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Eduard Freiherr von Böhm-Ermolli
Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli was born on 12 February 1856, in the city of Ancona in what was then the Papal States.  FML Böhm-Ermolli replaced Josef Freiherr von Weigl as commander of the I. Corps in April 1910.  The prospect of war favoured GdK Böhm-Ermolli, who went on to command the 2. Army in July 1914, while the I. Corps was taken over by Karl Freiherr von Kirchbach auf Lauterbach. Böhm-Ermolli was commander of the Austrian 2. Army at the outset of the war, with the rank of General der Kavallerie.  Böhm-Ermolli had one of the most enduring military careers during WWI, commanding the 2. Army from the beginning of the war all the way to May of 1918.  His rank increased steadily; he was promoted to Generaloberst on May 1, 1916. 

Between army rank increases, the General was elevated to the noble rank of Freiherr in August 1917.  Finally, on 31 January 1918, he received the rank of Feldmarschall.  It is unclear how he received this rank; generally, the rules stipulated that the "Field Marshal" rank could only be attained by either winning a majour battle or capturing an enemy fortress.  During this period, he suffered both victory and defeat, but the war took a steady toll on the fighting quality of his troops. 

In addition to the 2. Army, he coördinated several fighting forces in Army Group Böhm-Ermolli, which lasted from 15 September 1915 until 25 July 1916; after that, Army Group Böhm-Ermolli was subordinated to
Prinz Leopold von Bayern's Front, which took its orders from the German High Command of the Eastern Front at Brest-Litovsk.  He was replaced by General Alfred Krauss in May of 1918, and the 2. Army was renamed the Ost Armee.  The following timeline summarizes Böhm-Ermolli's military career:

  Sep 1875  Promoted to Leutnant
May 1880 Promoted to Oberleutnant
May 1884 Promoted to Hauptmann 1. Kl.
May 1891 Promoted to Major
May 1894 Promoted to Oberstleutnant
Apr 1897 Promoted to Oberst
May 1897 Commands Uhlan regiment 3 until Apr 1901
Apr 1901 Commands 16. Cavalry Brigade until Nov 1905
May 1903 Promoted to Generalmajor
Nov 1905 Commands 7. Cavalry Division until Apr 1909
Nov 1907 Promoted to Feldmarschalleutnant
Apr 1909 Commands 12. Infantry Division until Nov 1911
Nov 1911 Commands I. Corps until Jul 1914
May 1912 Promoted to General der Kavallerie
Jul 1914 Commands II. Army until May 1918
Sep 1915 Commands Heeresgruppe Böhm-Ermolli until Jun 1916
May 1916 Promoted to Generaloberst
Jun 1916 Commands Heeresgruppe Böhm-Ermolli until Jan 1918
Jan 1918 Promoted to Feldmarschall
Dec 1918 Pensioned

Following the end of the war, Böhm-Ermolli retired to Troppau, in the new Czechoslovak state.  He lived a peaceful life and was not hindered by Prague in spite of his fame amidst the German populace of the former Austrian Silesia.  In fact, he was an officer in the Czechoslovak Army, although he remained retired from active service.  Following the annexation of the Sudetenland by Germany in 1938, Böhm-Ermolli received an honorary command in the German Wehrmacht and apparently was the only former K.u.K. officer to achieve this rank. Böhm-Ermolli was appointed colonel of the 28. Infantry Regiment in 1940. 

General Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli died on 9 December 1941.

