCat.  The device raises privacy concerns due the incorporationof unique identifiers that potentially facilitate user tracking.

The device, distributed for free with upcoming issues of Forbes and Wired magazines, attaches to a personal computer and scans bar codes appearing in print advertisements and articles that will bring consumers to web pages featuring the selected products.  The :CueCat can also be attachedto televisions and will present similar features in response to audio signals included in broadcasts.  The information gathered through the device will be provided to its marketing partners as "demographic and psychographic data".  Digital:Convergence plans to make the devices widely available, distributing up to 10 million by the end of this year and 50 million bythe end of 2001.

The privacy concerns of the product arise due to its use of uniqueidentifiers.  Unique identifiers have been at the center of recentprivacy controversies such as the Intel Processor Serial Number (PSN) andonline profiling conducted by Internet advertiser DoubleClick. Much asin the situation surrounding those companies' products, when a consumeruses :CueCat, the device will send an unique identifier with the transmitteddata.  Digital:Convergence also collects personal data such as names,email addresses, and zip codes via registration but claims to have no plansto link this information with profile data about what individuals are scanning.

The Privacy Foundation recommends that the company distribute a software patch that can disable unique identifiers and explicitly disclose its information collection practices.

The :CueCat Bar Code Reader Privacy Advisory is available from thePrivacy Foundation:


[5] Int'l Data Protection Conference Brings Together NGOs

On September 27, EPIC and Privacy International will host a conference, "The Public Voice in Privacy Policy," in Venice, Italy.
The meeting will be held in conjunction with the annual meetingof the International Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners to beginon September 28.  Both events will be webcast live.

The conference will bring together leading academic experts, NGOleaders, and privacy officials from around the world to explore currentissues in privacy protection.  Panel discussions will focus on theglobalization of surveillance; copyright protection and privacy; the EU-USnegotiations on transborder data flows (Safe Harbor); and the need foran international convention on data protection.

The first of these conferences was organized by Privacy International and held in Sydney in 1992.  Subsequent meetings have taken placein Manchester (1993), The Hague (1994), Copenhagen (1995), Ottawa (1996),Brussels (1997), and Hong Kong (1999).

For program and registration details see:

http://www.epic.org/events/publicvoice_venice/ For the webcasts and the International Data Protection Commissioner's conference agenda, visit the Italian Data Protection Commission's homepage at:



"Sheriff's Dept., Now High-Tech, Eyes Officer Safety, Efficiency"

Herald-Sun (Durham, N.C.) (09/07/00) P.  C5; Michael, KammieDurham County, N.C., sheriffs now have laptop computers that allow themto write instant reports, communicate car to car, and learn about drivers,stolen cars, and warrants without using their radios.  Portable modemsenable Durham deputies to write reports outside of their car and send themto headquarters.  When deputies are sent to a call, a computer dispatchsystem will tell them if there have been prior calls at the address andif there are any hazards such as weapons.
Also, deputies will be able to view maps that show the locationsof their patrol cars, and the routes to calls.  The computer systemcost nearly $1 million and includes equipment for over 100 vehicles. The system was developed by HTE Corp.

"High-Tech Command Center Will Help Police on Streets"

Washington Times (09/08/00) P.  C1; Drake, John Washington,D.C., police will soon have access to a 24-hour "tactical operations commandcenter" that can collect crime data in real-time, scour it for patternsand statistics, and then shoot it back to officers on the beat almost immediately.The center will be especially helpful now that the city's police departmenthas put 250 extra officers on the streets.

Previously, crime data and trends were relayed during briefings atroll calls, a method which was not particularly thorough.  The newcenter will disseminate crime reports to officers within an hour aftera crime is committed, and will also be used to direct officers to seriousincidents as they are occurring, by detailing locations of emergency callsvia electronic maps, highlighting the crime history of a particular location,and listing possible suspects in the case.  For example, the centercan alert an officer about to enter a residence as to whether anyone inthe house has been arrested before or has a warrant out for their arrest,and whether there is a likelihood of firearms being on the premises. The center may be partially operational by next week, but will not be fullyoperational for several months.

"The Latest in Security Technology Has its Eyes on Would-be Bad Guys"

Copley News Service (09/11/00); Fenly, Leigh A machine called theCTX-5500, made by InVision Technologies, uses CT-scanning to detect anythingthat looks like a bomb among passengers and luggage at airports. CT-scanning is a medical technology that can see through the contents ofluggage, and is becoming more widely used at airports and border crossings. New ideas to detect explosives are aimed to stop drug trafficking, weaponssmuggling and illegal immigration.  The BodySearch technology allowscustoms officials to produce a detailed image of a body that could havea gun strapped to a person's back or cocaine propped on someone's shoulder. The BodySearch has been criticized for taking away personal privacy, sinceit gives a picture of someone naked.  Customs officials believe itis more useful because it takes away the need for patting down travelersand is more thorough.  Similar backscatter technology is used at theU.S.-Mexican border in California, detecting drugs, illegal immigrants,and poisonous puffer fish among smugglers.
There are nine CargoSearch systems along the border, which helpcustoms spot-check 55 percent of containers.  Another technology calledthe Body Cavity Screening System (BCSS) uses magnetic resonance technology(MRI) to screen body cavities for swallowed drugs.  Currently, BCSSrequires the person lie down, but a chair form is being created. Facial recognition technology has been in use for awhile, employing fingerprints,eyes, or faces to prevent access to restricted areas.  North Carolina'sCharlotte/Douglas airport uses iris scanning technology for its secureareas.  Quantum Magnetic makes Gun Tracker, a 3-D facial recognitionsystem that measures changes in the Earth's magnetic field and can detectguns via a sensor on a camera.  The tracker would be useful in banks,embassies, and at border crossings.  Arsev Eraslan, chief scientistof the Law Enforcement Face Identification System at the Office of LawEnforcement Technology Commercialization, stated that creating 3-D imagesfrom 2-D police mugs will help process images quicker and detect criminalsthrough video surveillance.

"RCMP Get Their Man Using Biometrics"
Canada NewsWire (09/12/00)

The RCMP detachment in the greater Vancouver area have successfully used ID-2000 biometric facial recognition software to identify and convict criminals.  The software, designed by Imagis Technologies, can beused to identify criminals from pictures a database of more than 8,000offenders.  The system has been used to identify criminals operatingunder different aliases, criminals from drawings, and criminals from tattoos.

"Primex Technologies and RAFAEL Enter Into Teaming Agreement to Market New Entry Munition"
PR Newswire (09/12/00)

Rifle-Launched Entry Munition (RLEM), which was designed by RAFAELof Israel, will be marketed and sold to the U.S. military and law enforcement markets by Primex Technologies, according to a recent agreement betweenthe two companies. RLEM is designed to cause little damage to surroundingproperty while taking down a reinforced door.  Most rifles are capableof firing RLEM through the use of the bullet-trap concept.  If thetechnology is used at a safe stand-off distance, it is effective againstdoors without causing harm to the user.

"No Internet Means No Federal Money for Some Police Agencies"
Associated Press (09/07/00)

Jim Pasco, executive director of the National Fraternal Order ofPolice, says that his organization will talk to federal officials becauseit feels that the requirement of applying online for Local Law Enforcementblock grants hinders rural police department ability to know about thegrants and apply for them.  Many South Carolina law enforcement agencieshave been informed by Sen.  Strom Thurmond about their eligibilityto apply online for the grants.  National Rural Law Enforcement directorLee Colwell notes that his organization can help provide Internet servicesfor police departments without such capabilities.  Jimmy Nobles, computerservices coordinator for the center, also recommends that local librariesor other government agencies be used as sources for Internet access.

"Pinellas County, Florida, Arms Law Enforcement With Autodesk MapGuide for Crime Tracking and Analysis"
PR Newswire (09/11/00)

Law enforcement in Pinellas County, Fla., is saving money, bettering communication, and improving access to comprehensive crime informationby using Autodesk MapGuide Internet mapping and information software todrive its "Enforcer" intranet-based application.  Integrating lawenforcement information across jurisdictions, allowing for any officerto easily access the system, the ability to perform crime mapping, andcreating an infrastructure for delivery of the application are among thereasons that the county implemented the Enforcer project.  The countyhas been able to use the technology to track the location of sexual predators,base police beats on the prevalence of crime in certain regions, and toengage in anti-crime measures in the most crime-infested areas.  Thetechnology is currently being used to ensure that sexual predators stayat least 1,000 feet from day-care centers, schools, and other places wherechildren get together; the county hopes to eventually utilize the technologyto mail warnings to residents concerning sexual predators living nearby.

"NASA Helps Cops Catch Criminals on Earth With Video Technology Invented by Space Scientists"
M2 Presswire (09/04/00)

NASA technology known as Video Image Stabilization and Registration (VISAR) is now being used by law enforcement to help improve TV imagesof crime scene videos.  NASA initially began working with the FBIin 1996 when scientists from the space agency used VISAR technology tohelp agents analyze video of the Olympic bombing in Atlanta.  Thesystem nullifies the effects of jitter, rotation, and zoom from frame toframe in videos, and then combines the registered video images for a clearpicture.  Intergraph Government Solutions recently signed a licensingagreement with NASA to use VISAR in its video tracking and enhancementVideo Analyst System, which is employed by law enforcement agencies, themilitary, and even home computer users.

"Maricopa County Sheriff's Office Installs NiceVision in MadisonStreet Jail"
PR Newswire (09/12/00)

As part of a five-year plan to install NiceVision's advanced digital video and audio surveillance system in all of Maricopa County jail facilities in Phoenix, Arizona, a surveillance and audio solution was recently installed in the Madison Street Jail, a maximum-security correctional facility, announces ASIS International 2000.  The surveillance and audio solution, which is valued at more than $400,000 and is located in the facility's housingand booking areas, will provide the facility with continuous video surveillance at 15 fps per camera.  Such fast monitoring will allow the prisonto determine what each prisoner is doing at any given time.

NiceVision also allows the Madison Street Jail to record and storequality tapes of events, which will enable the prison to protect itselffrom false suits filed by released inmates.  A control room recordsvideo from the facility onto multiple recorders that are connected to thecounty network; the information is then organized and can be easily viewedby authorized users on designated workstations at any location.

"Bismarck Police to Study Possible Department Move"

Bismarck Tribune (09/08/00) P.  1A Bismarck, N.D., Police Chief Deborah Ness announced last Thursday that her interests in converting the city's Public Works' building into a police department should not be misinterpreted as being in opposition to the construction of a regional communicationcenter at the same facility.  However, Ness said that if a architectis hired for the conversion, he will not be given any specific instructionsto plan for the construction of the communication center.  Instead,he will only be told to be aware that a communication center for the Bismarck-Burleigh County area may be established at the facility.  The task force handling the planned move is now assessing which type of communication technologywill best meet the needs of the department.  Ness stresses that thepolice department requires a new home, independent of the constructionof a communications center at the proposed site.

"Sensors of Chemical Warfare Agents Make a Mass-Transit Debut"

Corporate Security (09/12/00); Brooks, Susan Sonnesyn The Department of Energy, the Department of the Treasury's Federal Transit Administration, the Justice Department's National Institute of Justice, and the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority have jointly created the PROTECT task force to study the efficacy of using micro-sensors in public areas to detect and identify chemical and biological warfare agents.  The initialtest site is a Washington, D.C., subway station because of its potentialas a political target; the Metro system's position as a leader in chemicaland biological warfare protection efforts; and the fact that releasingtoxic chemicals in a subway system is a quick means of inflicting widespreaddamage on a city.  While Department of Energy scientists have beenworking with detection technology for evaluation purpose for a number ofyears, the application has only recently become possible.  A majormotivation for PROTECT's efforts is the death of 13 people and the injuryof  5,000 more in a sarin gas attack on a Tokyo subway in 1995.

The problem was made worse in that the initial responders to theincident had trouble identifying the agent, and were unfamiliar with howto protect themselves, dealing with mass fatalities, and with knowing howto stem the spread of the chemical.  Though a subway system's heatand dust may be an obstacle to the sensors' ability, PROTECT attempts touse a system's unique capabilities to its advantage in combating a terroristattack.  A potential snag to the widespread use of the sensors insubway station is the expense, with each sensor costing approximately $15,000. The sensors may decrease in cost as further technological advances aremade and user demand increases.

"Peppered: One Type of Ball Inmates Don't Want to Play Catch With"

Corrections Technology & Management Online (08/29/00); Topham,Jim The OC powder firing capabilities of Jaycor Tactical Systems' PepperBallSystem gives law enforcement officials a less-lethal means to subdue prisoners.  The major advantages of the system are that big groups of inmates can becontrolled with less officers and the system can be utilized to eliminateaccess to certain areas.  Other benefits of the PepperBall Systemare its simple and quiet operation, safety at point-blank range, less crossfireconsequences, accuracy, lack of recoil, and high capabilities.  Thefact that the weapon may not be effective on heavily clothed targets andthat its high firing ability can lead to police misuse are the major disadvantagesof the PepperBall System.  The problem of penetrating clothing maybe solved by aiming at the shins, knees, and large leg muscles or by saturatingthe surrounding area with OC powder.  Officers should not aim theweapon at the throat, face, or eyes.

"Tasers Boost Sacramento PD's Less-Lethal Arsenal"

Law Enforcement Technology (08/00) Vol.  127, No.  8, P.  18 California's Sacramento Police Department will begin handing out Taser International's Advanced Taser M26 to its police officers this year, making it one of the biggest agencies in the nation to have the lasers in general use.  American and Canadian police are joining a growing movementtoward technology upgrades in weapons that are less lethal.  Tasersenable police to lower officer and suspect injury during "suicide by cop"situations and other scenarios mandating the use of force.  The AdvancedTaser M26 is a chassis-shaped like a handgun equipped with a built-in lasersight that fires two wires tipped with darts that grab on to clothing orskin, sending a strong but safe electrical signal throughout the body ofan attacker.

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August 28, 2000 Fox News reported: "Big Brother never forgets a face.  Or, at least, he won't if the State Department implements cutting-edgefacial-recognition technology to track anyone entering or leaving the country. A traveler's mug would appear not only on a passport or visa, but wouldalso be digitized and entered into a massive database of smiles and grimaces. This would &lsquo;enhance the security of [the nation's] borders [due to] increasing threats to U.S. citizens and property,&rsquo; according to an official State Department request for information recently issued to surveillance firmsand obtained by FOXNews.com.  The online collection of eyes, earsand noses would be used by Immigration and Naturalization Service agentsto weed out fraudulent or duplicate applications, and to positively identifytravelers &mdash; and &lsquo;minimize known security threats from excludable, criminal, or high-risk persons,&rsquo; the document says.  The software would attemptto match the live face of a border-crosser or visa applicant with the facialimage under the same name in the database, and then do a cross-search tosee if either face is also listed under another name.  Widespreaduse of the technology to track travelers is still under review, and implementation is at least a year away..."


