Pulp and Adventure Heroes: H-I

Hackensaw, Dr. Dr. Hackensaw was created by Clement Fezandie and appeared in Science and Invention from 1921 through 1925. Hackensaw, an amiable, white-haired old man clearly modeled on Thomas Edison, was a scientist and inventor par excellence who created inventions on the frontiers of science. Hackensaw is perhaps the quintessential Gernsbackian sf character. Among his inventions: invisibility, androids, genetic engineering, matter transmitters, mechanical hypnosis, drug-induced time travel, element transmutation, and space travel.

Haig, Colin. Colin Haig, a character I'd like to learn more about but have so far been unable to find more information on, was created by H. Bedford-Jones and appeared in Detective Fiction Weekly in 1934 or 1935. Haig was a scientist-inventor-adventurer who used his inventions and superweapons in a war against the "supreme villainness," Mme. Vanderdonk, who aimed to take over the world and who was worshiped by the natives of Bali as a goddess.

Hailey, Dr. Eustace. Dr. Hailey, the "Harley Street Giant," was created by "Anthony Wynne," the pseudonym of Dr. Robert M. Wilson,  and appeared in Flynn's from 1924 to 1927. Hailey is a Doctor, specializing in psychiatry and mental disorders. His real joy, though, is in detecting, in solving crime and capturing criminals. Well, that and food. Hailey is a large man, of large appetites and enthusiasms. Hailey is "believed to be the fattest man in the medical profession," but this does not incapacitate him; although he usually moves in a sluggish, even lethargic manner, when it is called for he is capable of great speed, and in the more active cases he can be quite vigorous. He is also quite tall, at least 6'6", and has strength that is almost superhuman. He has a "charming," even handsome face, and his eyes are usually "listless and indifferent," but when he is interested in a case--really interested--they glint. When he is sufficiently interested in this manner his attention is wholly focussed and he misses nothing; his skills of observation, of deduction and induction, are quite acute. (He also takes snuff to keep him awake) Hailey relies on inductive reasoning to catch his criminals, and is very successful, whether he is taking on criminal masterminds who use radio-controlled airplanes to attack their enemies or mad scientists who use death rays to erase their enemies. Hailey is also quite capable with his revolver, which he is called upon to use a surprising amount of time. Hailey is assisted by Inspector Biles, his contact with the law and a personal friend; Biles, a tall, somewhat haggard man with a "severe point of view," was treated by Hailey during his nervous breakdown.

Hairbreadth Harry. Hairbreadth Harry, one of the very first of the adventure strips, was created by G. W. Kahles, who also did Airship Man, and debuted on 21 October 1906, running through the beginning of 1940. Harry was an earnest young man, around 12, who began his do-gooding in the American west, saving prospectors, rounding up outlaws, helping sheriffs, and the like. In a short amount of time he began more involved adventures, almost all of which involved his saving his sweetheart and future wife, Belinda Binks, from the schemes of the evil Rudolph Rassendale, the original top-hatted, black-coated, tie-the-heroine-to-the-buzzsaw villain. Harry foiled Rassendale's plots in the West, primarily, but also in Western Canada and many other parts of the globe. Harry even engaged in a chase to the North Pole, with Harry winning.

Hale, Don. Don Hale was created by W. Crispin Shepherd and appeared in the four-volume “Don Hale Series” starting with Don Hale in the War Zone (1917) and running through 1919. Don was a young teenager who fought in the British army and navy during WW1 as well as serving alongside the Americans in Belleau Wood.

Hale, Ginger. Ginger Hale was created by Lewis Theiss and appeared in the six-book "Mail Pilot Series," which ran from 1934 to 1939 and began with Flying the U.S. Mail to South America, or, How Pan American Airships Carry on in Sun and Storm Above the Rolling Caribbean. Joseph "Ginger" Hale is a two-fisted adventuring pilot for Pan American who is bound and determined to get the mail delivered, regardless of whether he has to fight through air-pirates, incompetent ground crews, or inclement weather. He delivers the mail to South America, the Caribbean, the "basin of the Amazon," both coasts of the United States, the "South American watershed," and the Andes. He is assisted by the "Bald Eagle Patrol," a group of Boy Scouts who often accompany him on his trips. Two members of the Patrol are Colvin Criswell (Colvin? What kind of a parent would name their innocent baby son Colvin?) and Pee Wee Dewire.

Hale, Max. Max Hale was created by George Coxe and appeared in two novels, beginning with Murder for the Asking (1939). Hale is a wealthy New Yorker who, though having attended the State Police Academy, has no real zeal for detecting. He usually has to be nagged into it by his secretary, the long-suffering and sardonic Sue Marshall.

Hall, Satan. Satan Hall was created by Carroll John Daly, author of the Race Williams stories, and appeared in Detective Fiction Weekly from 1933 to 1937. Frank "Satan" Hall, a policeman, had slanted green eyes, thin lips, a pointed chin, and a widow's peak, giving him a demonic look. His actions matched his appearance; he was violent and rarely operated within the rules. He did get results, however, and he was feared by Johnny Zito, the crime boss of New York. All of the criminals feared and hated him, actually; he was known as the "Hunter of Men" and the "Lone Wolf of the Department" and could not be bribed or dissuaded. The Police Commissioner didn't approve of Hall's actions, but found him useful (the criminals weren't in jail, where they belonged, but they were dead and so wouldn't bother anyone again) and wasn't above asking Hall to "quietly dispose" of an individual gangster. Nor was Hall above an execution (murder) of this sort when the criminal truly (in Hall's eyes) deserved it. Hall was a first-grade detective, though; even though he was as quick with his gun as any cowboy or gangster, it was not his only skill. He was very intelligent, methodical in his investigations, and well-educated. His nickname came from his looks and his laugh, which was "merciless, sinister, cruel, a weird, eerie sort of sound; once heard, not forgotten." Among criminals it was thought that he had a supernaturally charmed life.

Hall was aided by Mattie Hern, a saloon girl, and rich girl detective Nina Radcliff.

Hambledon, Tommy. Tommy Hambledon was created by Manning Coles and appeared in at least two dozen novels, beginning with Drink to Yesterday (1940). Hambledon worked with British Intelligence during WW1 as a spy inside of Germany. He had been taught how to speak German in school in England, and when he lost his memory due to a war wound he was still accepted by the Germans on the basis of his skill with the language. He recovered his wits but stayed inside Germany as a sleeper, joining the Nazi party and rising through its ranks as Klaus Lehmann, the chief of police in Berlin. When the war begins he returns to England but eventually returns, as a scientist and inventor. Hambledon is a pleasant man usually dressing, when not in disguise, like a tourist. He is friendly and easy to talk to, but is quite willing to kill and die for his country.

Hamilton, Anthony. Anthony Hamilton was created by Frederick Faust, the "pulp king," under Faust's pen-name of "Max Brand." Hamilton appeared in Detective Fiction Weekly beginning in January 5, 1935 and running through the end of the year. , as well as in Secret Agent Number One (1936) and Spy Meets Spy (1937). Hamilton was a Secret Service operative who worked around the world; although he was an American agent he fought against evil and tyranny wherever he found it, whether in Moscow, the Far East, Monte Carlo, the Balkans, or in Central America. His arch-enemy was deGraulchier, the notorious Franco-Japanese spy; deGraulchier was forever causing trouble, whether attempting to start a quick war with the U.S. or manipulating Central European governments. Hamilton was a bit of a womanizer, but fell in love twice, the first time with Mary Michelson, a British secret agent, and then with Louise Curran, a Service op. like him. Hamilton and Curran ended up marrying.

Hamilton, Bob. Bob Hamilton was created by Major Andrew S. Burley and appeared in the four-volume "Army Series," aka "Uncle Sam's Army Boys Series." The series appeared in 1919 and began with Uncle Sam's Army Boys on the Rhine or Bob Hamilton in the Argonne Death Trap. Bob and his friends were active in the "Argonne Death Trap," in Italy "under fire in the Piave District," undercover on the homefront uncovering spies at a munition plant, and serving under BlackJack Pershing fighting bandits in Mexico.

Hamilton, Dick. Dick Hamilton and his friends were created by Howard Garis and appeared in the six-volume "Dick Hamilton Series" beginning with Dick Hamilton's Fortune, or, The Stirring Doings of a Millionaire's Son (1909) and appearing through 1914. Dick and his friends (I haven't been able to find a copy of these to look at, so I don't know their names) have the usual adventures of a millionaire's son, defeating the bullies at school, uncovering vile Red Agitators, achieving gridiron fame, fighting off kidnapers, and winning car and plane races. The series does have one somewhat different wrinkle to set it apart from some of the other boys' series. Dick wants to be accepted for who he is, rather than as a millionaire's son, and wants his friends to be friendly with him for more reasons than his money, so he keeps his wealth a secret whenever possible. The exigencies of plot, however, usually require him to use his money and his father's money, and so by the end of the book his friends know about (and have ridden in) his "steam yacht," his roadster, and his "airship."

Hammar, Fridolf. Fridolf Hammar was created by "Prins Pierre," aka Johan Frederik Lindholm, and appeared in Stockholmsdetektiven (Stockholm Detective, 1893). Yes, I know that the date means that Hammar should appear in my Fantastic Victoriana site, but I feel like the character more properly belongs here. Hammar was the first Swedish detective, with Stockholmsdetektiven being the first novel written by a Swede featuring a Swedish protagonist. Unfortunately, there's next to no information available in English on Hammar, and my translation skills aren't up to figuring deciphering the available Swedish information on Hammar. All I know is that Hammar was active in Stockholm itself, that the dates of some of his cases were in 1890, rather than when the book was published, that Hammar's Lestrade was Police Commissioner S., and that Hammar was very influenced by Sherlock Holmes.