GWS, 11/00 [rev. 10/04]

Attention: Visit FEEFHS map room for a Map of the Banat and Vojvodina including Syrmia (between Danube and Sava rivers) and Belgrade. Also, visit FEEFHS map room for a Map of Galicia including some of the placenames mentioned here. Be sure to open in a separate window to toggle between this page and FEEFHS.
Orders of Battle:  The Vojvodina, early August 1914
Assembling for the planned invasion of Serbia

2. Armee, General der Kavallerie Eduard Böhm-Ermolli

     IV. Korps, Gen. d. Kav.
Tersztyanszky von Nadas
          21. inf. div., Feldmarschalleutnant
Erzherzog Josef
          32. inf. div., Feldmlt.
     VII. Korps, Gen. d. Infanterie
Meixner von Zweienstamm
          17. inf. div., Feldmlt.
von Henriquez
          34. inf. div., Feldmlt.
     IX. Korps, Gen. d. Inf.
von Hortstein
          29. inf. div., Feldmlt. Graf Zedtwitz
     Support, 23. Honved inf. div., Feldmlt. Dämpf
          7. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Lütgendorf
          10. kav. div., Feldmlt. Mayr
Vojvodina, August:  What's Hotter, the Blazing Sun or the Serbs' Outrage?

Böhm-Ermolli was dispatched first to the Vojvodina to comply with General Conrad's planned invasion of Serbia according to "Plan B."  The IX. Corps actually invaded Serbia from Syrmia in the First Invasion beginning on August 11, 1914.  It was sorely beaten by the Serbian II. Army under General Stefanovic, however, and retired across the Save River too early, thus exposing General Frank's V. Army to attack on its left flank.  Meanwhile, the swift intervention of Russia in Eastern Galicia caused Böhm-Ermolli's force to be transferred to the exposed front, beginning around August 14.

GWS, 12/00
Orders of Battle:  Galicia, late August 1914
That part of the II. Army assembled in Galicia; rest of II. Army in transit

2. Armee, Gen. Böhm-Ermolli (Army Group Kövess)

     XII. Korps, Gen. d. Inf.
Kövess von Kövesshaza
          16. inf. div., Feldmlt. Paukert
          35. inf. div., Generalmajor Hauninger
          38. Honved inf. div., Feldmlt. Karg von Bebenburg
     III. Korps, Gen. der Inf.
Colerus von Geldern
          6. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Siegensstern
          28. inf. div., Feldmlt.
          22. Schützen div., Feldmlt. Krauss-Elislago
     Support:  11. inf. div., Feldmlt. Pokorny
          43. Schützen inf. div., Feldmlt. Schmidt von Georgenegg
          20. Honved inf. div., Feldmlt. von Csanady
          1. kav. div., Feldmlt. Peteani von Steinberg
          5. Honved kav. div., Feldmlt. von Froreich
          8. kav. div., Feldmlt. von Lehmann
Eastern Galicia, August 24:  Wait for the Russians to Attack Us!

The XII. Corps under General Kövess was already in position on the Eastern Front.  By the time Böhm-Ermolli was able to assemble his army, the Russian 3. Army under General Russky already smashed through the thin Austrian defensive line around Brody and Tarnopol.   By August 29, Böhm-Ermolli dispatched his VII. Corps to stiffen elements of the 3. Army as they fell back, but were severely defeated at the Gnila Lipa on August 30.  Lemberg was evacuated and a defensive position was laid on the line of Wereszyca and the Grodek lakes.

GWS 11/00 [rev. 10/04]
Böhm-Ermolli and his generals at Army HQ, in Galicia
Orders of Battle:  January 1915
During the Battles for the Carpathians

K.uK. 2. Armee, Gen. d. Kav. von Böhm-Ermolli (part of Army Group Woyrsch)
    Gallwitz Korps, Preußisch General der Artillery von Gallwitz
          35. inf. div. Feldmlt.
          27. inf. div. Feldmlt.
     K.u.K. IV. Korps, Gen. d. Kav.
Tersztyanszky von Nadas
          31. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Lütgendorf
          32. inf. div., Feldmlt.
     K.u.K. XII. Korps, Gen. d. Inf.
Kövess von Kövesshaza
          16. inf. div., Feldmlt.
     Deutsch XXXV. res. div., Generalleutnant von Schmettau
          3. kav. div., Feldmlt.
von Brudermann
          7. kav. div., Feldmlt.
von Korda
          9. kav. div., Feldmlt.
von Hauer
Böhm-Ermolli as seen without a field cap.  A very rare portrait, indeed!
The Carpathians, Winter 1915:  God have Mercy on our Soldiers!