Human ID implant to be unveiled soon 'Wearers' of Digital Angel' monitored by GPS, Internet By JoAnn Kohlbrand and Julie Foster © 2000 WorldNetDaily.com A working prototype of an implantdesigned to monitor the physiology and whereabouts of human wearers, knownas Digital Angel, is scheduled to be unveiled in October at an invitation-onlyevent in New York City -- two months ahead of schedule.

Developed by Applied Digital Solutions, thedevice is said to be the first-ever operational combination of bio-sensortechnology and Web-enabled wireless telecommunications linked to globalpositioning satellite location-tracking systems.

Applied Digital Solutions Chairman RichardSullivan said the development of the technology has progressed well aheadof schedule.

"We're extremely heartened by the remarkableprogress made by Dr.  Peter Zhou and his entire research team, includingprofessors and their associates at Princeton University and the New JerseyInstitute of Technology," said Sullivan.
"This technology relates directly to the exploding wireless marketplace.  We'll be demonstrating for the first time ever that wireless telecommunications systems and bio-sensor devices -- capable of measuring and transmitting critical body function data -- can be successfully linked together with GPS (global positioning satellite) technology andintegrated with the Internet."

As previously reported in WorldNetDaily, Digital Angel is intended to serve a number of functions.  In addition tolocating missing persons and monitoring physiological data, the devicewill be marketed to the world of e-commerce as a means of verifying onlineconsumer identity.

Similar to microchip technologies currentlyused as electronic ID tags for pets, Digital Angel is a dime-sized implant,inserted just under the skin.  When implanted within a human body,the device is powered electromechanically through the movement of musclesand can be activated either by the "wearer" or by a monitoring facility.

Applied Digital Solutions is also exploringavenues for utilizing Digital Angel without implanting it.

"We are currently talking to a watch makerwho is interested in placing the device on the back of their watches,"Sullivan told WorldNetDaily.  "In addition, technology is being developedthat would allow Digital Angel to function from the back of a cellularphone, transmitting bio-sensor information when carried by the user."

While estimates of Digital Angel's marketplace potential vary, Sullivan and Applied Digital's partners believe they canenter the implant into a multi-billion dollar market through various licensingarrangements, Web-enabled wireless services and data transactions handledby Applied Digital's Application Service Provider center.

Those attending the event in New York Citywill see a working, multimedia demonstration of the implant.  A miniature sensor device -- smaller than a grain of rice and equipped with a tinyantenna -- will capture and wirelessly transmit a pperson's vital body-functiondata, such as body temperature or pulse, to an Internet-integrated groundstation.  In addition, the antenna will also receive information regardingthe location of the individual from the GPS satellite.  Both setsof data -- medical information and location
-- will then be wirelessly transmitted tothe ground station and made available on Web-enabled desktop, laptop orwireless devices.

According to Applied Digital, the demonstration will represent the first time these technologies have been united intoone functioning system.

The New York event -- at a time, date and location to be announced later -- will feature live presentations from top Applied Digital executives, including Sullivan and Dr.  Peter Zhou, president and chief scientist at DigitalAngel.net, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiaryof Applied Digital.  Attendees at the device's unveiling ceremonywill include a handpicked group of potential joint-venture partners, aswell as senior-level players in the e-commerce, wireless and Internet industries,and stock analysts.

Zhou is passionately enthusiastic about thedevice.

"I'm particularly excited about Digital Angel's ability to save lives by remotely monitoring the medical conditions ofat-risk patients and providing emergency rescue units with the person'sexact location," he said.  "I also see great potential for DigitalAngel in the area of 'location-aware' e-commerce.  This is a wholenew wireless and Web-enabled frontier in which a purchaser's actual locationis integral to making a successful sale or providing a valuable, location-criticalservice."

In an exclusive interview with WorldNetDailyin March, Zhou expressed his belief that the implant will be as popularas cell phones and vaccines.

Digital Angel, said Zhou, "will be a connection from yourself to the electronic world.  It will be your guardian,protector.  It will bring good things to you."

He added, "We will be a hybrid of electronicintelligence and our own soul."

Applied Digital Solutions first announced ithad acquired the patent rights to a miniature digital transceiver in December 1999.  Naming the device Digital Angel, ADS formed DigitalAngel.net, Inc.  to serve as the research and development unit for the device.  Since that time, ADS has actively promoted the implant, pointing to whatexecutives and scientists say are lifestyle benefits of the chip.

"The first market we hope to tap into is a$10 billion agri-industry," said Sullivan.  "The FDA is requiringimproved tracking methods for beef and poultry.  The Digital Angel,with its ability to monitor body functions, can track quality from the[animal] pens to the supermarket."

The next large market ADS hopes to tap intois that of preventive medical tracking.  Through its body functiontracking capabilities, the Digital Angel can monitor such functions asbody temperature, heartbeat and specific needs such as insulin levels. This information can then be transmitted to a doctor or health-care provider.

"The Digital Angel serves as an advance warning device, which can help lower the cost of medical care," commented Sullivan.

However, despite the excitement over an early working model of this new technology, concerns have been raised as to personal privacy.  With the integrated technology, a person's location, health status and other personal data will be transmitted and available via theInternet.

ADS claims, however, that privacy concernsare misplaced, since the device can be turned off by the owner.

Additional concerns have been raised by Christians, who contend Digital Angel could be the fulfillment of a biblical prediction found in the book of Revelation.

Zhou, president of DigitalAngel.net, Inc.,disagrees.

"I am a Christian, but I don't think [thatargument] makes sense," he told WND in March.  "The purpose of thedevice is to save your life and improve the quality of life.  There'sno connection to the Bible."

As the technology becomes more commonplace,the debate, as well as sales, are likely to continue growing.

"We'll soon be ready to move ahead to the production-design phase of Digital Angel geared to specific marketplace applications,"
Sullivan said.  "The key message rightnow is this: Digital Angel isn't a blue-sky technology.
This is real.  Digital Angel breakthroughtechnology is here.  It's live!"

Police to track mobile phone users

 Antony Barnett, publicaffairs editor Sunday July 30, 2000 Police are to be given new powers totrack people using satellite technology that can pick up signals emittedfrom mobile phones.

In a move denounced as sinister by civil liberties campaigners, software being fitted into the new generation of mobiles will enable police to pinpoint the exact whereabouts of a person whenever the phone is switched on.

But privacy campaigners fearthe police could use the new phones as homing devices that will allow themto carry out mass surveillance without those targeted knowing about itOne campaigner likened it to putting an `electronic tag' on large swathesof the population.

The Government and the police say the powers are needed to fight certain crimes, including drug trafficking.  They believe the technology will guide paramedics and firefighters to the locations of emergencies.

These unprecedented powers are part of the Regulatory of Investigatory Powers Bill which received RoyalAssent on Friday. They will allow the security services to intercept privateemails.

Privacy campaigners and Opposition peers urged the Government to ensure that the read-outs of physical location produced by the new mobile phones should be made available only after awarrant is obtained from a judge.  But the appeals were rebuffed. The police will be able to track somebody's movements on the authorityof a police superintendent.

Caspar Bowden, who runs the Foundation for Information Policy Reseach, the internet policy think-tank which brought these concerns to light, last night expressed alarm over the move.

`Anyone using the new phoneswill be able to be tracked with pinpoint accuracy at the click of a mouse,for very broad purposes,' he said.  `It's like putting an electronictag on most of the population.' John Wadham, of the civil liberties groupLiberty, said: `This technology is of great concern, and the legislationis simply not keeping up with it.  It is frightening what the policewill be able to do without having to go before a judge.  Under theAct, the only authority overseeing these capabilities will come from anInterception Commissioner, who does not have to be notified pro-activelyof their use, or whether tracking data is passed between government departmentsonce acquired.

Currently, police can obtaininformation about where a call was made from a specific mobile, if theycan satisfy telephone operators there is sufficient evidence for theirsuspicions.  Under the RIP Act, the authorities will be able to bypassthe phone companies.

The mobile phone companies believe these new location facilities in their products will be hugely popularbecause they will allow users to find the nearest bank or Indian takeaway,and then get precise directions to the restaurant.  The companiesalso believe it will give callers greater security knowing that the emergencyservices can track them down in a crisis.

A spokeswoman for Vodafone said: `It is true that under this new Act the police will not have to get ourapproval to access this information any more.  But we believe thenew software in the phones will bring many benefits to our customers andwill be warmly welcomed.' The National Criminal Intelligence Service deniedthat the new technology would mean the age of mass surveillance in thiscountry .  A spokeswoman said: `We will not speculate about how policewill use technology that does not yet exist.  But we will still begoverned by Data Protection Act and believe the RIP bill has strengthenedthe rights of individuals, not weakened it.


The article below gives a good clue on how nothing will bought or sold without a number!

July 22, 2000

     TheLondon Telegraph reported: All food sellers, ranging from supermarketsto hot- dog stand operators, will have to carry an official registrationnumber under new European Union food safety regulations. A compulsory registration scheme affecting more than half a million small businesses, due to be implemented within four years, means that no traders will be licensed to sell food unless they meet strict hygiene requirements. They will also have to keep detailed records of all the ingredients they use in their foods, including their place of origin. A new breed of food police, overseen by veterinary and environmental health officers, will be employed to ensure that the rules are obeyed. The measures, which go beyond anything imposed on British food businesses before and could cost the food industry millions, cover virtually everyone selling food, including restaurants, ice-cream booths,farm shops and tearooms. David Byrne, the EU's health and consumer protection commissioner, said in London yesterday that the measures were designed to harmonize and simplify a mass of existing legislation in the EU. Eventhe smallest food businesses would have to follow hazard analysis procedures now employed by major food processing companies. Caterers and other foodsellers would have to ensure full trace ability of all food and ingredients. To that end, the registration of  food companies will be made compulsory...


July 14, 2000 ZDNET reported: &ldquo;Governments world wideare attempting to increase surveillance powers in an effort to crack downon Internet-related crimes.  However, the latest tool in the war againstonline crimes and illicit attacks on networks has international privacy advocates up in arms.  The so-called black box in reality, acomputer in its own secured case -- may soon be required by the Britishgovernment to be connected to the networks of Internet service providers. Running modified intrusion detection programs, the boxes will be capableof "sniffing" traffic between the ISP and citizen's computers, gleaninginformation upon demand.  Russia has already embarked on a similarproject.

In the United States, meanwhile, some ISPs are vowing to resist the FBI's new Carnivore surveillance system, which has the potential to keep tabs on all of the communications on an ISP's network.  Intelligence agencies stress that the black boxes will help them fight computer hackers.  Opponents counter that, not only will the boxes be ineffective in practice, the snooping tools could easily be abused.  The capability is thereto spy on everyone, said Yaman Akdeniz, director of CyberRights &CyberLiberties, a prominent British campaigner, who is concerned that anincrease in surveillance powers could be open to covert abuse, a topicof much concern following recent revelations regarding Echelon. Whether they do or not is the question.  I think nobody trusts the securityservices now.

FBI e-mail Snooping Device Attacked

WASHINGTON (AP) - Civil liberties and privacy groupsrailed Tuesday against a new system designed to allow law enforcement agentsto intercept and analyze huge amounts of e-mail in connection with an investigation.

The system, called ``Carnivore,'' was first hintedat on April 6 in testimony to a House subcommittee.  Now the FBI hasit in use.

When Carnivore is placed at an Internet Service Provider, it scans all incoming and outgoing e-mails for messages associated withthe target of a criminal probe.

In a letter addressed to two members of the House subcommittee that deals with Fourth Amendment search-and-seizure issues, the AmericanCivil Liberties Union argued that the system breaches the Internet provider'srights and the rights of all its customers by reading both sender and recipientaddresses, as well as subject lines of e-mails, to decide whether to makea copy of the entire message.

Further, while the system is plugged into the Internet provider's systems, it is controlled solely by the law enforcement agency.  In a traditional wiretap, the tap is physically placed and maintained bythe telephone company.

``Carnivore is roughly equivalent to a wiretap capable of accessing the contents of the conversations of all of the phone company's customers, with the 'assurance' that the FBI will record only conversations of the specified target,'' read the letter.

``This 'trust us, we are the government' approach is the antithesis of the procedures required under our wiretapping laws.''Barry Steinhardt, associate director of the ACLU, said citizens shouldn'ttrust that such a sweeping data-tap will only be used against criminalsuspects.  And even then, he said, the data mined by Carnivore, particularlysubject lines, is already intrusive.

``Law enforcement should be prohibited from installing any device that allows them to intercept communications from persons other than the target,'' Steinhardt said in an interview.  ``When conducting these kinds of investigations, the information should be restricted toonly addressing information.'' A spokeswoman for Rep.  Charles T. Canady, R-Fla., who heads the Constitution subcommittee, said that thecongressman had no immediate comment on the letter.

In testimony to Canady's subcommittee, Robert Corn-Revere, a lawyer at the Hogan & Hartson law firm in Washington, said that herepresented an Internet provider that refused to install the Carnivoresystem.  The provider was placed in an ``awkward position,'' Corn-Reveresaid, because the company feared suits from customers unhappy with thegovernment looking in to all the e-mail.

``It was acknowledged (by the government) that Carnivore would enable remote access to the ISP's network and would be under theexclusive control of government agents,'' Corn-Revere said.

Corn-Revere told the committee that current law isinsufficient to deal with Carnivore's potential and that the Internet providerlost their court battle in part because of the Internet's connection totelephone lines, and that the law was stretched to cover the Internet aswell.

Corn-Revere would not reveal the name of his client, and the client lost the case. He said that the FBI has been using Carnivore since early this year.

James X.  Dempsey, senior staff counsel at the Center for Democracy and Technology, said that the main problem with Carnivore is it's mystery.

``The FBI is placing a black box inside the computer network of an ISP,'' Dempsey said.  ``Not even the ISP knows exactly what that gizmo is doing.'' But Dempsey said that Internet providers contributed to the problem, by saying that current technology does not allow the Internet provider to sort out exactly what the government is entitled to get under a search warrant.  The carriers complained that they had to give everything to the FBI.

``The service providers said they didn't know how to comply with court orders,'' Dempsey said.  ``By taking that position, they have hurt themselves, putting themselves into a box.'' Marcus Thomas, who heads the FBI's Cyber Technology Section, told the Wall Street Journal that the bureau has about 20 Carnivore systems, which are PCs with proprietary software.  He said Carnivore meets current wiretapping laws, but isdesigned to keep up with the Internet.

``This is just a specialized sniffer,'' Thomas told the Journal, which first reported details about Carnivore.

Encrypted e-mail, done with an e-mail encoding program like PGP, still stays in code on Carnivore, and it's up to agents to decode it.

Dempsey has a possible solution to the problem, though one that's probably unlikely - show everyone what it does and how it does it, allowing Internet providers to install the software themselves.