Hammond, Wade. Created by Paul Chadwick and appearing in Ten Detective Aces starting in 1934, Wade Hammond was a lethal private eye, called by one critic "a sort of Sam Spade/Richard Wentworth conglomerate." His stories began as routine but soon became lethal and weird, including things like a poisoning ape, living skeletons, and a murderous human fly. Hammond lives in a house “filled with curios, primitive weapons and pieces of pottery—mementoes of his many travels. Stuffed heads of big game, shot in the far corners of the earth” adorn the walls. Hammond is tall and lean and has a thin mustache. (Eww) He is a “special investigator of crime, acting sub rosa in homicide cases,” and is a personal friend of various police Inspectors. He’s got a pretty hard-boiled approach to things and is not at all above killing criminals.

Hanaud, Inspector. Inspector Hanaud was created by A.E.W. Mason and appeared in a number of short stories, novels, and movies, beginning with At the Villa Rose (1910). Hanaud is the "first official policeman of importance in twentieth century detective fiction," according to one critic. He is Inspector Gabriel Hanaud of the Sûreté, a plump, middle-aged officer who has a seemingly lighthearted attitude towards everything. This usually masks his real feelings, but helps give others a feeling of security around him; people are usually reassured by his presence. While not extremely intelligent, he is not stupid; his success as a policeman, though, comes more from perseverance and his use of police tactics and skills. He is sympathetic towards most people and has a strong sense of justice, although he can be thoroughly ruthless towards murderers and other evil men. His cases occasionally veer into the fantastic, as when he pursues a weretiger or takes on master criminals.

Handyman, Captain. Captain Handyman appeared in Boys' Realm beginning with its first issue, on 6 June 1902. Captain Handyman was a Captain Kettle type, an irascible sea captain. The stories were supposedly written by "Captain Shand," an old sea dog.

Hannay, Richard. Richard Hannay was created by John Buchan and appeared in six books beginning with The Thirty-Nine Steps (1915). Hannay is a well-to-do Scottish mining engineer, retired after making his fortune in South Africa, and a great patriot for the Empire ("Perhaps the Scots are better than the English, but we're all a thousand percent better than anybody else"); he's also very brave, and thirsty for adventure. All of these qualities impel him onward when adventure looms or when a threat to the Empire presents itself. In his first appearance he stops the Black Stone, a group of spies who are working for a German invasion of England; he is the subject of a manhunt across the Scottish moors, wanted both by the police and by the Germans. In the sequel, Greenmantle, Hannay is a major in the British army who must discover the true meaning of the word "Kasredin," which may hold the key in determining whether or not Turkey allies with German in the war; in pursuit of this goal he and his friend, the American secret service agent John Blenkiron, search through Germany and Constantinople for the cause of a jihad forming in the East. In the third book, Standfast, Hannay, now a Brigadier-General, works against a German spy; he is assisted by a conscientious objector named Launcelot Wake. (Standfast is notable in that Wake is treated with scrupulous fairness; although Wake represented much that both Hannay and Buchan disagreed with, Wake is never ridiculed, and even when dying from a gunshot is still allowed his dignity as well as the consistency of his beliefs) In the fourth book, The Three Hostages, Hannay is enjoying a comfortable retirement in the English countryside when the Bolsheviks begin plotting, and Hannay is led into an adventure which culminates in Sir Richard stalking his prey, and vice-versa, for a day and a night across the Scottish highlands.

Although often grouped with the appalling Bulldog Drummond, Hannay is in many ways the opposite of Drummond, that "beefy dolt." Hannay is strong and has great endurance; he is "morally intrepid" and always willing to prove his bravery. But he's modest, has a generous respect for the greatness of his enemies, is more sportsmanlike than is practical, and is a long way from an anti-intellectual. (And, yeah, he's got his fair share of the bigotries of the time. But still)

The John Buchan Home Page
A good treatment of Buchan.

Hansen, Mother. Mother Hansen was created by Paul Triem and appeared in Detective Story Magazine from 1923 to 1930. She runs a restaurant of most dubious food, Mother Hansen’s Kitchen, in a bad part of New York. She’s an old woman, tall and lean, with a taste for caraway seeds, seemingly asleep and dim, but actually possessing a razor-sharp mind and an acerbic personality—a kind of Granny Weatherwax of the pulps. Long ago, when she was a beautiful young woman, she was a crook, never caught by the police, but she eventually gave up and went straight, not wanting to do time. But she kept all of her contacts from those days, and does them favors of various sorts. In return, they do her favors, usually helping her solve her problems, of which she has many.

Hanshichi. Hanshici was created by Okamoto Kido and appeared sixty-eight stories and various collections and novels, beginning with "The Soul of Obun" in the January, 1917 issue of The Bungei Club. Hanshichi was described by Okamoto as "a hidden Sherlock Holmes in the Edo period" (Japan from 1601-1867). Hanshichi, a goyoukiki (unofficial assistant to the doshin, the officials responsible for maintaining the public peace) from Mikawa prefecture, was very much a Holmes clone, from his personality to his methods. However, some of the stories involved the supernatural, including ghosts, and Hanshichi did not have a Watson figure.

Hanvey, Jim. Jim Hanvey was created by Octavius Cohen and appeared in several novels and short story collections beginning with "Common Stock," in Saturday Evening Post in 1922. Hanvey...well, I'm just gonna quote the Thrilling Detective entry on him:

One of the earliest private eyes, Octavius Roy Cohen's JIM HANVEY was an intriguing combination of Jabba the Hutt, conman, and good ol' boy. He's fat, slow-moving, has fishy eyes, smokes nasty little black cigars, wears cheap, shabby clothes that always seem to be on the point of bursting and is constantly fiddling with a gold toothpick he carries on a chain around his neck, a gift from a criminal he helped convict. He not only looks like a cow, he apparently has the intelligence of one, too. But he's actually a shrewd, highly-regarded detective, the "terror of crooks from coast to coast," respected by both the law and the lawless. Nevertheless, he's also something of a good ol' boy, and has maintained good relationships with more than one lawbreaker he's had tossed in the can.
Hardin, Neal. Neal Hardin was created by William Hamilton Osborne and appeared in Neal of the Navy (1915). Neal was a dashing and heroic agent of Naval Intelligence who fought a Yellow Peril-type.

Harding, David. David Harding appeared in "Counterspy," a Phillips H. Lords radio show, from 1942 to 1950; his creator is unknown. Harding is the head of United States Counterspies, the "U.S. counterespionage department" during WW2 and afterwards. When he or one of his men discovers evidence of enemy spies, he sets out to catch them. (They often die during the denouement, as they won't be caught alive). During the War the enemies were usually the German Gestapo and Japan's Black Dragon, and afterwards they moved on to the Communists. Harding's assistant is Peters.

Hardy Boys. Frank and Joe Hardy were created by Edward Stratemeyer and Leslie McFarlane and first appeared in The Tower Treasure in 1926; they've appeared in at least 200 more novels since then. I lack the energy to devote much time and space to them, so instead I'm going to send you to this site, which does a superlative job of covering them:

The Unofficial Hardy Boys Home Page
An excellent site which covers not only Frank & Joe but also other, similar heroes.

Hardy, Ben. Ben Hardy was created by Edward Stratemeyer and someone else, who I haven't been able to discover, and appeared in twenty five novels, beginning with Ben Hardy's Flying Machine; or, Making a Record for Himself (1911) and running through 1922. Ben is the son of Martin Hardy, who is the chief machinist for the Saxton Automobile Works. Unfortunately, Mr. Saxton is a vile man who repeatedly cons and swindles Martin out of his patents. Martin is an inventor, you see, and keeps coming up with good ideas, but Saxton keeps cheating him out of them. Luckily for Martin his teenaged son Ben has inherited his inventing ability, and Ben designs a special airplane, one with great speed and the ability to travel farther than any plane so far--over one thousand miles! Saxton, being a bad guy, tries to take the plane over, but the Hardys fight him off and build it themselves. Ben and his friend Bob Dallow then take their new plane, the Dart, on a test run. It works fine for a while, but they run into trouble in the skies over the north Canadian woods and are forced to land. There they are captured by a mad scientist who is building a helix-shaped plane and tries to use Ben as a test subject in his lab. Luckily for Ben and Bob Martin arrives and saves the day. Later novels have Ben, Bob, and Martin traveling around the world and getting into similar adventures, with air pirates, sea pirates, and land-grabbers appearing.

Hardy, Jim. Created by Dick Moores, a former assistant to Chester Gould on Dick Tracy, Jim Hardy debuted on 8 June 1936 and ran through 1942. Jim Hardy was a strapping armored car guard who was unfairly suspected when his car was hijacked. Hardy managed to catch the real crooks and clear his name. From there Hardy went to L.A. and became a reporter on his Uncle Joe's newspaper, where he reported on and fought crooks of all variety, and from there he returned to the East, to "Hub City," where he became a p.i. and fought muggers to bank robbers to racketeers to corrupt politicians. Hardy's best friend was Pinky, a policeman, and his love interest was Betty Lee, the daughter of the mayor.