Böhm-Ermolli was situated in Poland as part of Army Group Woyrsch opposing the Russian 4. Army.  After playing defense on the right wing of the German campaign in Poland in November and December, Conrad transferred the 2. Army to the Carpathians so as to make a final push to relieve General Kusmanek in the besieged fortress of Przemysl. 

General Linsingen's German South Army (Südarmee), consisting of two Austrian divisions and four German divisions, was holding the Uzsok and Wyszkow Passes.  Böhm's sector stretched from the Lupkow Pass to the Uzsok Pass, and, considering the harshness of the terrain, effectively split the sector's defense into the two narrow passes plus a few snowy heights. 

While the 3. Army under General
Boroevic attacked Brussilov from January 23, Linsingen prepared to invade Galicia from the Uzsok and Wyszkow Passes.  He managed to secure additional reserves from Boroevic once it became apparent that the 3. Army was stalled at the San.  Linsingen pushed as far as Turka but had to withdraw from mid-Febraury thanks to the general counterattack by the Russians.   Linsingen thereafter was ordered to defend Böhm-Ermolli's right flank. 

At the end of February, Conrad gave Böhm-Ermolli the green light for the offensive.  The 2. Army launched from the passes in the midst of a snow squall and drove toward Baligrod, which lay due south from Przemysl.  During this period, the Austrians can be considered to have been in their worst predicament; tremendous losses all along the slopes and peaks of the Carpathians drained the K.u.K. Armies of their noncommissioned officers and most talented soldiers. 

Böhm-Ermolli's offensive was supposed to relieve the strain on the nerves of the Central Powers as well as relieve Przemysl.  After less than three weeks, Böhm-Ermolli gave the signal to stop the offensive, as the 2. Army was exhausted from the terrific strain.  Some 50 percent of the 2. Army was lost to both winter weather and Russian foe; Przemysl was left to its doom. 

On March 20, the Russian 3. and 8. Armies launched a massive counteroffensive to drive the 2. and 3. Armies into Hungary.  Przemysl itself fell on March 22 after General
Kusmanek used the interim period to destroy whatever could be used by the Russians.  The 2. Army was rolled over the crest of the Carpathians, and Böhm-Ermolli was forced to fight on the Hungarian side of the slopes. 

However, after a month of this severe fighting, the Russians ceased the offensive for lack of supplies and manpower.  During this time, Linsingen's Südarmee held the Uzsok Pass, repelling Brussilov's efforts to seize it over and over.