``The FBI should make this gizmo an open-source product,'' he said.  ``Then the secret is gone.''

--- On the Net: Federal Bureau of Investigation:
http://www.fbi.gov American Civil Liberties Union: http://www.aclu.org Center for Democracy and Technology: http://www.cdt.org Pretty Good Privacy (PGP): www.pgp.com Copyright © 2000 The Associated Press.  All rights reserved.  This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the prior written authority of The Associated Press.


                                                               June 28, 2000

     USA Today reported: &ldquo;The Britishgovernment is seeking expansive powers to eavesdrop on Internet traffic through a controversial measure known as &lsquo;Big Browser.&rsquo; The proposal would,among other things, allow the government to require people to surrender the text of electronic messages or the &lsquo;key&rsquo; needed to decode them; thosewho refuse or are unable to comply face up to two years in jail. If successful,the initiative also might affect Net privacy debates in the USA and elsewherein Europe, analysts say. Next month, the Labor government of Prime MinisterTony Blair faces a showdown with opponents in the House of Lords. The dogfightillustrates the delicate balance between the freewheeling Internet andpolice and spy agencies in a country with no &lsquo;bill of rights&rsquo; or writtenconstitution...&rdquo;


                   May 3, 2000

      Reuters reported:&ldquo;Tuesday took a major step to support biometrics, the security technologythat uses fingerprints and eyeballs as an alternative to passwords to verifya computer user's identity. The company acquired biometric authenticationtechnology from I/O Software Inc. and said it will begin incorporatingit into its Windows software as early as this summer. Biometrics have longbeen promoted as a more secure and convenient alternative to passwords,social security numbers or even mothers' maiden names, which can be hardto remember and may easily fall into the wrong hands. Industry expertssay Microsoft's move could be pivotal in helping to speed widespread adoption&hellip;Unlike passwords, it is virtually impossible for so-called biometric keysto get into the wrong hands, since the fingerprint is a literally partof the individual user's hand. But while many computer users would     happily swap a long list of passwords for a simple fingerprint reader,such biometric technology has until recently been prohibitively costly.Microsoft said its decision to embrace this security solution was madepartly in response to growing consumer demand. Along with being perceivedas simpler and more secure than passwords, many companies believe biometricswill save them money in the long run&hellip; Microsoft says it plans to offerbiometrics support to users of its Windows 2000 software by this summerand will fully incorporate the security into Windows in the future...&rdquo;

For Release: April 10, 2000

The City of Southampton takes the lead in 'smart citizenship'

· nine partner smart city card pilot co-funded by EuropeanCommission

· will set the trend for multi-function 'reprogram on thestreet' city cards

Southampton, UK - This coastal English City of 215,000 citizens will soon boast Information Age advantages likely to be the envy of all of Europe. Through the EU-supported SmartCities pilot project, scheduled to conclude in November 2002, Southampton residents will experience access to transportation, entertainment, education and services without the need to carry cash. The result will be increased efficiency for the City Council and ease-of-usefor the citizens and shopkeepers. The City of Southampton, which will putthe concept to the practical test, is one of nine European organisations taking part in the project coordinated by smart card integrator Schlumberger.

The new SmartCities card will allow Southampton citizens to use and pay for leisure, library and transport services in the City without using cash. It will also be used to access services and for payments at Southampton University. Use of the card could be extended to other services throughout the City in the future. Essential to the viability of the scheme is theability to add and remove applications from the smart card, using eithera public-access city terminal, dual-slot mobile phone or Internet-connectedPC.

"Southampton has established itself as a leader in innovative citymanagement with projects such as the city-wide Romanse road managementsystem for Europe - which has been crucial in improving trafffic flow throughthe City and is now being expanded to cover the surrounding counties -and our CityWeb Internet site," says Council Leader, City of Southampton,June Bridal. "SmartCities brings together the specialist skills we needto create a blueprint for an open, easily-replicated solution that otherEuropean cities can implement with minimum start-up costs."

"Everyone understands the benefits that smart cards can bring tocity management - the issue for local government is how to harness thosecapabilities effectively within a complete smart card-based infrastructure,"says Gerard Leger, President Geomarkets, Schlumberger Test & Transactions."The expertise and entrepreneurial skills of Schlumberger will prove invaluablein developing the smart card infrastructure technology that will dramaticallysimplify everyday life for the citizens - and governments -of cities throughoutEurope."

With their computer chips and memory, smart cards provide a uniquepersonal, portable and highly secure means of accessing facilities andpaying for goods and services. Today's smart cards can store many different,complementary programs covering many aspects of city life -travel, parking,access to sports and leisure facilities, access and

SmartCities aims to design a dynamic smart card and multi-application management architecture which will enable mid-sized cities to reap thefull benefits of smart cards, without being tied to one unique proprietarymodel.
The project - a public and private sector partnership with a trueEuropean dimension - combines the knowledge, technology and skills of thefollowing strategic partners:

· Schlumberger - smart card solutions to enhance city-lifeand people flow   management

· Southampton - requirements analysis, 'proof of concept'and project evaluation

· Europay International - e-commerce solutions and smart card payment   services, especially the international e-purse - Clip

· Motorola - leading international developer of mobile terminals

· University of Southampton - campus-level 'proof of concept' by staff and   students

· IT Innovation - high-performance web-based information analysis

· Technolution - automation technology underpinning smartcard

· CRID (Facultés Universitaires Notre Dame de la Paix) - clarify and consult   on IT laww, especially on privacy, authentication and liability issues

· The City of Göteborg - requirements analysis and project evaluation

The role of the partners is to define an architecture that will support multiple industry-standard interfaces and then demonstrate the technicaland commercial feasibility of a 'plug-and-play' management platform. Theproject members will also address the important security, legal, institutionaland commercial issues involved with the analysis and reporting of datacollected from the population.

The SmartCities project plan calls for the first working technology demonstrator to be evaluated within 12 months, and a second commercialfeasibility demonstrator 12 months later; this will be followed by a six-monthperiod of detailed evaluation and exploitation planning. Project memberswill use the results as a major contribution to national and internationalstandardisation bodies, and as the basis for a single integrated set ofapplication programming interfaces for smart cards, terminals and interfaces.

SO: http://www.1.slb.com/smartcards/news/00/sct_smartcities1004.html


Patent info on thisstuff (PDF)

YOUR PAPERS, PLEASE ... Big Brother gets under your skinUltimate ID badge, transceiver implanted in humans monitored by GPS satellites

By Julie Foster
© 2000 WorldNetDaily.com

New implant technology currently used to locate lost pets has been adapted for use in humans, allowing implant wearers to emit a homing beacon, have vital bodily functions monitored and confirm identity when making e-commerce transactions.

Applied Digital Solutions, an e-business to business solutions provider, acquired the patent rights to the miniature digitaltransceiver it has named &ldquo;Digital Angel®.&rdquo; The company plans to market the device for a number of uses, including as a &ldquo;tamper-proof means ofidentification for enhanced e-business security.&rdquo;

Digital Angel® sends and receives data and canbe continuously tracked by global positioning satellite technology. Whenimplanted within a body, the device is powered electromechanically throughthe movement of muscles and can be activated either by the &ldquo;wearer&rdquo; orby a monitoring facility.

&ldquo;We believe its potential for improving individual and e-business security and enhancing the quality of life for millionsof people is virtually limitless,&rdquo; said ADS Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Richard Sullivan. &ldquo;Although we&rsquo;re in the early developmental phase,we expect to come forward with applications in many different areas, frommedical monitoring to law enforcement. However, in keeping with our core strengths in the e-business to business arena, we plan to focus our initial development efforts on the growing field of e-commerce security and userID verification.&rdquo;
Dr. Peter Zhou, chief scientist for development ofthe implant and president of DigitalAngel.net, Inc, a subsidiary of ADS,told WorldNetDaily the device will send a signal from the person wearingDigital Angel® to either his computer or the e-merchant with whom heis doing business in order to verify his identity.

In the future, said Zhou, computers may be programmed not to operate without such user identification. As previously reportedin WND, user verification devices requiring a live fingerprint scan arealready being sold by computer manufacturers. Digital Angel® takessuch biometric technology a giant step further by physically joining humanand machine.
But e-commerce is only one field to which DigitalAngel® applies. The device&rsquo;s patent describes it as a rescue beaconfor kidnapped children and missing persons. According to Zhou, the implantwill save money by reducing resources used in rescue operations for athletes,including mountain climbers and skiers.

Law enforcement may employ the implant to keep track of criminals under house arrest, as well as reduce emergency response time by immediately locating individuals in distress.
The device also has the ability to monitor the user&rsquo;s heart rate, blood pressure and other vital functions.
&ldquo;Your doctor will know the problem before you do,&rdquo; said Zhou, noting peace of mind is possible for at-risk patients who canrest in the knowledge that help will be on the way should anything go wrong.

Indeed, peace of mind is Digital Angel®&rsquo;s mainselling point.

&ldquo;Ideally,&rdquo; the patent states, &ldquo;the device will bringpeace of mind and an increased quality of life for those who use it, andfor their families, loved ones, and associates who depend on them critically.&rdquo;

Referring to the threat of kidnapping, the patent goes on to say, &ldquo;Adults who are at risk due to their economic or political status,as well as their children who may be at risk of being kidnapped, will reapnew freedoms in their everyday lives by employing the device.&rdquo;

Digital Angel®&rsquo;s developer told WND demand forthe implant has been tremendous since ADS announced its acquisition of the patent in December.

&ldquo;We have received requests daily from around the worldfor the product,&rdquo; Zhou said, mentioning South America, Mexico and Spainas examples.

One inquirer was the U.S. Department of Defense, through a contractor, according to Zhou. American soldiers may be required to wear the implant so their whereabouts and health conditions can be accessedat all times, said the scientist.

Illustration of application of Digital Angel® from DigitalAngel.net website.

As of yet, there is no central DigitalAngel.net facility that would do the job of monitoring users&mdash;the task will most likely fallto the entities marketing the device, said Zhou. For example, if a medical group decides to market Digital Angel® to its patients, that groupwould set up its own monitoring station to check on its device-users.
Likewise, militaries employing the implant will wantto maintain their own monitoring stations for security purposes.
But for critics, military use of the implant is notat the top of their list of objections to the new technology. ADS has received complaints from Christians and others who believe the implant could bethe fulfillment of Biblical prophecy.
The Book of Revelation states all people will be required to &ldquo;receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: And thatno man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark.&rdquo; (Rev. 13:16-17

In an increasingly cashless society where identityverification is essential for financial transactions, some Christians viewDigital Angel®&rsquo;s ID and e-commerce applications as a form of the biblical&ldquo;mark of the beast.&rdquo;

But Zhou dismisses such objections to the implant.

&ldquo;I am a Christian, but I don&rsquo;t think [that argument]makes sense,&rdquo; he told WND. &ldquo;The purpose of the device is to save your lifeand improve the quality of life. There&rsquo;s no connection to the Bible. Thereare different interpretations of the Bible. My interpretation is, anythingto improve the quality of life is from God. The Bible says, &lsquo;I am the Godof living people.&rsquo; We not only live, we live well.&rdquo;

Sullivan, responding to religious objections to his product, told WorldNetDaily no one will be forced to wear Digital Angel®.

&ldquo;We live in a voluntary society,&rdquo; he said. Accordingto the CEO, individuals may choose not to take advantage of the technology.
Zhou alluded to some Christians&rsquo; objection to medicine per se, adding such opposition wanes when the life-saving, life-improving benefits of technology are realized.

&ldquo;A few years ago there may have been resistance, butnot anymore,&rdquo; he continued. &ldquo;People are getting used to having implants.New century, new trend.&rdquo;

Zhou compared Digital Angel® to pacemakers, which regulate a user&rsquo;s heart rate. Pacemakers used to be seen as bizarre, saidZhou, but now they are part of everyday life. Digital Angel® will bereceived the same way, he added.
Vaccines are another good comparison, said the scientist, who noted, &ldquo;Both save your life. When vaccines came out, people were againstthem. But now we don&rsquo;t even think about it.&rdquo;

Digital Angel®, Zhou believes, could become asprevalent as a vaccine.

&ldquo;Fifty years from now this will be very, very popular.Fifty years ago the thought of a cell phone, where you could walk aroundtalking on the phone, was unimaginable. Now they are everywhere,&rdquo; Zhouexplained.
Just like the cell phone, Digital Angel® &ldquo;will be a connection from yourself to the electronic world. It will be yourguardian, protector. It will bring good things to you.&rdquo;

&ldquo;We will be a hybrid of electronic intelligence andour own soul,&rdquo; Zhou concluded.
In the process of merging with Destron Fearing Corp.,a manufacturer and marketer of electronic and visual identification devices for animals, DigitalAngel.net is scheduled to complete a prototype of the dime-sized implant by year&rsquo;s end. Company executives hope to make the deviceaffordable for individuals, though no cost projections have been made.

ADS, DigitalAngel.net&rsquo;s parent company, received aspecial &ldquo;Technology Pioneers&rdquo; award from the World Economic Forum for itscontributions to &ldquo;worldwide economic development and social progress throughtechnology advancements.&rdquo;

The World Economic Forum, incorporated in 1971 with headquarters in Geneva, is an independent, not-for-profit organization&ldquo;committed to improving the state of the world.&rdquo; WEF is currently preparingfor its &ldquo;China Business Summit&rdquo; in Beijing next month for the purpose offorging new economic alliances with the communist nation.

X-rated airport scanners

          FROM IANBRODIE IN WASHINGTON (The London Times 3-11-2000)

 NEW X-ray machines that reveal the naked truth are appearingat American airports.

 They can see through passengers' clothing and are being usedto search for drugs and weapons.

The devices may soon be ordered for British airports too, according to the US makers. HM Customs has been showing interest but is still considering the privacy issue.

 This question has already stirred controversy in the US. TheAmerican Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) has protested that the X-rays amountto an electronic strip search.

Pictures show back and front views of a man as seen by the X-raymachine. Back view: He has a Glock
 handgun taped to the small of his back and a metal file istaped to the back of his left leg. He also has a dummy packet of "drugs"on his left shoulder, two more on either side of his waist and anotheron the outside of his left thigh. There is a faint outline on the backof his right calf which is a Plexiglass knife.

 Front view: (An American newspaper placed a grey dot over the genital area) The same packets of fake cocaine are visible. The item just below the navel is his belt buckle and his zipper fly is beneath that.The dot on his right thigh is a coin in his pocket. The handgun taped tohis right leg is a Smith and Wesson. You can even see the outline of hisshoe soles.

However, the makers, American Science and Engineering Inc. bridleat comparisons between the Body Search and the X-ray glasses worn by JamesBond in The World is Not Enough. In one scene, Bond strolls through a casinoeyeing the guns and in one case a garter belt. Robert Peters, vice-presidentof marketing for the manufacturer, said: "You simply cannot do what JamesBond and others do with X-ray glasses."