Hardy, Phil. Phil Hardy was created by George Storm and Jay Jerome Williams and debuted in his eponymous comic strip on 2 November 1925, lasting through 1941.  Hardy began as a poor fifteen-year-old who went to work for a shipping company and found himself gangpressed on to the tramp steamer Black Castle for a hellish three hour tour, I mean, seven week trip to Cape Town whose highlights included severe storms, fire, and a mutiny in which several sailors were killed (one of the first graphic deaths depicted in the comics). Hardy went on to have a variety of adventures at sea, with his friends Eli Bent, a "hard-bitten" sea captain, Jason Royle, the wise ship's cook, and Ben Kittredge, who was Phil's age and his best friend.

Hare, Kathlyn. Kathlyn Hare was created by Harold McGrath and appeared in The Adventures of Kathlyn (1913), the second movie serial. Kathlyn was the daughter of Colonel Hare, a famous big game hunter. To quote one movie critic:

The girl was given a packet "to be opened at midnight December 31st," and the villain, Umballah by name, gets to it before she learns its contents. So, when she gets to India, Umballah is on the job, and Episode 1 ends with Kathlyn, against her will, being crowned "queen" by the natives, and Umballah being brought forward as the man chosen for her husband. That was a "situation" ending, but other episodes wound up with sensational action or stunts, broken for holdover suspense.
Umballah ends up being the Hindu version of a criminal mastermind, and Kathlyn has to ward off his attentions, murder attempts by his men, and lions (in India? I know, I know) before winning victory.

Hargreaves, John. John Hargreaves was created by Lloyd Lonergan and appeared in The Million Dollar Mystery (1918). Hargreaves had in his youth been a member of a secret Russian organization called the "Black Hundreds," but had broken all ties with them. The Hundreds did not take this lightly, however, and swore revenge. When they found that Hargreaves had withdrawn $1 million from his bank account, they tried to get it, employing the lovely Countess Olga to find out where it was. They never did, however.

Harker, Doc. Doc Harker appeared in an eponymous pulp in 1940, and although his stories were interesting and on the better side they did not last. He was a tall, thin, older man who dressed in the style of an ante-bellum Kentucky colonel, complete with silver hair, mustache, and pointed goatee (Think "Colonel Sanders"). His profession was that of wandering salesman; he traveled around the country selling "Chickasha Remedies," a cure-all for whatever ailed ya. While he was very good at selling the tonic, his real love was criminology. In his van, which doubled as a scientific laboratory and armed vehicle, he traveled with his two assistants, finding crimes wherever he went and solving them. Harker was not strong in the style of most heroes; he was the brains of the outfit. Brenda Sloan, a beautiful woman who lived in the van with Doc, did the legwork for him whenever they entered a new town. Herk Jones, a former wrestler, handled the heavy lifting.

Harkness & Bullard. Harkness & Bullard were created by Charles Diffin and appeared in a series of stories in Astounding Stories in 1931, beginning with "Dark Moon" (Astounding, May 1931). In 1973 Walt Harkness, the brave and brilliant owner of the Harkness transportation company, takes on enemies of manking, along with his friend and pilot Chet Bullard.

Harlowe, Grace (I). Grace Harlowe (I) was created by Jessie Graham Flower and appeared in the ten-book "Grace Harlowe Overland Riders" series, which began with Grace Harlowe's Overland Riders Among the Kentucky Mountains (1921). Grace was the leader of a  group of riders exploring the Western frontier of 19th century American and having various adventures with bad white men and bad natives. Her granddaughter was Grace Harlowe (II).

Harlowe, Grace (II). Grace Harlowe (II) was created by Jessie Graham Flower and appeared in the five-book "Grace Harlowe Overseas" series, which began with Grace Harlowe Overseas (1920). Grace Harlowe (II) is the granddaughter of Grace Harlowe (I) and is active with the Red Cross on the Western front, helping American troops along the Rhine, at Chateau Thierry, in the Argonne, and at St. Quentin.

Harper, Curly. Curly Harper was created by Nat Edson and ran from 1935 to 1944. Harper was a clean-cut young athlete at Lakespur College who was the best at whatever sport he chose to participate in, from baseball to golf. Unfortunately, after two years he was forced to leave school to help his sickly, widowed mother pay off the mortgage, and he became a reporter, uncovering and fighting crime in various ways. He teamed up with Brynn Brighton, a pretty detective, and the two became a crime- and spy-fighting couple.

Harris, Buck. Buck Harris was created by Edward Parrish Ware (creator of Jack Calhoun) and appeared in Detective Fiction Weekly in the late 1930s. Harris was a deputy sheriff who worked in a remote part of the Ozarks who kept running into rather bloodthirsty criminals, from murderers to moonshiners to feuding hillbillies.

Harris, Mike. Mike Harris was created by T.T. Flynn and appeared in Detective Fiction Weekly in the late 1930s. Harris, a red-headed, two-fisted Irishman more than a little similar to Mike Shayne, was an operative for the Blaine Agency. In the pursuit of his job he took any number of undercover assignments, working in everything from steel mills to door-to-door salesman positions. He was very good looking, and used that to his advantage, but the one woman for him was Trixie Meehan , a very pretty, sharp-tongued, muscular, and intelligent operative for the Blaine Agency who was, if anything, even more effective at getting her man (or woman) than Harris was.

Hartley, Archie. Archie Hartley was created by Arthur Duffey and appeared in the "Donchester Series," which consisted of On the Cinder Track, or, Archie Hartley's First Year at Donchester (1911) and For Old Donchester, or, Archie Hartley and his School Mates (1912). Archie was apparently a righteous school boy hero who brought glory to Dear Old Donchester and helped right wrongs.

Hassam Ali. Ali first appeared in the silent film serial Zudora (1914). He was a Hindu mystic of vague and undefined mystical powers, including the ability to light fires with his gaze from several miles' distance.

Haverson, John. John Haverson was a rewritten Shadow, appearing in the British story paper Thriller in 1938 and 1939. The stories were essentially the same ones that Walter Gibson/Maxwell Grant had written, but Haverson was a different version of the Shadow.

Havilland, Antony. Antony Havilland appeared in four novels written by Val Gielgud, beginning with Gravelhanger (1934) and ending with Special Delivery (1950). Havilland is a young, well-to-do layabout  ("I am both weak and good-natured") who, in Gravelhanger, gets involved fighting German spies more or less without his consent. I'm obviously going to have to read the second Havilland novel, Outrage in Manchukuo, since it's hard to imagine someone as well-meaning but useless as Havilland having success twice foiling Jerry. Havilland means well, has a stiff upper lip, and tries, but he's a long way from being an action hero, and is rather more like a romance hero from the 1930s than an action hero of that time.

Hawke, Dixon. Dixon Hawke debuted in "The Great Hotel Mystery" in The Saturday Post #347 (6 April 1912) and appeared in the The Saturday Post, The Sporting Post, The Dixon Hawke Library, Adventure, several casebooks, and Topical Times, running continuously from 1912 through at least 1989. W.O.G. Lofts makes the point that this gives Hawke at least 5000 stories, eclipsing the 3848 (roughly) published about Sexton Blake, and makes Hawke quite possibly the most published character of all time. And now I've heard from a very nice gentleman named Steve Finan, who is the deputy news editor for the Dundee Evening Telegraph, a D.C. Thomson newspaper (Hawke was a Thomson character); Mr. Finan informed me, in response to my question about this, that the last copy of the Sporting Post appeared on 27 May 2000, that Hawke had appeared in the Evening Telegraph for some months before the Post ceased publication, but that the Evening Telegraph also stopped publication on 27 May 2000, thus ending Hawke's career. That gives Hawke at least 5560 stories, which is very respectable, indeed.

Go figure. No one knows quite who created Hawke, but the list of authors who wrote Hawke stories is quite respectable: Edgar Wallace (probably), Edwy Searles Brooks, John Creasey, Anthony Skene, T.C.H. Jacobs, Lewis Carlton, Richard Goyne, Gilbert Chester, F. Addington Symonds, Rex Hardinge, Reginald Thomas, Lester Bidston, Frank Howe, George Goodchild, Roy Vickers, and W.W. Sayer. Hawke was very much in the Holmes/Blake/Nelson Lee mold. When he began he was a Scots detective living and working in Bath Street, Glasgow. (Glasgow? "The World's Greatest Detective," located in Glasga-toon?) His assistant was named Nipper, like Sexton Blake's assistant, and sold papers in the street, like Nelson Lee's assistant Tinker. Together the two fought crime and some very interesting criminals in Glasgow and around Scotland. But at the end of World War One D.C. Thomson, the publisher of Dixon Hawke, decided to move Hawke into the "teenage and upwards" market, and so moved Hawke to London. Hawke's flat was now on Dover Street, and his assistant was now named Tommy Burke. Hawke was now tall and "aquiline," with a "clear cut face." He was around 35 and wore a dressing gown while lounging around his quarters, like Holmes. Also like Holmes, he smoked a "blackened briar" and had a Mrs. Hudson-like housekeeper named Mrs. Martha Benvie. Like Sexton Blake, however, he had a faithful and ferocious bloodhound named Solomon and drove a powerful Sunbeam roadster. In addition to Tommy Burke Hawke was assisted by a Japanese valet/chauffeur named Wong. His Lestrade, in his Glasgow days, was Chief Detective Inspector Duncan McPhinney; when Hawke moved to London, his new police contact became Detective Chief Inspector Baxter of New Scotland Yard.