GWS, 12/00 [rev. 10/04]
Orders of Battle:  Eastern Front, May 1915
Immediately preceding the Dunajec offensive
2. Armee, Gen. d. Kav. Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli
   Chief of Staff, Genmj.
Dr. Bardolff
   IV. Korps, Gen. d. Kav.
v. Tersztyánszky (located in the Balkans)
   Chief of Staff, Obstlt. Frh. v. Salis-Samaden
       13. Schützen div.,   Feldmlt. Edl. v. Kreysa
                  25. Schützen brig.,  Oberst Richter
                  26. Schützen brig.,  Genmj. Riml
                  13. field art. brig.,   Genmj. Tunk
       32. inf. div., Genmj. Ritt. v. Willerding
              63. inf. brig., Genmj. Edl. v. Obauer
              64. inf. brig., Genmj. Grallert
              32. field art. brig., Genmj. Kreycy
       31. inf. div., Feldmlt. Frh. v. Lütgendorf
              61. IBrig. Genmj. v. Felix
              31. field art. brig., Oberst Schirza
       43. Schützen div.,   Feldmlt. Schmidt v. Georgenegg
                  59. inf. brig., Genmj. Kroupa
                  86. Schützen brig.,  Oberst Ritt. v. Zygadlowicz
                  54. inf. brig., Oberst v. Watterich
                  43. field art. brig., Oberst Michalek
   V. Korps., FZM
v. Puhallo
   Chief of Staff, Oberst Sallagar
        37. Honvéd inf. div., Genmj. Tabajdi
                   73. Honvéd inf. brig., Oberst v. Pogany
                   74. Honvéd inf. brig., Genmj. Hunke
                   37. field art. brig., Oberst Wondre
        33. inf. div., Feldmlt.
                     65. inf. brig., Genmj. Frh. v. Dürfeld
                     66. inf. brig., Genmj. Lieb
                     33. field art. brig., Oberst Kaufmann
          27. inf. div., Feldmlt.
Kosak (troops dispersed amongst IV. and XVIII. Korps)
   VIII. Korps, Feldzeugsmeister
v. Scheuchenstüel
   Chief of Staff, Oberst Sündermann
       51. Honvéd inf. div., Feldmlt. v. Kornhaber
                200. Honvéd inf. brig., Genmj. Tanarky
                201. Honvéd inf. brig., Oberst Szotak
       14. inf. div., Feldmlt.
              27. inf. brig., Genmj. Horvath
              28. inf. brig., Oberst
v. Zeidler
              14. field art. brig., Oberst v. Ripper
       41. Honvéd inf. div., Feldmlt. Schay
                40. Honvéd inf. brig., Oberst Schnetzer
                82. Honvéd inf. brig., Genmj.
                41. field art. brig., Oberst
   XVIII. Korps, Gen. d. Kav. Ritt. v. Ziegler
   Chief of Staff, Oberst Edl. v. Lunzer
       44. Schützen div.,   Feldmlt. Ludwig
                17. inf. brig., Oberst Edl. v. Dietrich
                122. inf. brig., Oberst Ritt. v. Wasserthal
                44. field art. brig., Oberst Edl. v. Ellenberger
        9. inf. div., Genmj. Schön
                 18. inf. brig., Oberst Edl. v. Dokonal
                 53. inf. brig., Genmj. Urbarz
                 9. field art. brig., Oberst Putsek
   XIX. Korps, Feldmlt.
   Chief of Staff, Oberst Günste
       29. inf. div., Feldmlt. Zanantoni
                 57. inf. brig., Oberst Wöllner
                 58. inf. brig., Genmj. Poleschensky
                 7. field art. brig., Genmj. Soppe
        34. inf. div., Genmj. Ritt. v. Birkenhain
                  67. inf. brig., Oberst Trojan
                  34. field art. brig., Obstlt. Köchert
General Böhm-Ermolli entertains Kaiser Wilhelm on the outskirts of Lemberg on a cold spring morning during the June 1915 advance against the Russians.
The Spring Offensive, 1915:  Expel the Invader, Reconquer the Land!

Following the victory of the 11. German Army and 4. Austrian Army over Radko Dmitriev's III. Army on the Dunajec River, Brussilov's 8. Army was forced to take new positions on the north side of the Carpathians, lest the 2. Army should break through the passes and approach from the left while Boroevic's 3. Army attacked from the right. 

Böhm-Ermolli fought over familiar terrain as he directed his forces toward Baligrod and ultimately Przemysl.  Brussilov made an effort to hold the Lupkow and Uzsok Passes, but with the retreat of the 3. Army underway, he could no longer risk being overextended, and Brussilov backed his army behind Przemysl, confident it would withstand for the Russians as good as it had for the Austrians.  However, the German 11. Army was stocked with heavy artillery the likes of which the Russians couldn't match during the nine-month siege, and after a few days, the fortress was cracked open. 

On June 3, with support from the 2. Army, Mackensen entered Przemysl, and initiated the second part of his offensive.  Böhm-Ermolli and his 2. Army was subordinated to Army Group Mackensen for the conquest of Lemberg.  While the 11. and 4. Armies struck Brussilov's frontlines head on, Böhm-Ermolli skirted south of Lemberg, threatening to approach the fortified lines of the Russian 8. Army from behind.   Because of this, Brussilov abandoned his defense lines in front of Lemberg and allowed Mackensen to take the city on June 22. 