 He added that it does not define underwear, or skin colour,birthmarks or even tattoos. But it does show weapons and drugs taped tothe body. And genitals, of course.

 Gregory Nojeim, counsel for the ACLU, complained that the scanners not only show body parts clearly, they can also be enlarged.

 ACLU is asking Congress to ban the scanner as a violation ofthe US Constitution's protection against unreasonable search and seizure.

 However, Raymond Kelly, the US Customs Commissioner, said:"People object to being physically touched. That was why we brought inthe scanners."

Web Sites Want Your Fingerprints (How it Could Save *You* Money)
Jesse Berst, Editorial Director
ZDNet AnchorDesk


Berst Alert
MONDAY, MARCH 06, 2000

Online fraud is the Net's dirty little secret. Sooner or later, we'll all be victims. That's why I want you to know about the scale of the fraud problem. About the biometric solutions. And about the implications for you and your business.

Once the gee-whiz stuff of James Bond flicks, biometrics is the use of physical attributes -- your fingerprints, your voice, your iris -- to verify identity. (Go to Page 2 for the basics on biometrics.) What I'll explain here is why cost-conscious e-businesses are eyeing such expensive solutions as biometric technologies. And what it ultimately means to you.

THE FRAUD PROBLEM As ecommerce grows, so grows the risk of onlinefraud.


Travel site Expedia revealed last week it will take a $4 to $6 million charge to cover stolen credit cards used to book travel. The Russian hacker believed responsible for raiding CD Universe's creditcard database in January is linked to an underground theft ring that'sincreasingly savvy. Online auction complaints are skyrocketing, prompting a Federal Trade Commission probe. To succeed onthe break-neck Internet, companies hurry to get sites up and running --and often skimp on security. Click for more.

BIOMETRIC SOLUTIONS Biometric technology isn't an obvious solutionfor every e-business. It's expensive. For that reason, few use it today. But that's changing:

ING Canada next month rolls out a program to identify its online banking customers by their fingerprint on a computer mouse DrugEmporium.comis testing an app that allows physicians to order prescriptions over the
Internet with biometric ID. It may add biometric authentication for all shoppers later this year Charles Schwab is testing voice recognition to authentic users of its phone banking option. It has not ruled out biometric
technology for its trading site

It's easy to see why fraud has e-businesses looking at biometrics.But will customers willingly participate?

WHAT THIS MEANS FOR YOU Privacy ranks top-of-mind in every Internet poll. Samir Nanavati of International Biometric Group notes it is hardto convince consumers to supply something as personal as a fingerprint."If you have trust issues with a business, you can change your password or make up a name," he says. "You can't change your fingerprint." 

My bet: over time, consumers will accept biometrics, just as they accept entering credit card numbers online. And as fraud escalates -- ande-businesses raise prices to make up for their losses -- there will be an economic incentive to do so.

What's more, "Biometrics is in a way much better than passwords, which are easily forgotten of stolen," reminds security consultant BobGeiger of Info-Defense.com.

                                                                                   March 8, 2000

      USA Today reported: Next time youwander through your local supermarket, you won't be too paranoid in thinking that the shelves are watching you. Technology being developed by IBM will trace shoppers by their thermal signature, keeping note on where they wander and where they are prone to congregate. It sounds rather sinister, but it could also mean an end to queues at the checkout. The prototype system has been dubbed Footprints by its developers. It consists of a networkof sensor panels, all about the same size as a smoke detector. The units would be mounted on a store's ceiling. The body heat of passing shoppers is picked up by the detectors, which are so sensitive they can even differentiate between individuals in a group and follow their progress. Coupled witha video camera feed, a shopper's sex, age and approximate income groupcan also be registered. The collected information is beamed by radio waves to a central computer, painting a digital map of the trails that customers are taking. This provides store authorities with two important abilities: tailoring store layout to capitalize on consumer behavior and enabling the real-time management of staff and customer services. The placement of products within a store has become a major avenue of retail research. Shops that make the most efficient use of their floor plans can make millions more dollars than their competitors..."

We all should be aware of what the possibilities are with this sort of technology! Once upon a time there was a
free-willed human race, then . . ..

                                                                                February 25, 2000

      Fox News reported: &ldquo;Don't look forthe Six Million Dollar Man just yet, but researchers say they have found a way to mate human cells with circuitry in a "bionic chip" that couldplay a key role in medicine and genetic engineering. The tiny device &mdash;smaller and thinner than a strand of hair &mdash; combines a healthy human cellwith an electronic circuitry chip. By controlling the chip with a computer,scientists say they can control the activity of the cell. The computersends electrical impulses to the cell-chip, triggering the cell's membranepores to open and       activating the cell.Scientists hope they can manufacture cell-chips in large numbers and insertthem into the body to replace or correct diseased tissues. The cell-chipalso gives them greater control over the difficult process of gene therapybecause they can more precisely open the cell's pores, said lead researcherBoris Rubinsky..."

                                                                                 February 2, 2000

      Wired News reported: &ldquo;A government plan to monitor networks for intrusions goes too far and will lead to increased surveillance and privacy violations, a civil liberties group told a Senate panel on Tuesday. The Electronic Privacy Information Center said a memoit obtained last week shows that the Clinton administration's FIDNET      proposal for &lsquo;information systems protection&rsquo; will result in unwarrantedspying on Americans. Documents the group received through a Freedom ofInformation Act request indicate the administration is considering broad access to credit card and phone records of private citizens and monitoring of government workers' computers, EPIC director Marc Rotenberg told theSenate judiciary subcommittee on technology and terrorism. &lsquo;The FIDNETproposal, as currently conceived, must simply be withdrawn. It is impermissiblein the United States to give a federal agency such extensive surveillanceauthority,&rsquo; Rotenberg told the panel chaired by Jon Kyl, an Arizona Republican.The privacy problems of FIDNET and similar government efforts are exaggerated,said Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office director John Tritak..."

I'm getting a big HA! HA! out of this. Ofcourse I hate to say I told everyone this was going to happen! What do
you all think the V chip was actually for???

                                                                                 January 29, 2000

      The London Independent reported: &ldquo;Almost every modern form of communication, from satellites to the internet, isbeing intercepted by a multi-billion pound global surveillance operationdominated by the US and Britain, according to a report for the EuropeanParliament. The scale of communications monitoring in the cyber age islaid out in a document, due to be debated next month, which puts the price-tagof the global snooping operation at 15 to 20bn euros annually. The reportsparked claims yesterday that the UK is aiding American economic and commercialespionage at the expense of its European partners by assisting it in surveillancework through a long-standing arrangement. According to the document, writtenby the researcher Duncan Campbell, more than 120 satellite-based systemsare working simultaneously to collect intelligence...Thedocument also argues that a previously unknown international organizationcalled &lsquo;Ilets&rsquo; has "put in place contentious plans to require manufacturersand operators of new communications systems to build in monitoring capacityfor use by national-security or law-enforcement organizations."In addition, it says that industrial or economic espionage is common becausethere is &lsquo;wide-ranging evidence indicating that major governments are routinelyutilizing communications intelligence to provide commercial advantage tocompanies and trade.&rsquo; The paper is one of a series which has been commissionedby the European Parliament ahead of a set of public hearings in Brusselsnext month, against a backdrop of mounting concern over the erosion ofcivil liberties..."

Stolen car brought to a halt by satellite

Tracking device nets suspects after 401 trip

By Bob Mitchell and Tracy Huffman Toronto Star Staff Reporters

Three teenagers are facing charges after the stolen car they weredriving was stopped by remote control on Islington Ave.

Provincial police were waiting as an alarm-monitoring company usedsatellite technology to stop the wheels of the 1999 Chrysler Intrepid andthe surprised occupants bailed out.

Police say Monday's incident is among the first cases in GreaterToronto where a stolen vehicle was stopped through the use of a computertracking device inside the car.

Vehicle-tracking devices are commonly installed in luxury cars aswell as rental vehicles, said Andrew Dolan, business manager of Bob BannermanDodge Jeep on Don Mills Rd.

"It's an alarm system and a tracking device at the same time," hesaid. "When the car is stolen, the company notifies the customer througha pager system. Then the company will track (the car) via satellite becausethere is
a chip in the car."

The remote control system can turn off the car's engines and lockthe doors, trapping the thief in the vehicle.

Police said the Intrepid, which had been stolen from a Thrifty Carand Truck Rental lot in Kitchener, was equipped with a Global PositioningSystem tracking device monitored by Navlynx Canada Inc.

The car was stolen around 2:15 p.m. and was seen travelling on Highway 401 toward Toronto, said Constable Lisa Anderson of the Port Credit detachment of the Ontario Provincial Police.

"As officers were getting into position to intercept the stolen vehicle, they received information updates (from the police dispatcher, in contact with the monitoring company) as to the exact speed of the vehicle, itsexact location, how much gas was left in the fuel tank, even informationas to which doors on the motor vehicle were locked or unlocked," Andersonsaid.

"Officers were also informed that there was no need to attempt tostop the vehicle because the monitoring company had the capabilities todisable the vehicle once it reached a safe location to do so."

Police say the vehicle left Highway 401 and travelled south on Islington Ave.

Navlynx disabled the vehicle as it came to a stop at the intersection of Islington Ave. and Norseman St., where officers moved in and nabbedthe three teenagers as they ran from the disabled vehicle.

The security system, which can be used in any vehicle, costs about$400 installed, and the customer pays a monthly fee of around $20, Dolansaid.

"This kind of device could be the answer to many of our ills," said Ontario Provincial Police Superintendent Jay Hope, regional commander for Greater Toronto. "This is the first time I know of a stolen car being stopped this
way on our highways.

"Company officials said they've used it before in finding rentalvehicles that have been stolen, but this is the first time it's ever beenused for stolen vehicle being stopped by police and the occupants arrested.

"This technology would greatly assist all police officers in protecting all persons against property damage, serious injuries and deaths in relation to police pursuits."

A 17-year-old youth was charged with theft over $5,000, possessionover $5,000, dangerous operation of a motor vehicle, failure to complywith probation, breach of recognizance and driving a motor vehicle withouta

Also arrested and charged with possession over $5,000 was a 16 year-old and a 15-year-old.

The 15-year-old also is charged with possession of a controlled substance.

The names of the youths are protected by the Young Offenders Act.

January 24, 2000

General Motors has issued a purchase order to American MillenniumCorp (AMCI) for 50 Subscriber Communicators (SCs), antennas, and vehicleinterface boards to be used for tracking and communication with GM vehiclesvia the ORBCOMM low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellite system.

According to AMCI VP of Engineering and Chief Technology OfficerBruce R. Bacon, "the General Motors Truck Group (GMTG) will utilize these50 systems for the first deployment in their fleet of test vehicles.

"With one of these systems installed in the vehicle, from the desktop and using only a web browser, GMTG's staff can see where the vehicle islocated on a map, view engine start and stop events, and communicate directlywith
the vehicle's onboard data network.

"The ability to have affordable worldwide wireless communicationwith the electronic modules in the vehicle is revolutionary. Near real-timeaccess to vehicle diagnostic and operating data opens up all kinds of pre-and
post-production opportunities," Bacon said.

Additionally, Bacon noted that GMTG encompasses GM's lines of sport utility vehicles (SUVs) such as the Jimmy, Blazer, Suburban, Yukon, andTahoe, small pickups, the Silverado and Sierra light trucks, the van andutility vehicle
lines, and medium-duty commercial trucks.

"It has been extremely gratifying to work with engineers from GM,ORBCOMM, and Dolphin Software in order to take this AMCI-ORBCOMM remotetracking and communication solution to the next level with the world'slargest automobile manufacturer.

"AMCI had originally provided two SCs to GM for testing proof ofconcept, which was in turn followed by the purchase of 12 units by GM forfurther testing and software development in a pilot program," Bacon stated.

"This volume purchase validates our opinion that low-cost satellite-based solutions are the future of tracking, monitoring, and communication withwidely mobile assets. Unlike terrestrial wireless data networks, whichrely
on a patchwork system of towers optimized primarily to cover population centers, the ORBCOMM satellites pass over the entire globe providing ubiquitous nationwide and worldwide geographic coverage," he continued.

Andrew F. Cauthen, CEO and President of AMCI, commented, "We arevery enthusiastic about the sale of these SCs and other hardware to GMand the following revenue from the monthly sale of airtime that goes witheach unit.

"This is where our recurring monthly revenue is generated and welook forward to a continuing enrollment of subscribers for AMCI's services.We believe that there exists a huge market for low-cost monthly monitoringwith
the kind of mass-market appeal that brings the service within economic reach of nearly everyone in almost any situation.

Tuesday, 4 January, 2000, 17:22 GMT
              Satellites in the driving seat

The government is reported to be considering using satellite technology to control the speed of cars on Britain's streets. Under the system, motorists would be automatically limited according to the local speed restriction.

While electric cars are still struggling along in the slow lane,electronically-controlled cars are moving into the fast lane.

 One of the latest features is the satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) which directs drivers from A to B via an electronic map intheir vehicle.

 And now researchers at Leeds University and the Motor Industry Research Association (Mira) have proposed using the system to limit speeds on Britain's roads.

GPS is the key element in their Intelligent Speed Adaptation (Isa)system, and allows you to find your exact position on the Earth to withinan accuracy of one metre.

The researchers found GPS can be linked to a vehicle's electronicengine management, thereby controlling fuel supply ignition and braking.

So just as a driver enters a 30mph zone, the vehicle's speed is cut accordingly.

Research project leader Mark Fowkes of Mira, told BBC News Online:"The satellite is just giving the system the car's place on the map. Isatells it what to do."

The researchers originally thought electronic signals from speedsigns would do the same job as GPS.

But Mr Fowkes said: "There are an awful lot of speed limit signs,so that would have been very expensive.

"With GPS becoming more widely available, it seemed an obvious step to make."

Early in-car GPS systems were notoriously inaccurate, but Mr Fowkes said the technology was now sufficiently advanced for it to pinpoint cars accurately enough for use in speed reduction.

He admitted that manufacturers, who sell many cars on their ability to exceed the speed limit, may not be keen to introduce such a system intheir cars.

 However, in the 1997 Master project, financed by the European Union, a field study was carried out in Sweden, the Netherlands and Spain with a car equipped with an automatic speed limiter.

 Twenty people in each country test-drove the car and half said they would accept the limiter voluntarily in their own vehicles.

Mr Fowkes admitted it could be difficult getting systems imposedon car drivers, without an override system to turn it off.

"We still want to see how people respond to it," he said.

"But an override system might make it more acceptable."

You all best make sure those cows aren't fartin' out all that methane!!!

Skies spy on farms


 EVERY Australian farmer will be monitored by satellite by May 1 in an agricultural revolution that is changing the face of global foodproduction.

 Canberra-based company Agrecon is behind the move to monitorevery square metre of farming land in the nation.