Guy N. Smith, one of the later (1970s) writers of Hawke for the Dundee Sporting Post, described Hawke thusly in 1973:

There were, in fact, two Dixon Hawkes, purporting to be the same character, yet quite unrecognisable except by name. We have the one who still exists today, the Hawke who solved his problems by sheer brain-power and super-deduction, more allied to Sherlock Holmes (on whom he was probably modelled in the first place) than Sexton Blake. Then we have a lively version of the Dover Street detective who battled with master-criminals through the pages of the Adventure. This man was a contemporary of Blake, relying as much on lively action as theory, and escaping from various situations with the agility of a Houdini.
Hawke dined regularly with the Prime Minister and other highly-placed officials, having friends at the highest levels of society as well as with Detective Inspector Duncan McPhinney, Hawke's police contact with Scotland Yard. Blake needed them, too; his cases were often very violent and action-packed, taking Hawke and Burke to New York, San Francisco, Yokohama, Tibet, Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro, Paris, Berlin, Cairo, and any number of other major metropoli, as well as more than a couple of hidden cities. Hawke spent some time in the American West, fighting enemies who more properly belonged in the 1870s; he spent time in Haiti, posing as a witch doctor and fighting voodoo-using villains. Hawke's enemies were violent and cruel; there were the usual jewel thieves, international criminal syndicates, mad scientists, insane desert raiders and white slavers, but in addition to them there were a number of Blake-ian individuals. Most of Hawke's enemies, in J. McMahon's words, "came to a sticky end by the final chapter," but there were a couple who dogged Hawke for years on end. Most memorably there was Marko the Miracle Man, who despite beginning life in 1923 as a Waldo the Wonder Man fix-up bedevilled Hawke for fourteen years. Another recurring enemy was Nicollete Lazarre, the "Black Angel," an adventuress not unlike Sexton Blake's Mademoiselle Yvonne or Nelson Lee's Mademoiselle Miton, the Black Wolf. There was also "We Must Wipe Out Dixon Hawke," a notable sequence from the late 1940s in which Dixon Hawke was trying to break up an international crime-ring with the help of District Attorney Myers, from Jerris City, U.S.A.; in turned out that Myers, naturally, was the scoundrelly leader of the crime-ring.

Of the rest of Hawke's enemies, well, there's precious little written about Hawke, never mind his villains, so I have only a list of names to go on, although some of the names are quite evocative, indeed. There was the Yellow Ghost, a Japanese spy (this was during WW2) who wore a fabric which was "so black that it wouldn't reflect light," thereby turning the Ghost invisible; Dr. Den the Arch Rogue; the Microbe, an Edwy Searles Brooks creation and a villainous dwarf; the Snake; "Yokota the Jap;" Li Foo, the "Super Chinese Criminal;" the Iron Master, a German general and criminal; the Tiger; the Six Wolves of Doom; the Snipe; "Fuh Canton, the White Chinaman;" Sun-Fu, another Yellow Peril threat (Hawke dealt with a lot of them); the Black Slink; "Kito the Dwarf;" the Faceless Men; the masters of the City of Sinister Slaves, the Island of the Lost Men, the City of Lost Secrets, and the Black Terror. There was the Yellow Shadow, the Submarine Pirate, the Man from Singapore, Lucky Lorrancie, Koojah Khan the Man of Mystery, the Red Avenger, Fighting Jack Lorne, the Man with Three Faces, the Masked Rider, the Hurricane, the League of the Purple Dragon, the Masked Juggler, Warlock of the Wanderers, the Hooded Peril, the Human Whirlwind, the India-Rubber Man, the Blue Streak, the League of the Silver Horseshoe. There was the Rajah of Bolpore, the League of the Crimson Diamond, the Phantom Detective (!), the Shadow with Two Faces (Barbara Streisand?), Zingard the Man from the Wilds, the Phantom Acrobat, the Invisible Raider, the Human Fly, Flash Ned, the Riders of Red Canyon, the Sons of Baba Zand, the Spider, Jim the Jester, Mr. Q, the Wolf of Paris, the Flame-King, the Chinese Archer, the Man with 20 Doubles, the Hunchback of Berlin, Six-Hit Samson, the Gorilla Man, Dr. Selwyn, Mr. X, the Sinister Hunchback, the Tiger Man, the Queen of Crime, the Lord of Gorilla Valley...the list goes on and on. If and when I find out more about any of these, I will pass what I find along.

Mr. Hawkins. Mr. Hawkins was created by "Edgar Franklin," the pseudonym of Edgar Franklin Stearns (1879-?), an average American writer of one-act plays, mediocre science fiction, and pulp stories. His humorous invention stories were his best work, and Mr. Hawkins is the best of his creations. Hawkins is very much in the model of other humorous inventors, such as Professor Jonkin; he is eccentric, conceited, very impractical but also very imaginative and skilled at putting the things he imagines into practice. The stories fall into the same pattern: Hawkins invents something that gets out of control and gets Hawkins and Griggs, the narrator and Hawkins' friend, into trouble. The Hawkins stories originally appeared in Argosy and were collected in Mr. Hawkins' Humorous Inventions (1904); there were later Hawkins stories that appeared in Argosy and Cavalier up through 1915 but I've been unable to read them. Among the other creations of Hawkins, there are: the "Hawkins A.P. Motor," which reutilizes fuel and comes close to utilizing perpetual motion; a flying car; "Hawkinsite," a super-explosive "ten thousand times stronger than dynamite;" the "Hawkins Crook Trap," which captures and chloroforms burglars; the "Hawkins Chemico-Sprinkler," an "automatic fire sprinkling system" (some of Stearns' ideas actually came true); a locomotive that runs on alcohol (rye, preferably); an automatic coal-loader, which is what causes Griggs to end his friendship with Hawkins.

Hawley, Frank. Frank Hawley, “The Camera Chap,” was created by Henry Wilton Thomas and appeared in Top-Notch in 1913. Hawley is a newspaper photographer, and his stories are about Hawley’s efforts to snap rare photographs.

Hazard, Glen. Glen Hazard was created by Mary I. Chapman and appeared in the twenty-book "Glen Hazard" series, which began in 1932 with Wildcat Ridge. Hazard was a teenaged crime fighter.

Hazell, Thorpe. Thorpe Hazell was created by Victor L. Whitechurch and appeared in various stories, starting in 1905, which were collected in Thrilling Stories of the Railway (1912). Hazell is a railway hobbyist who is also a wealthy amateur investigator; the crimes he investigates usually involves the rails in some way. Hazell is also a vegetarian and health and exercise fanatic.

Victor L. Whitechurch
Another insightful essay from this site.

Heaton, Jack. Jack Heaton was created by Frederick Collins and appeared in the three book "Jack Heaton Series," which ran from 1919 to 1921 and began with Jack Heaton, Wireless Operator. Jack was a hard-working young cracker who made his fortune, won the love of his best girl, and stymied the plans of the bad guys as a radio operator and an oil and gold prospector.

Henderson, Amos. Professor Amos Henderson was created by Edward Stratemeyer and Howard Garis under the pseudonym of "Roy Rockwood" and appeared in the "Great Marvel Series," debuting in Through the Air to the North Pole, or, The Wonderful Cruise of the Electric Monarch (1906); the series ran for eight more novels, through 1935. Henderson was a brilliant Professor and a recluse who could (and did) invent and construct any sort of super-vehicle, from dirigibles to submarines to spaceships, as well as "electric diving suits" and space suits. Henderson was accompanied on his travels by his "general helper and companion," Washington White, a racist stereotype about whom the less said the better; by Mark Sampson and Jark Darrow, a pair of freight-hopping eighteen-year-old orphans the Professor had befriended; by Andy Sudds, an aging hunter; and a pair of farmers, Tom Smith and Bill Jones. Together this group went to the North Pole, where they fought the "savage Esquimaux," among others; they went to the "boiling sea of the South Pole;" they went to the center of the Earth via a hole in the ground; they went to the Moon, Mars, Venus and Saturn.

This is not the end of the story for Henderson et al, however. Previous to the first "Great Marvel" book there had been The Wizard of the Sea; or, A Trip Under the Ocean (1900), which was apparently very influential on Through the Air to the North Pole, or, The Wonderful Cruise of the Electric Monarch. Then came the four "Deep Sea Series" books, beginning in 1905 with The Rival Ocean Divers, or, After a Sunken Treasure and running through 1908. These were, apparently (I've yet to lay eyes on them), continuations of the "Great Marvel" books, starring someone named Jack North, who may or may not have been a version of Mark or Jack. Then came the Dave Fearless books, which started out as reprints of the "Deep Sea Series" books, but with a renamed cast, with Jack North becoming Dave Fearless. The "Dave Fearless Series" went for fourteen novels, 10 of which were new.

The Great Marvels
A nicely discursive bibliography of the Great Marvel Series.

The Great Marvel Series
Brief descriptions of what happens in each novel.

Henley, Walt. Walt Henley was created by Alfred Loomis and appeared in the three book "Walt Henley Series," which ran from 1927 to 1929 and began with Walt Henley, D. S. M. A Story for Boys. Walt began as a lowly ensign and worked his way up to Captain for the U.S. Navy during World War One.

Hickmott, Inspector. Inspector Hickmott was created by R.M. Freeman and appeared in Flynn's in 1925 and 1926. Hickmott (first name never given) is a Detective Inspector for Scotland Yard. He's a smart detective with good insight and skills, but that's about all you can say for him or his stories.

Hickory Ridge Boy Scouts. The Scouts (whose names I haven't been able to find yet, sorry) were created by Captain Alan Douglas and appeared in the ten-volume "Hickory Ridge Boy Scouts Series," which ran from 1913 to 1919 and began with The Campfires of the Wolf Scouts. The Scouts got involved in strictly small-scale adventures--camping and the like, with small ghost-busting (it turned out to be a petty crook pulling a Scooby Doo on the nearby town) on the side.