Following this, the Austrian 2. Army was combined with the German Süd Armee as Army Group Böhm-Ermolli.  With little respite, Böhm-Ermolli was given the same task as in 1914:  guard the Volhynian frontier against a Russian attack while the main thrust drove into eastern Poland.  This time, Böhm-Ermolli was much more successful, as the Russians had been bled white and their morale was as bad as it had ever been. 

Nevertheless, the fight against Brussilov became harder and more strenuous once the Galician capital had fallen; Brussilov spent the rest of the summer using the many rivers and marshy terrain of Eastern Galicia for defense, including the Gnila Lipa and Zlota Lipa, where the initial Russian successes were heralded the previous summer.  The 2. Army's advance slowed to a crawl as the Russians closed on their own frontier. 

By the end of September, the 2. Army stopped in front of Tarnopol (still in Russian hands), exhausted from battling over a devastated land.

GWS, 12/00 [rev. 10/04]
Orders of Battle:  September 1915
Following the successful Dunajec offensive in the spring

II. Armee, Gen. d. Kav. von Böhm-Ermolli
VIII. Korps, Feldmlt. Czibulka
          XXXI. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Lütgendorf
          XXXII. inf. div., Genmj. von Willerding
          I. kav. div., Genmj. de Ruiz
     IV. Korps, Feldmlt. Schmidt von Georgenegg
          XXVII. inf. div., Feldmlt.
          LI. Honved inf. div., Feldmlt. von Kornhaber
     XIX. Korps, Feldmlt.
          XXIX. inf. div., Genmj. Kroupa
     V. Korps, Feldmlt.
          XXXIII. inf. div., Feldmlt. Hordt
          XXXIV. inf div., Genmj. von Birkenhain
          XIV. inf. div., Feldmlt.
von Csicserics
          XLIII. Schützen div., Genmj. von Jordan-Rozwadowski
Orders of Battle:  Eastern Front, early June 1916
Immediately preceding the Lutsk offensive carried out by General Brussilov

Böhm-Ermolli Group, Generaloberst von Böhm-Ermolli
   (part of the Deutsch Südwest Armee under General Bothmer)
IV. Korps, Gen. d. Inf. Schmidt von Georgenegg
          XIV. inf. div., Feldmlt.
von Csicserics
          XXXIII. inf. div., Feldmlt. Hordt
     V. Korps, Feldmlt.
          XXXI. inf. div., Genmj. Lieb
     Kosak Group, Feldmlt.
          XVII. inf. div., Feldmlt. Kosak
          IV. kav. div., Feldmlt. Ostermuth
          XXIX. inf. div., Feldmlt. Schön
I. Armee, Generaloberst
von Puhallo
     XVIII. Korps, Feldmlt.
          I. Landsturm brigade, Feldmarschal Bandian
          VII. kav. div., Feldmlt. von Micewski
          XLVI. Schützen div., Genmj. von Urbanski
          XXV. res. inf. div., Genmj. von Boog
Orders of Battle:  Eastern Front, July 1916
Immediately following the Lutsk offensive carried out by General Brussilov

K.u.K. II. Armee, Generaloberst von Böhm-Ermolli
   (part of the Deutsch Südwest Armee under General
    IV. Korps, Gen. d. Inf. Schmidt von Georgenegg
          XIV. inf. div., Feldmlt. Horvath
          XXXIII. inf. div., Feldmlt. Hordt
     V. Korps, Feldmlt.
          XXXI. inf. div., Genmj. Lieb
     Kosak Group, Feldmlt.
          XVII. inf. div., Feldmlt. Kosak
Orders of Battle:  Eastern Front, August 1916
Immediately following Roumania's declaration of war on the Empire