 Land owners will be told via the Internet how productive their property has been over two decades.

 Problem areas will be isolated to as little as 10sqm for examination, with data on soil condition provided.

 Farmers will be updated on everything from crop yields to temperatures and rainfalls.

 The satellites will also provide evidence to settle neighbor's disputes over spray drifts and the effects of chemicals.

 The Agricultural Monitoring System (AMS) is part of a satellite-led agricultural revolution which will see international surveillance satellites operating by the end of the year.

 They will monitor our global trading competitors, identifying crop performances to give Australian commodities a leading edge in theinternational marketplaces.

 Agrecon, in a joint venture with the University of Canberra,is putting the AMS on the Internet to service the Australian Wheat Boardby May 1.

 Two months later it will be available to anyone in the worldfrom individuals to corporate giants.


  If All the World's a Computer...

   Privacy: When technology hooks us up in one enormousnetwork, will we have any secrets left?

   By Peter McGrath
   Newsweek, January 1, 2000

   Any time, anywhere: that is the promise the captainsof technology make us, even as we struggle with our existing machines, our cranky software and our creaky Internet. They mean it too. Imagine this: computers that enfold you, like a second skin. Rooms that come alive with sensors, cameras and embedded chips, allowing them to "know" you and adjust to your preferences when you arrive. Cars that monitor not onlytraffic but also your vital signs, and tell you when you're not fit tobe on the road.

   These all belong to a family of devices on the drawing board at places like IBM, Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) andthe Media Lab at the Massachusetts Institute for Technology. Some are in advanced stages of prototyping. They include such things as microchips farmers till into the soil to measure moisture and acidity; building materials that adjust resistance to wind and earthquake; insulation that changes according to weather conditions. The idea is simple: computing must become ubiquitous, pervasive. And nowhere will it be more pervasive than when it is closest to us. As Michael Hawley put it in the mission statement for his Things That Think project at the MIT Media Lab, "We wear clothes,put on jewelry, sit on chairs and walk on carpets that all share the same profound failing: they are blind, deaf and very dumb. Cuff links don't, in fact, link with anything else... Glasses help sight, but they don'tsee."

   They will if the engineers have their way. Eye glassesare the medium of choice for an idea variously called BodyNet and the Personal Area Network, or PAN. You would wear glasses with a camera in the frame,a photo diode sensor to monitor your eye movements, a voice transmitter in the earpiece and a short-range radio connection to a pager like deviceworn on a belt or in a handbag. That device would contain whole libraries of personal information, about both you and everyone you've ever met while wearing the BodyNet.

   One effect would be to displace at a smaller size the multiple electronic devices we carry today, such as laptops, mobile phonesand personal digital assistants. But BodyNet goes further. Thus equipped, you could be prompted with the name and business of an acquaintance approaching on the street. (The device would compare the image with its database, andyour glasses would whisper the result in your ear.) You could, with the help of a phased array of microphones embedded in the fabric of your jacket whatHawley calls "underware" respond knowingly to conversations: if your acquaintance mentions an investment opportunity, your device could connect to the Internetand call up all relevant information about the company in question, using your glasses as a display screen. Dinner parties would never be the same.

   Sound good? It certainly does to the digerati. They are prone to such statements as "If computers are everywhere, they better stay out of the way" (Mark Weiser and John Seely Brown, senior scientists at Xerox   PARC), and "The idea is nothing less than to make the world itself programmable" (Alan Daniels, then of Georgia Tech).

   In their view, computing will, by the year 2005, shift decisively from domination by the personal computer to reliance on a variety of "information appliances." At first most of these devices will be handheld: Web-ready telephones and palmtops, for example. Increasingly, though, they will be embedded in the background in ways
almost invisible to us. Wearable computers will arrive soon after,though it will take some time to make them small and light enough to actually embed them in clothing. Cameras will be everywhere, feeding visual datato the Internet, and some researchers believe that by 2020we will be on camera nearly nonstop.

   The world of ubiquitous computing raises a number ofquestions. High among them is the issue of inescapability. "In practice,"says Ann Livermore, president of enterprise computing at Hewlett-Packard,"the slogan 'Any time, anywhere' means 'All thetime, everywhere '." Even greater, though, is the problem ofprivacy, when pervasive in fact means invasive. There is no precedent forthe idea of self-executing devices that are ubiquitous, networked and always on. If your car knows when you're intoxicated, why can't it also informa police car? If a communicating pacemaker can tell your doctor that you'reon the verge of a cardiac event, why can't it also tell your insurance  company?

   All such devices will, of course, be presented as having benefits so obvious as to pre-empt objection. It's hard to quarrel witha car that deters drunk driving, even at the cost of a little self-incrimination. It's even harder to argue against a networked pacemaker, if it saves lives. But, says Coralee Whitcomb, president of Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, it never stops there: "All these things develop other uses... Any time you create a technology that is inherently invasive, it'll get used that way. And there's always a million good reasons for it."

   Technologists do expect resistance to such devices,at least at first. "We are naturally squeamish about ideas like electronicsthat are worn, ingested, implanted," says Hawley. "Maybe it's rooted inour deep fear [of] being eaten, or disgust at being the host for a parasite. But once we cross these bridges they seem to become second nature." Healthcare is only the most immediate use of ubiquitous computing, he says. He envisions a world in which the ability to put entire systems on a singlechip, creating such devices as voice-activated "metaphones" the size ofa lapel pin, effectively abolishes distance as a barrier to human interaction.

   Some high hurdles remain. Power supplies must be miniaturized. Current network-management tools are wholly inadequate to ubiquitous computing. Nor will there be enough network capacity for another 10 years. But these are susceptible to engineering attack. The same might be said of privacy: protection will come from some combination of encryption and digital fingerprinting, in which people who gain access to your personal data leave electronictraces of their presence, allowing you to hold them accountable. These technical fixes aren't durable, though. As David Brin, a scientist andauthor of "The Transparent Society," notes, "Each year's 'unbreakable'encryption   standard is broken within less than three yearsby groups of amateurs." A new and stronger standard then emerges, onlyto be itself broken, in a permanent game of digital leapfrog.

   In any case, privacy is not just a condition. It's also a state of mind, a feeling of security that owes more to the possibilityof anonymity than anything else. And anonymityis one thing that the next wave of computing will abolish.

                           © 2000 Newsweek, Inc.

Naked fury over X-ray scanner at US airports
                           By Ben Fenton in Washington

             BodySearch system new technology for customs services
             [29 Jul '99] - US
             Customs Service

             US Customs Service

AN X-ray scanner that shows airport customs officers the naked bodies of passengers has been greeted with outrage by American civil libertieswatchdogs.

The BodySearch machine has been in place in New York and five other American cities for several months. Security officers can look at pictures of the human body in outline regardless of how much clothing passengersare   wearing.

According to a spokesman for the manufacturers, the images of thebody are not clear, although genitals and breasts are clearly distinguishable. "It is not like you are getting a photograph of a naked person," the spokesman said.

Anyone seeking to smuggle drugs or weapons was most likely to hidethem in areas untouched by body searches, such as the groin and, in women,the chest. Raymond Kelley, commissioner for the Customs service, said the            machine was introduced in response to passengers' concerns about intimate searches.

 "People object to being physically touched and in responseto that we brought in the scanners," Mr Kelley said. The Customs serviceis facing several lawsuits, mainly from women and members of ethnic minorities,claiming         discriminationin singling out passengers for body searches.

 The American Civil Liberties Union said it was consideringlegal action to prohibit use of the X-ray machine. "If there is ever aplace where a person has a reasonable expectation of privacy, it is undertheir clothing," Gregory      Nojeim, an ACLUlawyer, said yesterday.

The Customs service has refused to say where and how the machinesare being used, but confirmed that it was planned to install them at allinternational airports in America by next June. The machines are expectedto scan only passengers selected by Customs officers for special attention.

December 6, 1999

Newsweek Magazine reported today: &ldquo;The National Security Agency isnow drafting &lsquo;memoranda of understanding&rsquo; to clarify ways in which it canhelp the FBI track terrorists and criminals in the United States, territoryin which it is generally off-limits, Newsweek has learned. The FBI, neverknown for its technical know-how, welcomes the help from the high-tech NSA, but some senators are uneasy about letting the NSA eavesdrop morein the United States, report Washington Correspondent Gregory Vistica andAssistant Managing Editor Evan Thomas in the current issue of Newsweek.While a secret court must approve any national-security wiretaps on U.S. citizens, there is still the risk of abuse. Under pressure to perform better,the NSA and CIA could overreach. Under the existing rules, the NSA andCIA are supposed to spy on foreign threats while the FBI tends to crimeat home. But the Internet has blurred boundaries, and as the bombing ofthe World Trade Center in 1993 demonstrated, foreign terrorists have targetedthe United States...The old tools, such as spy satellites and global-listeningstations to pick up broadcast transmissions and massive computers to sortand decipher them, are relatively ineffective on the new Info Highway...&rdquo;

The London Independent reported: &ldquo;The US National Security Agency has designed and patented a new technology that could aid it in spyingon international telephone calls. The NSA patent, granted on 10 August,is for a system of automatic topic spotting and labeling of data. The patentofficially confirms for the first time that the NSA has been working onways of automatically analyzing human speech. The NSA's invention is intendedautomatically to sift through human speech transcripts in any language.The patent document specifically mentions &lsquo;machine-transcribed speech&rsquo;as a potential source. Bruce Schneier, author of Applied Cryptography,a textbook on the science of keeping information secret, believes the NSAcurrently has the ability to use computers to transcribe voice conversations.&lsquo;One of the holy grails of the NSA is the ability automatically to searchthrough voice traffic. They would have expended considerable effort onthis capability, and this indicates it has been fruitful,&rsquo; he said. Todate, it has been widely believed that while the NSA has the capabilityto conduct fully automated, mass electronic eavesdropping on e-mail, faxesand other written communications, it cannot do so on telephone calls. Whilecautioning that it was       difficult totell how well the ideas in the patent worked in practice, Schneier said the technology could have far-reaching effects on the privacy of international phone calls. &lsquo;If it works well, the technology makes it possible for theNSA to harvest millions of telephone calls, looking for certain types ofconversations,&rsquo; he said..."

                                                                                 November 8, 1999

       The London Times reported today: &ldquo;Microscopic planes, with cameras not much bigger than insects, are beingdeveloped by American scientists to spy on enemy positions in wars of thefuture. An extraordinary array of micro air vehicles (MAVs), all easily held in the palm of the hand, is emerging from experimental laboratoriesthroughout the United States. Most are only six inches long. Although theirsize would limit their operational range, research is under way to designsmall rockets that could propel them long distances. Compared with the103ft wingspan of manned American U2 spy planes that take photographs froman altitude of more than 70,000ft, the MAVs will be tiny cousins. But theidea of minute surveillance planes taking pictures of enemy troops fromonly 300ft up is being taken seriously in the US, according to the latestedition of Jane's International Defence Review. One MAV being developedby the US Naval Research Laboratory has electric motors on each wingtipto drive folding propellers. The report says that the US Navy is mainlyinterested in a MAV capable of radar jamming, and its tactical electronicwarfare division is designing one with sufficient power for flights ofup to 30 minutes. One idea is for a pencil-shaped motor &lsquo;weighing no morethan six grammes&rsquo;. Its speed would be about 30ft a second - as fast asan Olympic sprinter..."

[5] Appeals Court Permits Warrantless Thermal-Imaging Searches

The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, in a split opinion, has heldthat the police did not violate the Fourth Amendment when they used a thermalimaging device to search for evidence of marijuana cultivation. The thermalimager detected high levels of heat emission in an apartment indicatingthe presence of heat lamps used in growing

The defendant Kyllo claimed that the thermal scan intruded into activities within his home, in which he had an expectation of privacy, and that thepolice were required to obtain a warrant before conducting the search.

Judge Hawkins, writing for the court, said that "the use of thermal imaging technology in this case did not constitute a search under contemporary Fourth Amendment standards."  The court said that the emissions were "waste heat," entitled to no more privacy than the garbage that is placed on the street.  The court said that there was no government intrusion into activities in Kyllo's home, in which he expected privacy, rather there was simply a measurement of heat emissions radiating from his home.

Writing in dissent, Judge Noonan said that the warrantless use ofthe Agema 210 clearly violated the Fourth Amendment.

 I have no doubt that Kyllo did have an expectation of privacy as to what was going on in the interior of his house and that this expectation was infringed by the government's use of the Agema 210 although the machine itself never penetrated into the interior. The closest analogy is use ofa telescope that, unknown to the homeowner, is able from a distance tosee into his or her house and report what he or she is reading or writing.Such an enhancement of normal vision by technology, permitting the governmentto discern what is going on in the home, violates the Fourth Amendment.

Both the Washington state Supreme Court and the Montana Supreme Court have held that thermal imaging is a search under their respective stateconstitutions.

USA v. Kyllo, 96-3033 (CA9 1999)

    2566eb00658118/b686f731840272eb882567e7005de14a? OpenDocument#top

Researchers at the University of California at Berkeley are buildinga minuscule robot guaranteed to give new meaning to the old phrase, &ldquo;fly on the wall.&rdquo;

Known affectionately as &ldquo;robofly,&rdquo; the gadget is exactly what itsname implies: a flying robot about the size of a housefly. It even looksa bit like a fly, although it will have four wings instead of two and oneglassy eye instead of two beady ones.

Uncle Sam, who is bankrolling the project to the tune of $2.5 million and wants to see robofly airborne by 2004, will add the flying robot toits espionage toy box.

&ldquo;The potential application of a robot based on a fly might be, inan urban environment, clandestine surveillance and reconnaissance,&rdquo; saidTeresa McMullen of the Office of Naval Research. In other words, that flymight be a spy. Just the thing for keeping tabs on terrorists. Or wandering spouses. Its creators are not mad scientists but Ph.D.s. They envisiona nifty gizmo that will do all sorts of wonderful things, like fly throughthe rubble of an earthquake searching for survivors.

&ldquo;I really do envision, in every fire station, a jar of robotic insects,&rdquo;Michael Dickinson, a biologist working on the project, said with a perfectlystraight face. &ldquo;You could scatter them around and have them send a signalwhen they find something.&rdquo;

But why a fly? Because the aerodynamic principles that keep 747saloft do not work on such a small a scale.
&ldquo;If we want to develop something with stealth, we have to look at nature,&rdquo; McMullen said. &ldquo;There are no man-made objects that small thatcan fly.&rdquo; But why a fly? Why not something with a little more pizzazz like,say, a dragonfly?

Two reasons, said Ron Fearing, the top gun behind the micromechanical flying insect. First, dragonflies have four wings. &ldquo;That automatically doubles the complexity of the project,&rdquo; Fearing said.