Hildreth, Barnabas. Barnabas Hildreth was created by Vincent Cornier and appeared in at least fifteen stories from 1930 or 1931 through the late 1940s. Hildreth is a Dr. Thorndyke-like police officer and scientific detective who also works for British Intelligence, where he is known as the "Black Monk." Some of his stories verge on the science fictional, one 1935 story prefiguring the atomic bomb.

Hilltop Boys. The Boys (haven't found their names yet, sorry) were created by Cyril Burleigh and appeared in the five book "Hilltop Boys Series," which ran from 1917 to 1919 and began with The Hilltop Boy, or, A Story of School Life. The Hilltop Boys were pretty much like  Dick Prescott and the Grammar High Boys, although the series wasn't so successful and didn't feature the Hilltop Boys growing up and entering the armed services. They stuck to fighting crime and bullies on the homefront.

Hock, Plantagenet. Plantagenet Hock, a most reluctant adventurer, was created by George Bronson-Howard (creator of Yorke Norroy) and appeared in The Popular Magazine from March through July 1907. Hock is not nearly so memorable as Norroy, who is quite a nasty piece of work. Hock is somewhat interesting, however, in that he’s not really a hero. He’s an anti-hero, and rather determined to stay that way. He was the drama critic sent by the Clarion to the Philippines as a Special Correspondent. Unfortunately, he refuses to not help people, especially women, and his efforts to help them always land him in trouble. He is forced to help one women try to escape from the Philippines with $25K in stolen money. In China he tries to help an abused woman and ends up being chased by the woman’s husband, a scholar of the mandarin class, and the husband’s machete-swinging men. Hock is a small, thin, bespectacled man, much given to bemoaning his fate.

Hodges. "Hodges the Wonder Sleuth" was the creation of Guy C. Baker and appeared in Blue Book in 1912. Hodges was a thinly-veiled Holmes rip, transferred to America. He had the attitude and the intellect, but not the soul of the Doyle creation. (Although it should be said that even Hodges, transparent copy that he was, was a better person than the cold, soulless Holmes) He had, of course, exceptional strength (like Holmes) and a wonderful mind for ratiocination (like Holmes) and a thick-headed and easily impressed friend (like Holmes).

Holden, Helen. Helen Holden appeared in "Helen Holden, Government Girl," a radio serial that ran from 1941 to 1942. Holden was a "young, single G-woman" in Washington, surprisingly active--she used her service revolver rather often and caught a number of crooks and Bundists. She was assisted by her aunt, Mary Holden, and by her nominal love interest, David.

Holly, Ned. Ned Holly was created by Frank Finnegan and appeared in Blue Book from November 1910 to April 1911. Holly was, like Roland Dare, a fireman, although Holly’s adventures were less interesting. He fought fires in New York while trying to marry the daughter of his Fire Marshall. He succeeds in the end and becomes a lieutenant in the department.

Holm, Charles. Charles Holm was created by Robert Storm Petersen and appeared in various magazines (and perhaps novels) in Norway beginning in, I think, 1929; three of his books were Holm og Madsen (1929), Den Usynlige Atlet og andre Småting (1932), and En Pibe Tobak (1933). Holm was a Sherlock Holmes pastiche who was Watsoned by Dr. Madsen. I don't know much about him, unfortunately.

Holst, Eigil. Eigil Holst was created by Baron Palle Rosenkrantz and first appeared in Hvad Skovsøen Gemte (1903). Rosenkrantz was Denmark's first mystery writer, and Holst was Denmark's first original character. He was a Maigret-like police detective (predating Maigret by some decades, it should be noted) working in Copenhagen.

Ed Love, Chevalier Sans Peur et Sans Reproche, sent along the following about Holst:

lieutenant holst is an officer of the copenhagen police. in this one story he's married, has an infant son and comes across as a very methodical and adequate policeman. admittedly, "a sensible course of action" doesn't really give him much opportunity to shine. what is more interesting is the author is baron palle adam vilhelm rosenkrantz of denmark, descendent of the rosenkrantz whose name was used in hamlet.
Holt, Jack. Jack Holt was created by Jacques Jaccard and appeared in Liberty, A Daughter of the U.S.A. (1916). He was a Captain in the Texas Rangers who helped save Liberty, a young lass of seventeen, from being kidnapped by Mexicans and held for a sizable ransom, which would in turn pay for a revolution against the Mexican government.

Holt, Martin. Martin Holt appeared in Surprise. He began as a penniless adventurer and made his way up to become the "Man With 1000 Millions."

Homunculus. The Homunculus was created by Robert Dinesen and appeared in an eponymous six-part German serial in 1916. The Homunculus is an artificial, "perfect" creature created by Edgar Rodin, a mad German scientist working from a hidden lab in the depths of the Black Forest. The Homunculus is initially well-disposed but discovers his origins and then that he is incapable of love. This, perhaps understandably, irks him somewhat, and he reacts to the news by taking his revenge on humanity, starting revolutions and enslaving villages and then countries. Rodin goes after him, trying to end his harsh reign, but it is a lightning bolt that finally kills the Homunculus.

A concise summary of the film.

Honey, Mr. Mr. Honey was created by Bertram Atkey and appeared in various stories in The Blue Book in the 1930s. Mr. Hobart Honey, a somewhat hapless Brit, saves the life of a Tibetan lama. The lama gives him as a reward a bottle of pills that allows Mr. Honey to experience previous lives. These lives include that of a harem eunuch, a drunken Saxon archer, a Neanderthal, Friar Tuck, and a Roman centurion, among others.

The Honeymoon Detectives. The Honeymooners debuted in the 23 March 1912 issue of The Cavalier, appearing there, in All-Story Cavalier Weekly, and All-Story Weekly through 1917. They were written by Frederic Arnold Kummer, and were the first example of the husband and wife detectives. He is Richard Duvall, a private investigator and founder of his own agency (located in Union Square, Gotham, of course). Richard is smart enough and good enough at what he does that he has been hired to be a part of the personal staff of Monseiur Lefever, the Prefect of the Parisian Police. (Paris is where the first group of stories take place, with later stories appearing in NYC in 1915.) She is Grace Duvall, his devoted and loving wife, and a spunky and cute woman. She’s not officially trained to be a detective, but has a clever and inquisitive mind, and is quite willing to help out her husband on a case, even if he doesn’t want her help. In practice she turns out to be the lead character, not just in the series but in the marriage itself; she solves most of the cases and does most of the legwork while he lags behind and acts rather stupidly. They help France on various occasions, Richard even preserving a secret code after several hours of torture, and then return to the U.S., where Richard agrees to be a gentleman farmer in southern Maryland. But they keep getting dragged back into cases, and Grace continues to be the one to do the real work on the cases, like the one in which a movie star is being blackmailed.

Hood, Mortimer. Mortimer Hood, creator unknown, appeared in Bullseye. He was a "millionaire detective" and an Adam Daunt lift, although he had supernatural powers, which Daunt lacked.

Hoog, Kay. Kay Hoog was created by Fritz Lang and appeared in the four-part serial Die Spinnen (The Spiders) (1919), which one critic called “the best made and most inventive Boys’ Own adventure story in cinema." Hoog was an American sportsman and adventurer (and member of an exclusive San Francisco club in which he tells the story of Die Spinnen) who discovers a barnacle-encrusted bottle with a message inside. The message tells of a diamond “head of Buddha” which will grant the possessor  “mastery of Asia.” Hoog, naturally, goes after the diamond. Unfortunately, there’s another, competing party in search of the diamond: Lio-Sha, a femme fatale, criminal mastermind, clairvoyant, and head of the international Spiders gang. The Spiders have headquarters everywhere, from San Francisco’s Chinatown to the ruins of an Incan city to London to central Asia to the Falkland Islands, but are based in Peru. Usually the Spiders live in volcanoes, hidden caves and cellars with armor-plated sliding walls, desks that can descend into floors, and circular mirrors that enable Lio-Sha to watch everything that goes on (a clear anticipation of the headquarters of various James Bond villains). Hoog duels with the Spiders and Lio-Sha across the word, saving various damsels from distress and in general playing the hero well.

Hope, Lt. Jarvis. Lt. Jarvis Hope appeared in The Secret of the Submarine (1916). Hope was a Lt. in the U.S. Navy who succeeded in keeping an "oxygen-breathing" super-submarine, invented by the smarty-pants Dr. Ralph Burke and capable of remaining underwater indefinitely, from the hands Olga Ivanoff, representing the Russians, and Tatsuma, representing the Japanese.

Hopper, George F. George F. Hopper, the creation of the pseudonymous "Bertrand Royal," debuted in "White Bubbles," in the February 21, 1925 issue of Flynn's Weekly. Hopper is a former inspector for the Queen City detective bureau, now retired to private investigation and marriage. Hopper uses science to solve crime--things like proving a victim died of carbon monoxide inhalation--but the stories are so poorly written that I don't really have the energy to go on.

Hopper, Hap. Hap Hopper was created by Jack Sparling and Drew Pearson and appeared in an eponymous comic strip from 1940 to 1947. Hap began as a naïf reporter, a big, blond innocent who stumbled around Washington, D.C., discovering crime by more or less by accident. Soon enough he grew up some and smartened up more and began hunting spies and saboteurs, both as a member of the Army and then later as a reporter under special assignment to G-2, and he remained that way through the war.