K.u.K. II. Armee, Generaloberst von Böhm-Ermolli
   (part of the Deutsch Südwest Armee under General
     IV. Korps, Gen. d. Inf. Schmidt von Georgenegg
          XIV. inf. div., Genmj. Horvath
     V. Korps, Feldmlt.
          XXXI. inf. div., Genmj. Lieb
     Kosak Group, Feldmlt.
          CVI. Landsturm inf. div., Genmj.
     XVIII. Korps, Feldmlt.
          XXV. inf. div., Genmj. von Boog
Orders of Battle:  Eastern Front, November 1916
Immediately following Roumania's defeat by the Quadruple Alliance

Böhm-Ermolli Army Group, Generaloberst von Böhm-Ermolli
   (part of the Southern Front under
Prinz Leopold von Bayern)
K.u.K. III. Armee, Generaloberst
von Kirchbach
     VIII. Korps, Feldz.
von Benigni
          V. inf. div., Genmj. von Felix
          II. kav. div., Genmj. von Abele
     XIII. Korps, Feldmlt.
von Csicserics
          XLII. Honved inf. div., Feldmlt.
          XXXVI. inf. div., Genmj. Nöhring
     Hadfy Group, Feldmlt.
von Hadfy
          XXI. Schützen div., Genmj. von Podhajsky
          XLVII. Deutsch res. div., Genlt. von Oppeln-Bronikowski
Deutsch Südwest Armee, Gen. d. Inf.
von Bothmer
     X. Deutsch Korps, Gen. d. Inf. von Eberhardt
          CXIX. Deutsch inf. div., Genmj. von Grönert
          LXXV. Deutsch res. inf. div., Genmj. Eisenhart-Rothe
          CIC. Deutsch inf. div., Genlt. von Puttkammer
     XXIV. Deutsch res. Korps, Gen. d. Inf.
von Gerok
          III. Deutsch Guards inf. div., Genmj. Lindequist
          XLIX. Deutsch res. div., Genmj. Zöllner
          XXXVI. Deutsch res. div., Genlt. Kruge
     XV. Türkisch Korps, Genmj. Sevki Pasha
     XIX. Türkisch Korps, inf. div., Lt. Col. Sedad Bey
          XX. Türkisch inf. div., Lt. Col. Jasin Hilm Bey
     Hoffman K.u.K. Korps, Feldmlt. von Unschuld
          LV. inf. div., Genmj. von Unschuld
          LIV. inf. div., Genmj. von Severus
          XXXVIII. Honved inf. div., Genmj. von Molnar
II. K.u.K. Armee, Generaloberst von Böhm-Ermolli
     Eben Group, Gen. d. Inf. von Eben
     IX. K.u.K. Korps, Feldmlt. von Kletter
          XIX. inf. div., Feldmlt. Böltz
          XXXII. inf. div., Genmj. von Willerding
     IV. K.u.K. Korps, Feldmlt. von Hordt
          XXXIII. K.u.K. inf. div., Genmj. Iwanski
     V. K.u.K. Korps, Feldmlt.
von Goglia
          XXXI. inf. div., Genmj. Lieb
          XXVII. inf. div., Genmj.
          IV. kav. div., Genmj. Berndt
     XVIII. K.u.K. Korps, Feldmlt.
          II. Deutsch kav. div., Genmj.
von Etzel
          I. Landsturm inf. div., Genmj. von Soretic
          CVI. Landsturm inf. div., Genmj.
          XXV. inf. div., Genmj. von Boog
Orders of Battle:  Eastern Front, July 1917
Immediately preceding Brussilov's second offensive (Kerensky Offensive)