More importantly, flies, for all their faults, are outstanding pilots. They can take off and land in any direction, even upside down. They canchange course in just 30-thousandths of a second. And they process informationat speeds that make a supercomputer look like an abacus. &ldquo;They&rsquo;re the fighterjets of the animal world,&rdquo; Fearing said. Robofly will weigh about 43 milligrams&mdash;roughlythe weight of a fat housefly. Its body will be made of paper-thin stainlesssteel and its wings of Mylar, which looks and feels a lot like Saran Wrap.

&ldquo;Instead of gears and cogs and cams, we&rsquo;re using pieces that aremore like origami,&rdquo; Dickinson said. Robofly will be powered by the sun,and a tiny device called a piezoelectric actuator will flap its four punywings 180 times a second.

Fearing and his pals cleared their first big hurdle in April whenDickinson figured out how flies fly. It was a question that had perplexedresearchers for decades, and Fearing sheepishly admits that he had no cluehow flies fly when he pitched robofly to the Office of Naval Research.

Lucky for him that Dickinson solved the riddle. Dickinson discovered that insects use three different wing motions that, taken together, create backspin and air vortices that create lift. The complexity of the movement means robofly will need four wings to do what flies do with two.

That problem solved, Fearing is scratching his head trying to figure out how to control robofly once it is airborne. After all, there is notmuch use for robots that can only hover over a desk. &ldquo;Flies have 100 million years of evolution to tell them how to fly,&rdquo; Fearing said. &ldquo;We&rsquo;re not goingto be there instantly.&rdquo;

He is hoping to crib from colleagues at California Institute of Technology in Pasadena who are developing tiny gyroscopes just one millimeter in diameter. And some of the tricks Caltech researcher Kris Pister is developing for&ldquo;smart dust&rdquo;&mdash;which will pack sensors, communicators and computing power onto tiny silicon motes&mdash;also could come in handy.

Robofly was hatched in early 1998, when the Office of Naval Research sought ideas for tiny robots. Fearing, who has been fascinated by robotssince he was a teenager, jumped at the chance. He got together with somecolleagues who let their imaginations run wild. Really wild. One idea wasfor a tiny, walking robot not much larger than an ant. (&ldquo;Basically a siliconchip with legs,&rdquo; Fearing said.) Another idea was for a hopping robot modeled after an octopus. And then there was robofly.

The Navy loved robofly. It also loved robolobster, now being builtat Northeastern University, and robopike, which swims in a tank at theMassachusetts Institute of Technology.

The robomenagerie is the vanguard of biomimetics, a strange fieldwhere scientists reverse-engineer nature&rsquo;s greatest tricks. &ldquo;There areall kinds of things nature can do that we don&rsquo;t know how to do yet,&rdquo; Fearingsaid. The idea is to copy Mother Nature&rsquo;s nifty tricks&mdash;things like a lobster&rsquo;sability to navigate pounding surf or a bat&rsquo;s sonar that allows it to findmosquitoes in the dark.

The pint-size, or, in the case of robolobster, quart-size, robotsalso represent a move among engineers and researchers toward microrobotics.

The idea is to use a bunch of little robots to do the work of onebig robot&mdash;or human. The Defense Department likes the idea of sending robobeasts to do things far too dangerous for humans&mdash;nasty little tasks like clearing land mines or inspecting nuclear reactors in submarines. Robot, after all, comes from the Czech word robota, which means drudgery.

The best example of the microrobotic trend is NASA, which has embraced the &ldquo;smaller, faster, cheaper&rdquo; philosophy of sending lots of little spaceprobes to do the work of one big space probe.

With a single big robot, it&rsquo;s &ldquo;one giant accident, and you&rsquo;re hosed,&rdquo;Dickinson said. &ldquo;But if you throw up 1,000 little robots and lose a fewof them, or even half of them, you&rsquo;ll still be getting a lot of information.&rdquo;While Fearing has been fascinated with robots since high school, Dickinsonis new to the game. He was drafted by the team because of his expertisein the arcane field of insect aerodynamics but admits he likes the ideaof tinkering with a robot.

&ldquo;A lot of biologists,&rdquo; he joked, &ldquo;are nerdy geeks who, but for atwist of fate, would have been engineers.&rdquo;
©1999 San Francisco Chronicle   Page A17

EDITORIAL (Source: Washington Times)
(Parent's need to be throwing fits over thisone)
Home snoops

Most parents do not know it, but in the name of education, the federal government is out to grade the home life of the nation's school parents.In Pittsburgh, an uproar over governmental intrusion has begun in connection
with a project called the Pittsburgh School-wide Intervention Model,or PSWIM for short. The project, which is partly funded by the NationalInstitute of Mental Health, asks teachers to record the behavior of theirpupils on everything "from fidgeting and humming to stealing, startingfires and forcing others into sex," reports Insight magazine. "Other elementsof the process include giving students a page of photos of classmates andinstructing them to put an 'X' next to the three they disliked most."

Chaperoning school playground activities is one thing. Turning teachers into behavioral analysts is another. The researchers claim that identifying youngsters with problematic attitudes or behaviors will lower the dropout and unemployment rates and curb crime. But what this kind of oversightwill really do is turn America's 110,000 public schools into mental healthclinics and its 50 million public school students into guinea pigs.

In the Pittsburgh program, youngsters were subjected to intense and personal interrogation at school, and some of those youngsters, including 5-year-olds, were coerced into discussing their sexuality. Some were questioned in rooms by teachers and researchers who were strangers to them, and they "were not allowed to leave the room until they had given the answers theresearchers wanted," according to the Virginia-based American Center forLaw and Justice, a public-interest law firm. One question asks youngsters:"Have you ever forced sex on anyone?" Pittsburgh parents, as you mightimagine, are outraged at these secret probing sessions. At first, theywere mystified by a change in their children's mood, then after learningof the PSWIM project, they were angry that such inappropriate lines ofquestioning were being conducted without their permission. Sandra Delaney,whose third-grade son participated in PSWIM, told Insight that "neither(the researchers nor the school) thought they needed parents' permission--or else they didn't care. . . . [I] still don't know who has informationabout my son or how it was interpreted."

Truly disturbing as well is the fact that school systems around the country are considering similar projects as the Clinton administrationpushes such invasive programs, programs funded by not just the Instituteof Mental Health but also the U.S. Department of Education and the federalCenters for Disease Control and Prevention. A project conducted by theUniversity of Oregon, for example, is called Positive Behavior Interventionsand Supports (PBIS), which focuses on students in kindergarten throughthird grade. Insight quotes Renee Bradley, a special
education researcher with the U.S. Department of Education, as sayingthe Oregon project "is our biggest investment right now." Note the words"right now," because Education Secretary Richard Riley and Attorney GeneralJanet Reno, no less, are urging Congress to appropriate $50 million inthe FY 2001 budget to finance more experimental projects.

Ms. Delaney, who now home-schools her son, and more than 70 otherparents are not standing for it. They have filed a federal lawsuit againstthe Pittsburgh school district and the researchers, including the Universityof Pittsburgh's Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic. That case isexpected to go to trial in the spring.

Meanwhile, California parents are in for an equally unpleasant surprise. California Gov. Gray Davis, who vowed to take a "common sense" approachon education reform, is considering signing legislation that would, inthe words of the San Francisco-based Pacific Research Institute, "turnCalifornia school teachers into Big Brother's home snoops." The bill, whichwas authored by state Assemblywoman Nell Soto, Pomona Democrat, would allowschools to create home visitation programs and to compete for tens of thousandsof dollars to fund them. The teachers purportedly would assess the homeenvironment and lifestyles of the family to strengthen the bond betweenparent and child.

Any reasonable parent, teacher or lawmaker must see the risk of turning teachers into snoops. It is an obvious invasion of privacy, and it woulddivert teachers' attention from their primary objective.

Parents and teachers are the first to say that children should behave in school and should not be permitted to disrupt a school's academic setting. Still, old-fashioned discipline levied at home and at the hands of parents remains the most effective way to shape and, when necessary, reshape achild's behavior.

Copyright © 1999 News World Communications, Inc.


As I have said many times previously, as long as the issue is with regard to &ldquo;protecting your privacy,&rdquo; and as long aseveryone is looking to government to facilitate that so-called protection,the government will gain ever more control over the subject information.

The following article explains how Clintonis going to &ldquo;protect&rdquo; your private medical records. Congress has, justthis month, passed a blatantly unconstitutional law to &ldquo;protect&rdquo; your motorvehicle and driver&rsquo;s license records.

Congress is presently debating laws to &ldquo;protect&rdquo; you financial data as it is exchanged amongst and between members of thegreatly expanded &ldquo;financial community.&rdquo; Laws are also under consideration by government agencies to &ldquo;protect&rdquo; you on the Internet and to &ldquo;protect&rdquo;the privacy of your email. (One such law was just recently vetoed by California&rsquo;sgovernor.) You are assured that your tax records are &ldquo;privacy protected.&rdquo;

But, guess what single provision all of these &ldquo;privacy protection&rdquo; laws have in common? They all include &ldquo;exceptions&rdquo;to assure that government agencies, at both state and federal levels, haveaccess to all of that securely &ldquo;protected&rdquo; information.

What the government means when it says &ldquo;privacy protection&rdquo; is that the information must be encrypted and access controlled with government having the &ldquo;encryption keys&rdquo; and access to the data. Italso means that they control who else may have access. I guess as longas you trust Clinton and the rest of government, that&rsquo;s O.K. From the government&rsquo;sperspective, these &ldquo;privacy protection&rdquo; measures are even better than the&ldquo;V chip&rdquo; as a method to assure that they have controlled access to your&ldquo;private&rdquo; information.

Scott MacDonald
October 27, 1999

Homeless fight plan to track their movementsby computer
Wednesday, October 13, 1999

Spurred by fears that a proposed city computersystem to track them will step on personal freedoms, a group of streetpeople will meet with city officials today to send a terse message: Noway.

Members of the homeless issues group SeattleHousing and Resource Effort say the tracking plan also deflects attentionfrom a shortage of emergency shelter beds in the city.

Group members say they will withhold from case workers personal information that could be compiled and used against thehomeless.

&ldquo;It&rsquo;s not paranoia. It&rsquo;s just wrong,&rdquo; saidJohn Steetle, a homeless man who is part of SHARE. &ldquo;We have no assuranceson how the information will be used. People are frightened....  MaybeI have a warrant out. Will I be cast as a bad homeless person?&rdquo;

But the concern is not universal among social service providers.

Bill Wippel of the Union Gospel Mission inSeattle said tracking would allow his agency to better handle its caseloads.He said case workers could study personal histories, share informationwith other shelters and social programs and learn which people are seriousabout getting off the streets.

&ldquo;It&rsquo;s like being a doctor,&rdquo; Wippel said. &ldquo;Youcan&rsquo;t treat the patient without having proper information. The doctor alwayshas his file. We are interested in better management, not snooping.&rdquo;

The controversial tracking system is part ofthe city&rsquo;s Safe Harbors program, a multipronged plan unanimously approved by City Council last week to address the housing and service needs of about 5,500 homeless in Seattle.
The council has authorized $90,000 to hirea consultant to design the program. Under the plan, a homeless person wouldbe given a unique number. Any time he or she went to a soup kitchen orslept at a shelter, the number would be registered in a computer network.

A case manager could review a homeless person&rsquo;s file and determine whether there is a pattern or potential solution fora case&mdash;drug rehabilitation or job referrals, for examples.

City Councilman Peter Steinbrueck said thecity and surrounding area have about 2,350 emergency shelter beds, in addition to transitional housing rooms. But an exact number of homeless people and shelter beds, he said, is hard to pin down. &ldquo;We don&rsquo;t have a system toaccurately measure the number of homeless people and the needs they represent&mdash;substanceabuse, mental illness, out of jobs,&rdquo; Steinbrueck said. &ldquo;The entire systemis either fragmented or uncoordinated.&rdquo;

In Seattle, city leaders currently spend $9.1 million on the homeless, including $5 million for emergency shelter. Butofficials felt the homeless services network needed to be more efficient.

So they convened with a wide range of people, from homeless advocates to people on the streets to social service providers, and discussed the best approach. They learned other cities&mdash; including Philadelphia,New York and Boston&mdash;were using computer tracking system for years. Encouragedby success in those places, Seattle officials imported the concept.

Dennis Culhane, an associate professor at the University of Pennsylvania, who developed computer software to track thehomeless, said the concept &ldquo;is an idea whose time has come.&rdquo;

&ldquo;There are tremendous benefits,&rdquo; Culhane said.&ldquo;It is not possible to develop an efficient system of services and deliverthem without having good data.&rdquo;

In Philadelphia, civic leaders learned a surprising fact from the computer tracking: The number of unduplicated homeless people using the city's services was several times greater than the most liberal estimates, Culhane said.
In addition, he said, shelters in Philadelphialearned specific information about who was using the shelters a chronichomeless population that tended to be disabled, mentally ill, and older.

Such detailed facts, allowed the city to better fashion solutions for homeless people&mdash;and save money.
But in Seattle, some homeless people havecalled Safe Harbor unsafe&rdquo; and no harbor,&rdquo; lambasting what they perceiveas an invasion of privacy.

Culhane, however, said laws require confidentiality of personal information used by social agencies. In addition, computerprograms can be tailored to ensure that certain data is shared or analyzed between certain social service agencies.

                                                                September 23, 1999

     Those who read the information are incredulous. The shocking realization that the idea of such a program has actually been patented in the U.S. and tied to a program of buying and selling is jolting some to their foundations.

     A U.S. patent was applied for in 1996 andgranted (see: U.S. Patent #5,878,155) on March 2, 1999 for a "method for verifying human identity during electronic sales transactions." An abstract with the government patent office describes it as "A method is presented for facilitating sales transactions by electronic media. A bar code ora design is tattooed on an individual. Before the sales transaction can be consummated, the tattoo is scanned with a scanner. Characteristics about the scanned tattoo are compared to characteristics about other tattoos stored on a computer database in order to verify the identity of the buyer.Once verified, the seller may be authorized to debit the buyer's electronic bank account in order to consummate the transaction. The seller's electronicbank account may be similarly updated."

       Biometrics Breaks Into Prisons
    by Vince Beiser
   3:00 a.m.  21.Aug.99.PDT

Guards in Florida's Sarasota County Jail can tell which inmates should be released just by the look in their eyes.

Since last year, the jail has used a high-tech system that scanspeople's retinas to determine their identity. The system, made by IriscanInc., has already caught two cons trying to escape by posing as other prisoners up for release; it has also proved that three people brought in on warrantswho insisted the cops had the wrong guy really were the wanted men. 

 The Sarasota lockup is just one of a fast-growing number of correctional facilities that are beefing up security using biometrics.  Biometric technologies use body parts or behaviors, from voiceprints to hand geometry, to identify individuals. In use for over a decade at top-security government institutions, biometrics are spilling rapidly into other markets, drivenby falling prices and growing public acceptance.