Howard, Russell. Russell Howard was created by A.E. Jopson and appeared in several short stories which were collected in The Adventures of Russell Howard. Howard was a Holmes-influenced detective who solved cases around the world, with several taking place in Jopson's native Australia.

Hudson, Dr. John. Dr. John Hudson was created by William Almon Wolff and appeared in Blue Book in 1921. Hudson is a psychiatrist and amateur detective. He is not a huggable man, however; his best friend, Mr. Joyce, describes him as "brutal" and "forbidding." "Abrasive" and "conceited" would also fit. But Hudson is insightful. He trained with Freud himself and then returned to the U.S., viewed poorly by those within his field but well-regarded by the police. Hudson stresses motive more than method and uses analysis of motive to solve his crimes. Some of the things that Hudson had to deal with and bring his professional skill to bear on include multiple personality disorders, amnesia, and subconscious compulsions.

Hull, Mark.Mark Hull, created by Norbert Davis and appearing in Black Mask in 1933, was a former Hollywood stuntman who'd been injured on the job and forced to take up a new profession, private detecting, sometimes independent and sometimes working for the studios. He was opportunistic, cynical, wisecracking and tough.

Humberton, Horatio. Created by J. Paul Suter, Horatio Humberton appeared in Dime Detective in the mid-1930s. Humberton was actually not a full-time private eye; his day job was as a mortician and undertaker. It’s just that he much more enjoyed catching the criminal, rather than embalming him or her.

Hunniwell Boys. The Hunniwell Boys were created by L.P. Wyman and appeared in the eight-volume "Hunniwell Boys Series," which ran from 1928 to 1931 and began with The Hunniwell Boys in the Air. The Hunniwell Boys (see my note) used advanced airplanes to fly around the world and have fantastic adventures, helping the Secret Service, stopping platinum thieves, setting air records for speed and longevity, fighting Mongolian raiders in the Gobi, and finding sunken treasure in the Caribbean.
Note: I found this entry enormously frustrating to write, because I'd read the the Hunniwell Boys books when I was very young, and I'd loved them, but when it came time to write this entry I realized that I remembered very little about them. All I can recall are emotional memories of how neat their adventures were, how daring and imaginative the books seemed to my young mind. Worse, there is no information available on the Internet about them, and none of the libraries near where I live have any of the Hunniwell Boys novels, so I am unable to find any more information on them. If anyone reading this can provide any more information on them, I'd be very grateful.

Hunter, Tony. Tony Hunter was created by Robert Dean and appeared in ten novels, beginning with  Murder Makes a Merry Widow (1938). Hunter is a hardboiled and wise-crackingtm private eye, an operative for the Schmidt Agency. Hunter is assisted by his flirtatious and attractive secretary Irma and travels a good bit around the US during his cases.

Huo Sang. Huo Sang, "the Oriental Sherlock Holmes," was created by Cheng Xiaoqing and appeared in various stories and novels, beginning with "Dengguang renying" (A human shadow in the lamplight) in 1914. Huo Sang was the most successful of the Chinese Sherlock Holmes pastiches, taking on a life of his own once the series of stories began in earnest in 1919. He had a Watson, of course, Bao Lang, and was in most of the important ways Holmes, but there were some crucial differences. He is a science teacher, rather than purely a consulting detective. He is less human than Holmes, being free of weaknesses like cocaine addictions or any attraction to women like Irene Adler. He is markedly less confident than Holmes and is more notably Chinese, being the epitome of (in the words of one critic) the "modern, scientific, `anti-feudal'" Chinese man, a fictional type much seen in the years before the Civil War. Bao Lang, for his part, is even dimmer than Watson, but also has many moments of moral questioning; he is much more of a moral arbiter with regards to Huo Sang than Watson was for Holmes. Bao Lang is also an excellent boxer, serving in some ways as Huo Sang's muscle.

Huo Sang is active primarily in Shanghai and the outlying delta towns; he lived at No. 77 Aiwen Road, with a recurring loyal servant and cook. He is very well-known, both in Shanghai proper and across China. (He is described as China's "only private detective," so he should be well known.) He has various enemies, like Hairy Lion and his Five Blessings Gang, who return, again and again, defeated but not destroyed at the end of every story. He has a contact with the underworld, one Jiangnan Yan, the "Swallow of the South," who functions variously as an informant, an enemy, or a guardian angel. And he has a repeating cast of colleagues and irritants on the local police force. Huo Sang is, like Holmes, well-informed on a variety of subjects, from technology to criminology. He's very Westernized, dressing in Western-style suits and ties, packing guns, smoking cigarettes and wearing a brimmed felt hat.

Interestingly, Huo Sang is not only labeled as friends with Sherlock Holmes himself but also, in proper "Arsene Lupin vs. Sherlock Holmes" style, had several crossover duels with Lu Ping, the "Oriental Arsene Lupin."

Huxford, Rex. Thanks to Greg Gick I can provide some information on Rex Huxford. He was created by Cromwell Gibbons and appeared in The Bat Woman (1938) and Murder in Hollywood. Huxford, well, he's a crime-solver who has a couple of mobsters working for him as well as a racist stereotype named Zipp. (Shame on you, Cromwell Gibbons, shame on you.) More interesting than Huxford are the bad guys he faces. The antagonist in Murder in Hollywood is described thusly by Greg: "a super-Neanderthal like guy called Dr. Eric von Schalkenbach who turns women into vampires by messing with their 'duckless gland.'" The enemy in The Bat Woman is a vampire, and the novel itself...I'd best let Bill Pronzini tell it (from his wonderful Gun in Cheek):

"No this is not a novel about a female Caped Crusader.  It is a novel about a female vampire.  It is also a novel about a lot of other things, among them (in the approximate order of their appearance):

A man who runs into his dead wife at the opera.
South American headhunters and shrunken mummified heads and bodies.
Piratical soldiers of fortune hunting platinum in a remote region of the Amazon.
Hairy jungle beasts who wrestle giant crocodiles.
Children born with vestigal tails.
A bilious-looking, emaciated Chinese with a walruslike mustache who speaks in aphroisms reminiscent of Charlie Chan.
The scar-faced, rum-soaked captain of a tramp freighter who issues such curious orders as "All hands on deck and the cook!"
A typhoon and a sort of mutiny on the Java Sea.
Ten mysterious oaken chests performated with small holes, from which emanate weird muffled squealings and rustlings.
The live burial of an Indian yogi.
A respected mortician who has an underground reputation as a corpse snatcher.
A Long Island lighthouse called Execution Light because a "jolly-boat of rebel malefactors" was hanged there during the
Revolutionary War.
A captured female gorilla named Miss Congo.
A Russian vampire who "pinched his wife most cruelly."
A nocturnal visit to a cemetery to "snatch a moll what's croaked" and not incidentally to have a dentist examine her teeth.
A case of South Afrcan sleeping sickness.
A trip to the New York City morgue and some dialogue with a misanthropic attendant named Pedro who once "got drunk and mixed up all the stiffs."
Two corpses whose bodies have been drained of blood by an alleged "voodoo fiend."
A cat that "coyly cocks her head and begs for sugar."

Naturally, I must read this novel and once, and am working on doing so.

I Love A Mystery. See Jack, Doc and Reggie.

Ingram, Colonel. Colonel Ingram was created by the Australian writer Alan Michaelis and appeared in a number of short stories which were collected in Ingram Intervenes (1933). Colonel Ingram is a police inspector in Melbourne who with his sidekick Mr. Newton solve crimes in Melbourne, Ferntree Gully, and Strath Creek, despite the interference of their superior, Inspector O'Malley.

Interstellar Patrol. The Patrol was created by Edmond Hamilton and appeared in Weird Tales from 1929 to 1930. The Patrol are the military arm of the Federation of Stars, a galactic government of a hundred thousand years from now whose headquarters is a planet in the Canopus system. The Patrol, whose adventures are quintessential space opera (and a lot of fun), take on whatever threats appear to the Federation and to galactic peace. Naturally, the Federation being a peace-loving democracy, the bad guys are thoroughly evil. In their first appearance the forces of the Patrol are represented by Captain Ran Rarak, who is assigned a science fleet to investigate a "dark planet" which is approaching the galaxy; the planet is manned by alien, tentacled cone creatures who plan to capture one of our suns. Rarak and a Federation war fleet destroy the cone men's forces. In their second appearance the Patrol investigates the "Orion Nebula," whose imminent explosion will destroy the inhabited planets of the galaxy. They discover that the explosion is being caused by ameboid creatures from a black planet on the interior of the nebula. The Federation agents stop the explosion by destroying the planet, saving the galaxy but dooming the ameboids. In their third appearance the Patrol, represented by Earthman Dur Nal, Korus Kan (a "metal-bodied Antarean") and Jhul Din (a "lobster-man from Spica") are on patrol when they encounter an invasion fleet entering from intergalactic space. The invaders are from a galaxy so far away that its light cannot be seen on telescopes, and after a long series of battles the invaders are defeated. In the fourth Patrol story an enormous red comet is on its way to the heart of the galaxy, and its gravitational pull will wipe out all the inhabited planets in its path. The Patrol discovers, after much fighting, that the comet is hollow and contains a planetary system of its own, complete with a warrior civilization. The Patrol manages to stop the comet empire at much cost.

Invisible Dick. Invisible Dick appeared in the first issue of Adventure, in 1921, and then later in early issues of Dandy in 1938. He was a good-natured do-gooder who gained invisibility by sniffing the vapors of a jar he'd been given in Tibet.