Böhm-Ermolli Army Group, Generaloberst von Böhm-Ermolli
   (part of Prinz Leopold von Bayern Front, Generalfeldmarschal
Prinz Leopold)
III. K.u.K. Armee, Generaloberst
Tersztyanszky von Nadas
          V. inf. div., Genmj. von Felix
     XIII. Korps, Feldmlt.
von Schenk
          XLII. honved inf. div., Genmj. Mihaljevic
          XXXVI. inf. div., Genmj. Nöhring
     XXVI. Korps, Feldmarschal von
          XV. inf. div., Genmj. von Aust
          II. kav. div., Genmj. von Abele
     reserve: XVI. inf. div., Genmj. von Kaltenborn
          LXXXIII. Deutsch inf. div., Genmj. von Stumpf
     Assigned in July:  VIII. Bayerisch res. div., Genmj. Jehlin
          XVI. Deutsch res. inf. div., Genlt. Sieger
          XX. Deutsch inf. div., Genlt. Wellmann
          Bayerisch kav. div., Genmj. von Egloffstein
Deutsch Süd Armee, Gen. d. Inf.
von Bothmer
     XXVII. Deutsch res. Korps, Gen. d. Kav. Krug von Nidda
          XXXVIII. Honved inf. div., Genmj. von Than
          LIII. Sächsisch res. div., Genlt. Leuthold
          LXXV. Deutsch res. div., Genmj. von Eisenhart-Rothe
     XV. Türkisch Korps, Genmj. Javid Pasha
          XX. Türkisch inf. div., col. Jasin Hilmi Bey
     XXXV. Deutsch res. Korps, Genlt. von Heineccius
          XV. Deutsch res. div., Genlt. Limbourg
          XXIV. Sächsisch res. div., ?
     XXV. K.u.K. Korps, Feldmlt.
          LV. inf. div., Genmj. von Unschuld
          LIV. inf. div., Genmj. von Severus
     reserves: CCIV. Sächsisch inf. div., Genmj. Fortmüller
          IV. Deutsch ersatz div., Gen. d. Kav. von Werder
II. Armee, Generaloberst von Böhm-Ermolli
     Zloczow Group, Gen. d. Inf. on Winckler
     IX. K.u.K. Korps, Feldmlt. Kletter
          XIX. inf. div., Feldmlt. von Böltz
          XXXII. inf. div., Genmj. von Willerding
          CXCVII. Deutsch inf. div., Genlt. Wilhelmi
          XXXIII. inf. div., Genmj. von Iwanski
     Zloczow reserves:  CCXXIII. Deutsch inf. div., Genmj. Hävernick
          XCVI. Sächsisch inf. div., Genmj. von der Decken
     Anrollen Group, Genmj. von Jacobi
          CCXXXVII. Deutsch inf. div., Genmj. von Jacobi
     V. K.u.K. Korps, Feldz.
von Goglia
          XII. Deutsch Landswehr div., Genmj. Drabich-Wächter
          XVII. inf. div., Feldmlt.
          IV. kav. div., Genmj. Berndt
     XVIII. Korps, Feldmlt.
          XV. Deutsch Landwehr div., Genlt. Sack
          XXV. K.u.K. inf. div., Genmj. von Boog
Kerensky, July 1917:  You can never count the Russians out!

Alexander Kerensky ordered his commander-in-Chief General Kornilov to draw up plans for a summer offensive. His reasoning was less for Russia's sake than for the Entente's.  Kerensky intended to prove to his allies that Russia was still participating with the aim of securing the promises of the secret Treaty of London in 1915. 

With a tactical victory in mind, Kornilov gave the leadership to General Brussilov, obviously the best commander in the Russian army and one of the best in the whole war.  Brussilov scraped together whatever divisions that were still battleworthy.  He decided to launch the offensive along the sectors controlled by the 11. Army under General Erdelli and the 7. Army under General Belkovich.  Along with them was the 8. Army under General Kornilov.  

The Austrian 2. Army was facing the Russian 11. Army and also the 12. Army of Klembousky, which was inactive during this period.  On Böhm-Ermolli's right flank was the German Süd Armee under General von Bothmer.  Among the forces that composed the Süd Armee was the Turkish XV. Corps, led by Generalmajor Javid Pasha, dispatched to Galicia by Enver Pasha to prove to the Germans the fighting qualities of the Ottoman Empire. 