Thousands of locations, from day care centers to health clubs tosperm banks, already monitor people's fingerprints, retinas, or other personal parts to make sure they are who they claim to be. Total industry saleshave surged from US$16 million in 1996 to an estimated $60 million thisyear, according to industry analyst Erik Bowman.

This swelling industry is finding a natural market in America's booming jails and prisons. The number of people behind bars has almost quadrupled since 1980 to nearly 2 million, and continues to rise. All of those inmates, as well as the guards who watch them and the loved ones who visit them,have to be monitored to ensure that only the right ones go in --and out.

Biometrics, more convenient to use and much harder to fool than systems based on identity cards or photos, seem tailor-made for a market that isbased on controlling people's movements.

"Prisons are potentially a huge market for us," said Bill Spence,vice president of Identix, which manufacturers a digital fingerprint scanningsystem. "It could be worth hundreds of millions, no question."

In the last two years, Identix's scanners have been adopted by several California Youth Authority lockups, and are scheduled to be brought online in 16 California state prisons, mainly to regulate employee access. According to Spence, the company is also currently negotiating with the federal Bureau of Prisons about installing its technology at its facilities nationwide.

Some federal prisons already use biometric hand-readers made by Recognition Systems, Inc. A scattering of county jails from Florida to Utah rely on retina scanners sold by Eyedentify, Inc.  -- devices familiar to anyone who has seen True Lies or any of several other movies that have featured them.

Iriscan's first prison system was only installed in 1996, in Pennsylvania's Lancaster County, but national sales manager Ross Fidler expects exponential growth. "By the end of this year we'll have between seven and 10 systemsin correctional facilities, and I'd like to bring that to 100 by next year," he said. "There are over 70 federal prisons, 900 state prisons and 3,000county jails in this country. We plan on hitting that market hard."

Joseph Fontana, a corrections captain at the Sarasota jail, seemsamply satisfied with his $6,000 Iriscan system. "It's fast, it's easy andit's more foolproof than fingerprints," said Fontana. "It would be great if other facilities had it so that we could share data."

That kind of talk, however, chills civil libertarians. Big Brother, they warn, would love to get his hands on your eye prints.

"If you have the perfect identifier, it facilitates the sharing ofinformation across databases," said David Banisar,    legalcounsel for the Electronic Privacy Information Center. Employers, for instance, might someday be able to scan your retina to see if you had ever been arrested-- or just visited someone in prison.

"Fingerprints started out strictly as a criminal thing, then theymoved into welfare, and now they're used in banks and all kinds of places,"cautioned Banisar. "Technology used for law enforcement purposes has away of suddenly becoming used for all kinds of things."

                       Electronic Telegraph UK News Thursday July 18 1996
                        Issue 430
                   Death has had its chips, say computer scientists

                   By Robert Uhlig, Technology Correspondent

  A COMPUTER chip implanted behind the eye that could External Links    record a person's every lifetime thoughtand sensation is to be developed by British scientists.  The Year2000 "This is the end of death," Dr Chris Winter, of British  Information Telecom's artificial life team, said yesterday. He predicted that withinthree decades it would be possible to relive other people's lives by playingback their experiences on a computer, rather like the Dennis Potter televisionseries Cold Lazarus. "By combining this information with a record of theperson's genes, we could recreate a person physically, emotionally andspiritually."

Dr Winter's team of eight scientists at BT's Martlesham Heath laboratories near Ipswich call the chip "the Soul Catcher". It would be possible toimbue a new-born baby with a lifetime's experiences by giving him or herthe Soul Catcher chip of a dead person, Dr Winter said. The proposal todigitise existence is based on a sound calculation of how much data thebrain copes with over a lifetime. Ian Pearson, BT's official futurologist,has measured the flow of impulses from the optical nerve and nerves inthe skin, tongue, ear and nose.

Over an 80-year life we process 10 terrabytes of data, equivalentto the storage capacity of  7,142,857,142,860,000 floppy disks. DrPearson said: "If current trends in the  miniaturisation of computermemory continue at the rate of the past 20 years - a factor of 100 everydecade - today's eight megabyte memory chips norm will be able to store10 terrabytes in 30 years."

British Telecom would not divulge how much money it is investingin the project, but Dr Winter said it was taking Soul Catcher 2025 veryseriously. He admitted that there were profound ethical considerations,but emphasized that BT was embarking on this line of   researchto enable it to remain at the forefront of communications technology.

"An implanted chip would be like an aircraft's black box and wouldenhance communications beyond current concepts," he said. "For example,police would be able to use it to relive an attack, rape or murder fromthe victim's viewpoint to help catch the criminal." Other applicationswould be less useful but more frightening. "I could even play back thesmells, sounds and sights of my holiday to friends," Dr Winter said.

  New Technology Would Let Police See Though Walls

  June 4, 1999

  By Hans H. Chen

NEW YORK (APBNews.com) -- After failing for 19 hours to flush anarmed man high on methamphetamine from a Los Angeles warehouse, sheriff'sdeputies made the decision they always dread -- bust in and take him out.

They had no idea where in the cavernous facility Daniel LawrenceCollins had holed up, and no way to find out. They knew he would have thedrop on the strike team, and they were right. Collins opened fire withan SKS assault rifle from behind a bathroom door, injuring three deputies. What the deputies need -- and what they soon may get -- is X-ray vvision.

'A force multiplier'

Three high-tech labs are in the final stages of developing a newform of radar device that can see through walls by broadcasting radio signalsacross broad bands of the spectrum to pinpoint a hidden suspect. Basedon military technology, the products still need government approval andwon't go on the market for at least a few more months.

But police who have tried various versions of the new radar scanners like what they see -- and what the product developers are telling them.

"One of the exciting things about this is that it's kind of likea force multiplier," said Elise Taylor, a spokeswoman for Time Domain,an Alabama company that developed a through-the-wall surveillance systemcalled RadarVision. "It allows you to tell what's going on inside a buildingwithout actually having to look through a window or be inside the room."

See breathing through wood

Time Domain's product can detect breathing through wood, plasteror concrete from 20 feet away. By reading an LCD panel on the front ofthe chunky, 16-pound unit, police officers will know the exact locationof their quarry.

"Especially with something that is as efficient as this in detecting motion behind a door or wall, the police definitely need something likethat," said Jim Ball, a program manager for the National Institute of Justice'sOffice of Law Enforcement Technology Commercialization who is helping TimeDomain bring the product to market. "It's high priority." Time Domain hasdeveloped 20 prototypes and is still working on reducing the size of theunit, Ball said.

100-foot range

Time Domain isn't the only company working on X-ray vision for cops. After that June 11, 1997, standoff, the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Office started looking into the new technology and came across defense contractor Raytheon and its MARS system, or Motion and Ranging Sensor. The companypromises MARS will spot a lurking fugitive 100 feet away. That kind ofrange -- achieved by adapting military missile guidance technology -- isenough to find someone hiding two stories up inside a building.

"If they're in the bushes, all they have to do is scratch their butt and you'll pick them up," said Larry Frazier, a Raytheon senior scientist who developed the MARS system.

SWAT teams from the Los Angeles Sheriff's Department and Albuquerque, N.M., Police Department have been working with demonstration models ofthe MARS system.

"This particular technology allows us to see through walls and hasgreat promise because we can find where the suspect is and enter into anarea where we're not going to be confronted by him," said Lt. Sid Heal,who researches new technology for the Los Angeles Sheriff's Department."Sometimes it's as important to know where a suspect isn't as where heis."

Radar flashlight

Scientists at Georgia Tech are working on a third system -- a lightweight through-the-wall radar system that fits inside a flashlight. With a range of about 40 feet, Georgia Tech's "radar flashlight" displays less information than the other two devices. Initially developed so Army medics could tell if soldiers stranded on a battlefield were still breathing, the radar flashlight can detect, from certain angles, a human heartbeat, say its inventors.

When the radar flashlight detects a human movement, the display issimple -- as simple, perhaps, as two lights on topp of the unit. A red lightmeans there's someone there.

This simplicity has the advantage of being cheaper than the othersystems. The MARS units are expected to cost $5,000 to $10,000. Time Domaindoesn't disclose the cost of its device. At $500, the radar flashlightmay be more practical for cash-strapped police departments.

"We're trying to reach every policeman on the beat," said Gene Greneker, the scientist at the Georgia Tech Research Institute who developed theradar flashlight. "Police departments don't have a lot of
  money for technology."

Federal approval required

Cost might not be the only thing keeping these technologies off the market. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), which regulates allcommercial radar, radio and television broadcasts, is holding up the technologybecause of concerns that the devices may interfere with existing radartransmissions.

Conventional radar bounces continuous waves of energy, at a fixedfrequency, at a target. The Raytheon and Time Domain devices use somethingcalled ultra wide-band radar, sending out low-level bursts of energy acrossmany frequencies. Because they carry such little power, the companies saythe bursts cause minimal interference to other signals, but the FCC hasyet to approve ultra wide-band transmissions.

Time Domain, Raytheon and other companies with a stake in this technology said they expected the FCC to make a decision by this summer. Time Domain said it would like to begin selling units this year. Time Domain founderRalph Petroff told APBNews.com that he expected the federal governmentto grant his company a waiver soon that would allow it to distribute 2,500of its devices to accredited public safety agencies.

Raytheon wants to have its products on the market by the beginningof next year.

The demand for these products is high, and the National Instituteof Justice has placed through-the-wall surveillance at the top of its scientific funding priority list for the past two years. Law enforcement officialsand the companies themselves say the need for the new products is obvious,and they may help police officers survive deadly situations.

 "I think once they learn how to use it, it'll be as valuableas their guns," Frazier said.

Concern over microchip implants
New technology getting under some people&rsquo;s skin

By Jon E. Dougherty  7/30/99
© 1999 WorldNetDaily.com
Researchers say the technology is currently available to implantbiometric devices in human beings, which can be monitored by governmentsatellites and utilized by private industry. In fact some developers arecurrently attempting to bring the technology to the public and privatesector. 

Though not yet generally available to the public, trials of sub-skinimplants have been underway for nearly a year. For instance, The LondonTimes reported in October 1998, &ldquo;... Film stars and the children of millionairesare among 45 people, including several Britons, who have been approachedand fitted with the chips (called the Sky Eye) in secret tests.

Critics, however, are worried about the increased support such devices are receiving because of the inherent risk to individual privacy. Theycontend that several governments, including the U.S., possess the abilityto monitor such devices and, as a consequence, the people who have them&mdash;even though they may not be wanted for a crime, listed as a missing person,or considered dangerous in any way.

A recent study of microchip implantation technology, written by Elaine M. Ramish for the Franklin Pierce Law Center, examined at length the ethical issue of privacy, which engulfs every debate surrounding implanted biometric devices.  The study provided details about current research and development as well as marketing plans developers are likely to use to sell&rdquo; the ideato a generally skeptical American public and U.S. Congress.
In her study, though, Ramish said she believes the implementationof such devices will eventually become a reality despite their controversial identification role. But, she said, the concept is not a new one; other researchers have advocated the widespread use of biometric identification devices as early as 1967.  Although microchip implantation mightbe introduced as a voluntary procedure, in time, there will be pressureto make it mandatory, Ramish wrote in her research paper entitled, TimeEnough? Consequences of Human Microchip Implantation.

A national identification system via microchip implants could beachieved in two stages, she said. Upon introduction as a voluntary system,the microchip implantation will appear to be palatable. After there is a familiarity with the procedure and a knowledge of its benefits, implantation would be mandatory.  Indeed, of the test cases in Great Britain, so far benefactors have reported no negative consequences.

Ramish believes that legislative protection(s) for individual rights should be enacted by Congress and signed into law before any such devicescould be brought to market.  In her paper, Ramish said recent pollshave found that if guaranteed certain privacy protections, the number ofAmericans who would be willing to accept a medical information implant  rose by 11 percent. Such tracking devices have already been availableto pet owners for nearly ten years, and biometric devices such as fingerprint scanners are quietly making their way into the public sector.

Ramish noted that a few U.S. firms were already developing, or haddeveloped, implantable biometric devices capable of read only, read-writeand read-write with tracking abilities. IBM, Hughes Aircraft, and Dallas Semiconductor are among several firms Ramish said currently were workingto develop such systems, but none of them returned phone calls for commentfrom WorldNetDaily.

A spokesman for Rep. Lamar Smith, R-Texas, also declined to comment onthe possibility that someday Congress may be faced with the decision to mandate the implementation of such technology.

Though Smith is head of the House Ethics Committee; a committee thatnormally examines only the ethical behavior of other House members -- his spokesman declined to say how Smith personally felt about the implementation of biometric technology in humans. He (Smith) has never addressed that issue, the spokesman said.
A spokesman for Democratic presidential nominee candidate and formerU.S. Senator Bill Bradley told WorldNetDaily his boss, too, had never considered the possibility nor thought about the ramifications of personal privacy.

But George Getz, the communications director for the LibertarianParty, said party director Steve Dasbach has considered the issue of privacy on many occasions. In fact, he said, that's one issue we consistently address as Libertarians.  Getz said to the extent that this procedure is voluntary, there certainly shouldn't be a law against it, because Libertarians believe that individuals, rather than the government, should have sole control over their own bodies. But the concept of government-mandated microchip implants is reprehensible, he added.  Getz said he believesthe inevitability of such a device lies in; the government's ability tomake living a normal life without one impossible.

Though the chip implantation procedure might legally remain voluntary, he said it's very likely that government at all levels would eventually force everyone to have one.  After all, the government has never forced anyone to have a driver license, he said. But try getting alongwithout one, when everyone from your local banker to the car rental manto the hotel operator to the grocery store requires one in order for you to take advantage of their services.

That amounts to a de facto mandate,; he said. If the government can force you to surrender your fingerprints to get a drivers license,why can;t it force you to get a computer chip implant? These are differencesin degree, not in kind; which is why it's essential to fight government privacy invasions from the outset.

A spokesman for the House Science and Technology Committee, who requested anonymity, told WorldNetDaily that indeed the committee has looked intothe question of biometrics and the use of such technology on society. He said at present, however, no legislation requiring or permitting theuse of such devices in humans is being considered in the House.  We've looked at the issue across the board; whether to fight fraud, fight crime, improve safety, he said, but as far as this particular use of biometrics, I don't think we've ever really addressed it. Not everyone is opposedto the idea, however.
Amitai Etzioni, Director of a group known as the Communitarian Network and a professor of Sociology at George Washington University, believesthere are definite benefits to society using biometric technology. In an article published recently, Etzioni&mdash;who has written extensively onthe issue of privacy; said, Opposition to these new technologies is particularly troubling given that the benefits are considerable. Once biometric devicesare more fully developed, and as unit costs decline ... a person may forgethis password, pin number and access code, and leave his ID card and keysat home, wrote Etzioni.