Ironcastle, Hareton. Hareton Ironcastle was created by J.H. Rosny and appeared in The Astonishing Adventure of Hareton Ironcastle (1909). Ironcastle is a great white hunter and adventurer, the type who has been around the world, twice, seen everything there is to see, hunted and killed everything that walks and crawls and swims and flies, and who is game for any new adventure, as long as it is challenging and relieves his boredom. In The Astonishing Adventure he and his daughter, son-in-law-to-be, and party of African bearers and guides go in search of a friend, Samuel Darnley, who has found a Lost World of strange animals of unknown provenance. Ironcastle and Co. venture into Darkest Africa, kill a great many animals, Africans, and evil Stunted Men, and find a spaceship.

Iron Teacher. The Iron Teacher appeared in Hotspur beginning in 1942. He was a robot who, wearing an academic cap and gown, taught a school in the American West. He was controlled by Sim, his inventor, who appeared in to a simple-minded stranger. The Iron Teacher went on to fight against the Axis.

Ishmeddin. Thanks to Rick Lai I can provide some small information on Ishmeddin. He was created by E. Hoffman Price and appeared in various pulps beginning with "The Dreamer of Atlanaat" in Weird Tales in 1931. Ishmeddin was an Arabian Scholar who lived on the Persian Gulf but adventured around the Middle East, encountering enemies natural and supernatural. Rick adds that d'Artois crosses over with two of Price's other characters, Pierre d'Artois and Ishmeddin.

Italian Heroes. Italy, during the pre-War years, produced a large number of pulp heroes and magazines. Some of them, like John Siloch, have their own entries. I was unable to get much information on some of the other characters, however, and so I've put them here. And now, thanks to a gentleman named Riccardo N. Barbagallo, I can provide information on some more Italian heroes. But more is of course welcome.

Alaska Jim. He was a Western hero in an eponymous pulp. I do not know whether he preceded the German Alaska Jim or not.

L'Alleato Sconosciuto was a dime novel, years unknown.

Frank Allen. Allen appeared Frank Allen, Il Vendicatore dei Diseredati (Frank Allen, the Avenger of the Downtrodden). Allen was, as best I can tell, a private eye type.

Furio Almirante. Almirante was created by Gianluigi Bonelli (the "patriarch of Italian comics" and the man who was later responsible for the most famous cowboy to come from Italy, Tex Willer) and appeared in Audace (Audacious) from 1940 through 1964. Almirante, the "mysterious pugilist," is an Herculean figure, an enormous Italian who, after much scrimping and saving, was able to buy a small farm in a wooded region of Missouri and so emigrated to the United States in 1920. Unfortunately for the "man with the steel fist," he soon receives a letter from Milan, a letter which started his world-spanning adventures. During WW2 he became a soldier for the Italian army, and for a brief period after the war he even, briefly, became a masked vigilante.

Gino Arrighi. Gino Arrighi was created by the Alessandro Varaldo (creator of Ascanio Bonichi) and appeared in a few novels, possibly beginning with Le avventure di Gino Arrighi (The Adventures of Gino Arrighi) in 1939. Arrighi was a hardboiled private eye.

Tom Bartlett. I don't know anything about Tom Bartlett, but I do know that he appeared in Pugno di Ferro e Tom Bartlett, Gli Amici di Winoga (Iron Fist and Tom Barlett, the Friends of Winoga), which is certainly an intriguing title, and likely places Bartlett and Iron Fist (Danny Rand?) as spinoffs from Winoga's book.

Fritz Barton. Fritz Barton appeared in Fritz Barton, Il Conte Poliziotto (Fritz Barton, the Policeman Count). Fritz was a cop.

Billy. Billy appeared in Billy, Il Giornalista (Billy the Journalist). He was, as you might expect, a heroic reporter.

Bonaventura. This comic strip character, created by Sergio Tofano, appeared in Corriere dei Piccoli beginning in 1917. He was a decent and good-natured hero who was forever gaining rewards for his deeds but always ended up broke.

Miss Boston. Miss Boston was an Italian rewrite of the French Miss Boston. She was published in Italy in 1909, with her first Italian appearance being her avenging the death of Nick Carter.

Jhon Bunns. (Yes, I know that looks like a misspelling or typo, but it's (sic).) Jhon Bunns appeared in "Avventure narrate dal Detective Jhon Bunns" (Adventures, Recounted by Detective Jhon Bunns), in Romanzi Americani Supergialli in 1934. He was a Holmesian private investigator in America; his stories had titles like "The Kidnapers of Children," "The Merchants of White Slaves," and "The Tragic Diamonds."

Kit Carson. This comic strip, which began in 1937, was a pulp-style version of the historical man's life.

Nick Carter. Nick Carter apperaed in Nick Carter, Il Grande Poliziotto Americano (Nick Carter, the Great American Policeman). He was a rewrite of the American Nick Carter.

Sir Ralf Clifford. I've been able to find a little bit more about Clifford than previously. He was a famous detective in the style of Holmes and appeared in Italy in the first decade of the 1900s, being reprinted in Germany during the 1920s. His magazine was called Sir Ralf Clifford, the Invisible Man, or the Mysterious Vengeance of the Fakirs. Clifford had studied under various fakirs in the East and gained the ability to move invisibly. His adventures were on the fantastic side; he took on secret cults, vampires, subterranean masterminds, werewolves, and living Buddhas, both in Italy and around the world. Some of his story titles were, "The Secrets of the Temple of Lhasa," "The Black Priest of Notre Dame," "In the Empire of the Black Diamonds," "The Secret of the Coral Reefs," "The Maharaja's Pearls," "The Pharaoh's Mirror," "The War of the `Gringos'," and "The Ring of Death."

Centerbe Ermete. This comic strip character, created by Bruno Angoletta, appeared in Corriere dei Piccoli beginning in 1934. Ermete was a humorous and somewhat ineffectual inventor and scientist whose ideas and creations never led anywhere. Anywhere good, that is.

Fatalà. Fatala appeared in I Romanzi Rossi from 1933 to 1935. She was the Italian version of the French character.

Albert Fleischmann. Fleischmann was created by Mark Turner and appeared in 1908. He was described as the "rival to Sherlock Holmes."

Dick Fulmine. Dick Fulmine (Dick Lightning) was created by Vincenzo Baggioli and Carl Cossio and appeared in an eponymous comic strip from 1938 through 1951. (For a few years the Fascists forced Baggioli and Cossio to adapt the character to the times and even made him drop his English first name, so that he was only known as "Fulmine.") He was a giant Italian-American cop, with the build and face of Primo Carnera, who operated in a Dick Tracy-like Chicago. Fulmine has to deal with not only the usual brutal Capone-style gangsters, but also with individual villains straight out of Nick Carter or Sexton Blake: the female thief White Mask, the evil hypnotist Flattavion, and the gigantic brute Zambo.

Renato Gallo. Gallo was created by Giove Toppi and appeared in La Sfida del Bandito (The Challenge of the Bandit) in the 1930s. Gallo was the first policeman to appear in an Italian comic strip.

Kutt Hardy. Kutt Hardy was created by "Herbert Bennet" (a pseudonym--the real author is unknown) and appeared in L’opera di Vaini (1907), a collection of nine stories. Hardy is a Holmes lift, although a more arrogantly-conceived one than was normal. Hardy is a consulting detective and investigator in the Holmes mold, but he is boastful and vainglorious, actually believing that he's the better detective of the two, that he has a more logical method, and even having the gall to dismiss Holmes--the copy, dismissing the original!--as someone who "talks too much and deduces too little."

John Harrison. John appeared in John Harrison, Il Re dei Ladri Americani (John Harrison, the King of the American Thieves). He was a Raffles-like figure.

Jack Hilton. Jack Hilton, creator unknown, first appeared in "Tanks, l'uomo d'acciaio" (Tanks, the man of steel), beginning in 1945. (Which I admit is outside the boundaries of this site, but I wanted to include this one anyhow.) Jack Hilton is an engineer and adventurer who stumbles upon the jungle lab of Professor Salvor. Salvor gives Hilton a drink which makes him superstrong and invulnerable. Hilton becomes Tanks, the Steel Man, and sets about using his powers for good. He fights various colorful enemies, including the robed Mysterious Seven, and eventually marries his former enemy Maruska, Queen of the Time Pirates.

Italino. This comic strip character, created by Antonio Rubino, appeared in Corriere dei Piccoli beginning in 1915. Italino was a Colonel in the Italian army who continually succeeded in tricking, confusing, and in general bollixing the every statement and plan of the pompous and officious Austrio-Hungarian official Otto Kartoffel and the soldiers under Kartoffel.

Kansas Jack. "Kansas Jack" was the Italian version of the Western hero Texas Jack (see his entry in the French Heroes section) and appeared in Italy from 1909-1910.

Ethel King. Ethel appeared in Ethel King, La Detective Per Amore (Ethel King, the Detective for Love). She was an Italian reprint of the French Ethel King stories

Kenton King. Kenton King appeared in Kenton King, il Bandito (Kenton King, the Bandit), years unknown.

William King. William King appeared in William King, il Re Degli Avventurieri (William King, the King of Adventurers). He was an adventurer/explorer type. This may have been a rewrite of the German Master King - Der Gentleman Detektiv.

Professor Pier Cloruro de'Lambicchi. This comic strip character, created by Manca, appeared in Corriere dei Piccoli beginning in 1930. Prof. Cloruro was an inventor who created the Arcivernice, a paint which could bring inanimate objects to life and which could bring to life men and women from the past.