Bothmer took extra precautions to defend his sector from an attack; indeed, there was open discussion of an impending Russian offensive as early as May 1917.  Kerensky was not one to keep surprises. 

The Russians attacked on 1 July 1917, with the aim of breaking through to Lemberg.  The Russians gained some successes at the outset.  At least 20 miles were gained by the 11. Army on the first day, with Böhm-Ermolli frantic to maintain an orderly retreat before the advancing Russians.  He counted on the defense of Brzezany by the Süd Armee, which sat at the junction of the two armies: it's fall would mean disaster for the 2. Army's right flank. 

The preparations by von Bothmer meant that the Russians suffered enormous losses during their assault in the first week of July and their offensive stopped after a few days because of it.   By 19 July, the Germans launched a counteroffensive that broke the new Russian frontlines.  Brussilov sanctioned a fighting retreat after he learned of his soldiers simply abandoning their lines without a fight. 

There was little fighting in the Russians' retreat, and the 2. Army advanced parallel to the Süd Armee over the next two weeks.  Tarnopol, occupied by the Russians since September 1914, was recaptured by Böhm-Ermolli's troops on 26 July 1917.  The offensive was halted close to the pre-war Austrian-Russian frontier, where Brussilov had determined to make a stand.  It tended to be the lack of supplies on the Quadruple Alliance's side that halted the offensive, rather than resistance by the Russians.

GWS, 12/00 [rev. 10/04]
The Battle of Zborow:  The Czech Legion's Greatest Victory
FML Kletter watches as FML Böltz tallies troops from his 19. inf. div. in summer 1917. 

Data from the Battle of Zborow - 2 Jul 1917, by Martin Pytr, 10/00

Czechoslovaks were unsufficiently armored and trained, therefore Russian colonel V. I. Troyanov-commander of Czechoslovak brigade sent them by Zborow, [as] this part of front seemed to be quiet. Czechoslovak brigade was situated between 6th and 4th Finnish divisions. But what happened at Zborow was [any]thing but quiet.  On the Austro-Hungarian side were 19th Infantry Division [Commanded by General Bölitz, part of the II. Army under General Böhm-Ermolli]: 35th Inf. Reg., 75th Inf. Reg, 86th Inf. Reg. (Note: 82% of 75th Inf. Reg and 61% of 35th Inf. Reg. were Czech soldiers.)

Czechoslovak brigade on the Russian side:

1st Regiment - 2nd Col. Pavlovskiy
1st Bat. - Lt. S. Cecek
2nd Bat. - Lt. O. Husák
3rd Bat. - Lt. Z. Fierlinger

2nd Regiment - 2nd Col. Zembalevski
1st Bat. - Cpt. R. Gajda
2nd Bat. - didn't fight at Zborow

3rd Regiment - Col. Mamontov
1st Bat. - R. Vobrátílek

Brigade consists from ca. 3 500 soldiers

Note: Pavlovskiy was ill and Zembalevskiy heavy drunked therefore Czechoslovak forces were under command of Czech officers Cecek and Gajda. Lt. Cecek and Husák came with new tactic: not to fight in line but in small groups. Austrians described this tactic as "katzenartig".  Czechoslovaks captured 62 A-H officers, ca. 3 150 soldiers, 15 canons and a lot of machine guns.  They lost ca. 185 men and around 800 of them were wounded.   The Austrians managed to suppress all communiques concerning the action within the Empire, but the Germans printed it in their papers, thus severely undermining Austrian control over the Czechs.
Böhm-Ermolli visits Odessa in the spring of 1918.  Shortly after he occupied it, his army was dissolved and reorganized as the Ost Armee under the command of General Alfred Krauss.  For the first time since the war began, Böhm-Ermolli had no army to command.
An 84 year-old General Böhm-Ermolli
wearing a uniform of the Wehrmacht in 1940