A spokesman on science and technology issues at the Communitarian Network, who also requested anonymity, confirmed that the organization;andMr. Etzioni specifically&mdash; has done extensive work on researching the benefits to society of biometric technology. Communities ... stand to reap considerable benefits, said Etzioni. Once biometric devices are widelydeployed, they will make it much more difficult for the estimated 330,000criminals to remain on the lam. These fugitives not only avoid trial andincarceration but also often commit additional crimes while they roam thecountry with little concern.

The group also expresses support for all forms of biometric technology;from scanners to implants -- as a way to increase benefits to child care facilities, decrease losses to businesses, and protect Americans who now fall preyto identity theft.


The Clinton administration has developed a plan for an extensivecomputer monitoring system, overseen by the FBI, that will track banking,telecommunications and other industries, it will be reported on Wednesday.

The National Security Council is conducting a legal and technicalreview of the new Clinton plan, a final report is scheduled to be madepublic in September.

NEW YORK TIMES reporter John Markoff has been shown a draft, according to publishing sources, and was busy on Tuesday afternoon preparing a story.

In some government circles, the proposed system has been nicknamed"Hillary."

The plan calls for the development of a "sophisticated software system to monitor activities on non-military government networks" and a separate system to "track all transactions used in the banking, telecommunications
and transportation industries."

The system is intended to alert law enforcement officials to computer attacks that might cripple governmental or the nation's economy. But itcould also become a massive government utility used for surveillance of
citizens, critics contend, with great potential for misuse.

"Law enforcement agencies obviously would be under great temptation to expand the use of the information in pursuit of suspected criminals,"the TIMES will report.

The plan has drawn fire from civil libertarians because it blends"civilian and military functions" in protecting the nation's computer networks.Law enforcement agencies would be under great temptation to expand theuse of
the information in pursuit of suspected criminals. And the planwould put a new and powerful tool into the hands of the FBI.

Getting DIRT on the Bad Guys

                  Here's the ultimate weapon in the war against cyber crime.

                  by Tom Spring, PC World
                  June 29, 1999, 12:23 p.m. PT

To former detective Frank Jones, "secure network" is an oxymoron.The word "delete" isn't in his vocabulary. Password-protect your computerand you'll make his day.

And if you really get on Jones' bad side, he'll take complete control of your PC--and your first clue will be when you open your door and theboys in overcoats start flashing badges at you.

     If you're among the anonymous thousandsof cyber bad guys who inhabit the Internet's underbelly, Jones is yourworst nightmare.

    The retired New York City detective works on the law enforcement sidelines building software tools to help the governmentand police crack down on online criminals.

                  And his latest tool is considered the ultimate weapon.

           Digging up DIRT

Jones wrote the widely used, but little-known software program called DIRT. The program works like a telephone wiretap for computers, givingits users the ability to monitor and intercept data from any Windows PCin the world.

  DIRT stands for Data Interception by Remote Transmission and was originally created by Jones as a tool to help snare online child pornographers. But in the short time it has been available only to government and lawenforcement agencies, DIRT is now used to battle hacker groups like Cultof the Dead Cow and to trap terrorists, drug dealers, money launderers,and spies.

  "What we do is give law enforcement an additional line ofdefense," says Jones, the president of Codex Data Systems.

     The DIRTY Details

 The client side version of the DIRT program is less than 20KB in size and is typically installed on a target PC using a Trojan horseprogram (a set of instructions hidden inside a legitimate program). TheDIRT program is usually sneaked inside an e-mail attachment, a macro, ora workable program that a targeted user is enticed to download.

Once inside a target Windows 95/98/NT computer, it gives law enforcement complete control of the system without the user's knowledge.

   It starts off by secretly recording every keystrokethe user makes. The next time the user goes online, DIRT transmits thelog for analysis. Jones says government agencies have even managed to openencrypted files by obtaining password locks.

  During a recent program demonstration, Jones easily uploaded and downloaded files to a DIRT-infected computer connected to the Net bya dial-up modem. Jones could upload and download files to the PC withouta hint of activity on the other end.

WASHINGTON--Individual medical records, including patients' geneticinformation, could be disclosed by health insurers to credit card companiesand other financial institutions under legislation overwhelmingly approved
Thursday by the House.

  The controversial provision is embedded in a massive billoverhauling the financial services industry, which passed, 343 to 86. Theprovision was slipped into the measure late in the legislative processand was advertised as a medical confidentiality provision by its sponsor,Rep. Greg Ganske (R-Iowa), who is a doctor.

   Ganske said that his intention in adding the provision was to protect consumers' medical records and to allow their disclosureonly for billing and other health care operations.

  But privacy experts said that it is virtually a "publicity"provision that, because of the way it is worded, would allow broad disclosuresof private medical information without a patient's permission.

  "Under this legislation, a health insurer can send a patient's diagnosis to a credit agency. They can say, in effect, 'By the way, JoanSmith has a brain tumor; don't lend her any money,' " said Tim Westmoreland,a senior policy fellow at Georgetown University Law Center.

   A number of groups, including the American Medical Assn., the American Civil Liberties Union and the American Psychiatric Assn.,oppose the provision.

  Although the Clinton administration supports the bill as awhole, it urged Congress to drop the medical confidentiality section becauseit could undermine privacy protections. But lawmakers said that Clintonis unlikely to veto the bill over the medical privacy provision alone.

     If the bill becomes law, it would mark the first time since the Great Depression that the nation's banking laws have been overhauled. The goal of the popular legislation is to allow financial services firms--banks, savings and loan associations, investment bankingfirms, brokerage companies and insurers--to compete in each other's linesof business. The Senate already has approved a financial services modernizationbill but did not include
any mention of medical privacy.

     It is unclear whether the medical privacyprovision will remain part of the financial services bill. It could beremoved in a House-Senate conference committee, which would have to workout differences between the two versions of the legislation. Both housesof Congress are working on separate medical confidentiality legislation,which could come to votes later this summer. Currently there are no comprehensivefederal laws protecting individual health information.

  Lawmakers feel a need to move quickly. If they fail to actby late August, Health and Human Services Secretary Donna Shalala is required to issue regulations protecting the privacy of electronic medical records.

     The legislation approved Thursday wouldallow medical information held by insurance companies to be released fora variety of purposes, including to determine charges for premiums andfor research projects of any kind--medical and nonmedical.

     Among the entities who could review individual medical data are credit card companies and banks. There is no restriction on how they could use the information.

     Ganske, author of the provision, and lobbyists for the banking industry, said that the privacy section was worded to make certain that insurers, banks and credit card companies had the information they need to pay patients' bills and that there was no intention to codify the use of private medical data for other purposes.

     "This deals with the ability to bill andperform standard insurance functions," said Ganske. People "could pay forgenetic tests with their Mastercards and then the credit card [company]would need information to pay for it."

     But privacy experts pointed out that there is no restriction on what the credit card companies could do with the information. The legislation makes no distinction between disclosures of debts or payment records--which might be necessary to process bills--and disclosures ofdiagnoses or treatments, they said.

     "There is no need to disclose such sensitive records," said Jeff Crowley, who represents the Consortium of CitizensWith Disabilities, a nonprofit group based in Washington. "If a creditagency or broker receives information from an insurer, there are no limitson how they may use it. .
. Once released, the recipient may send the information to newspapers, mortgage bankers, divorce lawyers."

     That was not the intention of the legislation, insisted John Byrne, senior counsel for the American Bankers Assn.

     "From our perspective, we simply want theability to process payments .
. . and that's all we're looking for," he said.

     Several members of the California delegation have been particularly outspoken in their opposition to the bill, in part because the state has strong medical privacy protection laws, which might be preempted by the legislation.
* * *
     Times staff writer Robert A. Rosenblattcontributed to this story.
Copyright 1999 Los Angeles Times. All Rights Reserved

U.K. Wants ISPs To Build In Interception
                  (06/25/99, 3:40 p.m. ET)
                  By Duncan Campbell, TechWeb

   The British government has become the first in Europeto openly propose internationally agreed requirements for ISPs to buildtechnology into networks that would allow for police surveillance.

  Under proposals for changes to the Interception of Communications Act announced by the Home Office this week, all communications serviceproviders (CSPs) would be required to build interception software or hardwareinto their systems.

     The law -- if passed -- will apply to alltypes of new communications services, including Internet telephony, TVconferencing, paging, and satellite based personal communications systems.

     The International User Requirements havebeen drawn up over the past six years by a group founded by the U.S. FBI,called the International Law Enforcement Telecommunications Seminar (ILETS),which meets in secret. The group excludes representatives from industryor civil rights organizations, and has attempted to standardize its objectivesas an International Telecommunication Union requirement.

     According to this week's "white paper,"every type of network will be covered, including VPNsoperated through theInternet or other TCP/IP systems. The new law will also cover interceptionof business telecom services, ranging from basic networks of a few linesfound within a small office to large networks linking offices, in boththe public and private sectors, the document says.

       Under the present British Interception of Communications Act, only licensed public telecom operators have to provide government tapping facilities within their networks. However, ISPs mustsurrender any stored communications data they have, including e-mail, Web-accessrecords, and service details, if served with an order.

           HomeSecretary Jack Straw now proposes all CSPs be required to take reasonablesteps to ensure their system is capable of being intercepted.

           "Thiswill be an ongoing requirement CSPs will have to consider each time theydevelop their network or introduce new services," Straw said. "CSPs willalso be required to provide reasonable assistance to effect warranted intercepts."

        This will include real-time access to data about their subscribers and information about services they have used, including logs of telephone calls, e-mail, or website accesses. A key part of technical arrangements to be made will ensure operators will not be able to know what information has been copied from their systems.

      The British government said the newlaw would make full provision for human-rights legislation, Straw said.

But according to Madeleine Colvin of Justice, the international human-rights organization and British section of the International Commission of Jurists, the proposed law would not achieve this.

 "There are major gaps in what these proposals suggest for controlling surveillance methods. For example, how is anyone to know if their humanrights may have been abused if they are never going to be told that theire-mail has been intercepted by the government?" he asked.

June 5, 1999

Reuters reported yesterday that states like Iowa, Minnesota, NorthCarolina, Pennsylvania and Texas sell personal data on its citizens suchas income, address, and social security number. California is consideringa similar plan as are other states to generate more income. Time magazinecorrespondent Dave Jackson was quoted as saying, The California programis part of a bigger trend. A number of states around the country are lookingfor additional revenues through ways that may unfortunately compromiseprivacy.&rdquo;

Genetic Cards coming soon

DNA technology could mean an end of privacy
North County Times / Sunday, May 9, 1999 / Page A-15

Genetics is transforming the boundaries of science; soon it
will change politics and policy as well


One of the major concerns of the information age is that personal privacy will be erased by technology. "Privacy is doomed," The Economist magazine said last week, citing the proliferation of computers as the principal cause.

But it is not computers that will end privacy, although they will accelerate the process. What will end privacy in the next 10 years is thescience of genomics.

Craig Venter, whose genomic research is transforming the scientific landscape, said last week that he thought "genetic identification cards"would be ubiquitous in as few as five years. He had no illusions about what that meant. "It raises the issue of civil liberties," said Venter,"as never before."

Genomics, in the words of Harvard University researcher Juan Enriquez, "is the discipline that maps and tries to understand the DNA instructions that build and sustain life. All living creatures and each cell within these organisms contains a set of DNA instructions known as a genome. This is the source code for all forms of life on the planet."

It is the work of Venter and his colleagues at the Celera GenomicsGroup to decode the human genome, to sequence, in Enriquez's exact phrase,"the 3 billion nucleotide base pairs" in each of us. Sequencing leads to an understanding of structure. Structure leads to an understanding of function.And therein lies the key to understanding the evolution of life.

Venter's undertaking is of such vast import and ambition that one is tempted to write it off as science fiction. It is not science fiction.What he and his colleagues at Celera are dealing with and dealing in are not just the fundamentals of evolution but the ability to alter that process.

As Claire Fisher, Venter's wife and scientific partner, said last summer: "In the next 10 years, we will see some of the most extraordinary discoveries in the history of science. We can give evolution a shove inthe right direction or in the wrong direction depending on whether we know what we are doing."

Venter is racing to decode the human genome by the end of 2001. Inthat race, he is competing with the Human Genome Project, a publicly funded $3 billion global scientific inquiry that is sponsored, in large part,by the U.S government.

Once both projects are completed, our understanding of why someone is asthmatic and someone else is not, why someone suffers depression and someone else does not, why someone suffers from high blood pressure and someone else does not will surpass all previous insight.

This research will lead to a whole new world of medicine, pharmacology, agriculture, chemical treatments and compounds. Mankind will stand at the dawn of a new era, one in which scientists, through genomics, can literally "bring good things to life."

What will this mean for you and me in our everyday lives? In thenear future, we will go down to a medical facility (the Veterans Affairs'hospital system will probably be reborn as a kind of Division of MotorVehicles for genotyping) and have our blood taken. The samples will be run through a sequencing machine that will decode every "strength" andevery "defect" in our genetic makeup. These data will then be encrypted onto a genetic
identification card, which will fit in our wallets. These data will determine, at least to some degree, our futures.

It is in our interest and the public interest to have this done because it is better to know than not to know. We need to know if our children have a genetic predisposition to heart disease, alcoholism or asthma. We need to know what our life expectancy might be. We need to know if a stroke might cut short our own or someone else's career.

But the knowledge will not and cannot be kept private. Others will know. Insurance companies will know. Health care providers will know. Educational institutions, governments, and law enforcement officials will have access to the data. And decisions about each and every one of us will be made accordingly.

Life insurance companies that know someone is likely to suffer from high blood pressure will be disinclined to underwrite his or her healthand life insurance policies. Mortgage lenders who know that someone is in a "high risk" category for stroke will be less inclined to grant thatperson a 30-year mortgage. Law enforcement officers who know someone isin a high-risk category for unacceptable behavior will monitor that personclosely.

As knowledge based on genomics research expands, judgments about specific individuals and groups of people will become increasingly specific.That will raise the issue of privacy to a whole new level of political concern. Genomics today is transforming the world of science. In the nearfuture, it will transform our politics as well.
John Ellis is a Boston Globe columnist.

May 19, 1999

On May 10, 1999, the Windsor Star in Canada ran an article by Stephan Bevan of Britain's London Times entitled Chips May Dip Into Workplace Sanity which began: Big brother could soon be watching from the inside. Several British companies are consulting scientists on ways of developing microchip implants for their workers to measure their timekeeping and whereabouts.The technology, which has been proven on pets and human volunteers, wouldenable firms to track staff. The data could enable them to draw up estimates of workers efficiency and productivity. The British researcher pushing the technology, Professor Kevin Warwick of Reading University, was quoted as saying, For a business, the potential is obvious. You can tell when people clock into work and when they leave the building. You would know at all times exactly where they were and who they were with. It is pushing the limits of what society will accept, but in a way it is not such a big deal. Many employees already carry swipecards.