George Landi. George Landi was created by Gianluigi Bonelli and appeared in three comic strips in 1939, 1940, and 1941. Landi was a private investigator; he was explicitly Italian and worked in Italy as well as other countries (as opposed to many of the America-centric Italian heroes). Landi, visually modelled on Clark Gable, has a Gable mustache and pipe, and contemplatively smokes it while considering cases and suspects. Landi is a cunning and clever detective as well as a master of disguise and impersonation. Ladri takes on blackmailers in Rome, port thieves in London, and gems stolen from sacred icons in the Indian state of Kapurthala.

Pik Linder. Pik Linder appeared in Pik Linder, Il Poliziotto Moderno (Pik Linder, the Modern Policeman). He was, as you might guess, a cop.

Lord Lister. Lord Lister appeared in Lord Lister, Il Ladro Misterioso (Lord Lister, the Mysterious Thief) and Lord Lister, Il Ladro Tenebroso (Lord Lister, the Thief of Darkness). He was an Italian rewrite of the German/French Lord Lister.

Lord Percy. Lord Percy appeared in Lord Percy, Dell'Excentric Club (Lord Percy of the Eccentric Club). He was a rewrite of the German Lord Percy Stuart.

Lord Sister. His creator is not known, and I do not know what years he appeared. He was a Lord Lister lift.

William Mackbey. William Mackbey appeared in William Mackbey, il Poliziotto Giustiziere (William Mackbey, the Policeman Executioner). He was a hard-boiled police detective.

Todd Marvel. Todd Marvel appeared in 1930 in The Wonderful Adventures of the Millionaire Todd Marvel, a rewrite of the French Todd Marvel.

John Mauri. John Mauri was created by Gianluigi Bonelli and appeared in Le Tigri dell'Atlantico (The Tiger of the Atlantic, 1937) and I fratelli del silenzio (The Siblings of Silence, 1937-1938). Well, okay, it's not that simply. Bonelli wrote L'Ultimo Corsaro (The Last Pirate) in 1937, and the lead in that novel was named "John Gable." When L'Ultimo Corsaro was reissued in 1940 Mauri, because of fears of Fascist censorship, was forced to rename the novel Le Tigri dell'Atlantico and rename the character John Mauri. Mauri is a policeman, modeled on the Dick Tracy form, not necessarily stupid but given to solving cases with his fists rather than his brains. Mauri is good with his fists, naturally, and is a tall, broad man, very well muscled. In his first appearance he has to solve a murder case involving a blue corpse as well as taken on a mysterious supersubmarine manned by a crew of pirates led by Han Wolstein, a violent corsair with a particular grudge against the English (they pushed his brother to suicide). In I fratelli del silenzio Mauri, now married, takes on a ferocious group of Moloch-worshiping Moroccan stranglers who live in the dunes and the mountains of North West Africa. These stranglers were deliberately modeled on the Thuggees of Emilio Salgari's Sandokan.

Doctor Riccardo de Medici. I know nothing about this character other than that he appeared in two stories in the magazine Sunday Novels in 1911, written by Umberto Cei, and that he was described as "the Italian Sherlock Holmes." (John Siloch was also described in this fashion. Holmes apparently had a lot of Italian duplicates.)

Joe Milton. Joe Milton appeared in Joe Milton, Il Cercatore d'Oro del Klondike (Joe Milton, the Searcher for Gold of the Klondike). He was a frontiersman looking for gold in the Klondike during the 19th century.

Morgan the Pirate. Morgan appeared in Morgan il Pirate (Morgan the Pirate), an Italian rewrite of the French Morgan the Pirate.

Motorino. Motorino was a comic strip character created by Carmelo Silva and first appeared in 1934. Motorino is a childlike android created by Trebisondo Genialetti, an old, Gepetto-like mechanic who created Motorino to make money. Motorino turned out to be significantly more lovable than Genialetti planned, and the two become father and adoptive son. Motorino, however, has a great affection for sports, especially football, and the predictable Pinocchio-like troubles ensue.

Dick Norton. Dick Norton appeared in Dick Norton, L'Eroe del Far West (Dick Norton, the Hero of the Far West). He was a heroic cowboy.

Mister John Palmer. John Palmer appeared in Mister John Palmer, Capo del Club dei Sette (Mr. John Palmer, Head of the Club of Seven), which ran for 24 issues. John Palmer was an adventurer, described as "The King of Mystery! The King of Adventure! The King of the Impossible!" and the Club of Seven were a group of explorer/adventurers similar to the New Eccentric Club.

Joe Petrosino. The real Joe Petrosino (1860-1909) was an Italian who emigrated to America when he was 13 and became a New York police detective. In 1909 he went to Italy to continue the fight against the Mafia. Soon after he arrived in Italy he was murdered by the Mafia. Petrosino became a hero to the Mafia-hating citizens of Italy, and not long after his death he appeared in Giuseppe Petrosino, il Sherlock Holmes d'Italia (Joe Petrosino, the Sherlock Holmes of Italy), a highly fictionalized version of his life. In the 1930s Petrosino was the lead in the L’Avventuroso (Adventurous) comic strip. Petrosino is dynamic and action-oriented, more like early Nick Carter than Sherlock Holmes.

Nat Pinkerton. Nat Pinkerton appeared in Nat Pinkerton, Il Re dei Detectives (Nat Pinkerton, the King of Detectives). He was probably the Italian edition of the Nat Pinkerton craze.

Pippo, Pertica & Palla. This comic strip trio was created Benito Jacovitti and first appeared in 1940. Pippo, Pertica and Palla are a trio of child adventurers; Pippo is the small and clever one, Pertica the strong one, and Palla the obese and greedy one. (Oh, sure, pick on the fat kid.) They have a wide variety of adventures as time goes by and they grow up, tangling with the police, the very clever detective Cip, the nosy Mrs. Carlomago, and most frighteningly the terrible masked criminal Zagar, who anticipates the horrific Diabolik in his disguises, skin-tight black costume, and his crime.

The Pirate of the Air. The Pirate of the Air appeared in Il Pirata Dell'Aria e Il Suo Dirigibile (The Pirate of the Air and his Airship), the Italian reprint of the Captain Mors stories.

Priest. This priest, whose name I, alas, have not been able to discover, was created by Mario Giudice and appeared in Un precursore di Sherlock Holmes – Ambienti romani (A precursor to Sherlock Holmes--the atmospheres of Rome, 1929). The priest, a former policeman, worked alone in the worst parts of Rome in 1882, solving crimes and saving souls.

Rama Sahib. Rama Sahib appeared in Rama Sahib, La Tigre della Jungla Nera (Rama Sahib, the Tiger of the Black Jungle), but I do not know whether this is the same Black Jungle of the Sandokan stories.

Commissioner Richard. Commissioner Richard was created by Ezio d'Errico and appeared in sixteen novels, beginning with Qualcuno ha bussato alla porta (Someone's knocking at the door, 1940). d'Errico was very influenced by Simenon, and so Commissioner Richard is very similar to Maigret.

Ricimero. Ricimero appeared in Ricimero, L'Avventuriero (Ricimero, the Adventurer). He was an explorer/adventurer type.

Harry Sander. Sander appeared in an eponymous magazine. He was a rewritten Nick Carter, with a combination of rewritten and original stories.

Sitting Bull. This heroic Sioux character first appeared in French and German magazines before appearing in eight issues of a self-titled book in Italy in 1932.

Strongarm. Strong Arm appeared in Fortebraccio, Lo Scotennatore di Pellirosse (Strongarm, the Scout of the Indians). He was, as indicated, a heroic Indian scout.

Buck Taylor. Buck was a heroic cowboy in an eponymous pulp.

Texas Jack. This was a rewrite of the French Texas Jack.

Rolf Torring. Rolf Torring appeared in Rolf Torring, Il Piu' Grande Avventuriero del Mondo (Rolf Torring, the Greatest Adventurer in the World). He was a rewrite of the German Rolf Torring.

Franco Vela. Vela was created by Guido Moroni Celsi and appeared in the comic strip "S.K.1.," beginning in 1935. Professor Franco Vela, along with his daughter Iole and the pilot Varo Vaschi, are flying their new, experimental airplane, S.K.1., when they are caught in a mysterious magnetic field and are drawn to a mysterious, far-off planet, where they are taken prisoner by the Emperor Hot. (That's his actual name, rather than an awkward translation by Yr. Humble Scribe.) What follows are Flash Gordon-inspired adventures, although the strip reportedly rose above its origins and became notable for its own sake.

Mark Villa. Mark Villa was created by Gianluigi Bonelli and appeared in a comic strip beginning in 1940. Villa is an Italian detective who is appointed by Scotland Yard to take on a case of British counterfeiters.

Virus. Virus was created by Federico Pedrocchi and Walter Molino and appeared in an eponymous comic strip beginning in 1939. Virus is a version of the classic megalomanical mad scientist intent on conquering the world. Virus communicates with his agents via telepathy, can control corpses by the power of his mind (thus giving him an army of zombies), and has invented a "one cell searchlight" which traps the beams of the sun and acts as a kind of laser. Virus is assisted in his goals by his Indian servant Tirmud. His opponents are the boy Piero and his uncle, who somehow always manage to defeat Virus' plans, but never put him away for good.

Tex Willer. Tex Willer was created by Gianluigi Bonellie and Aurelio Galleppini and first appeared in 1948. '48 is much too late for a character appearing on this site, I know, and normally I wouldn't include anyone appearing that much after WW2, but Tex Willer was arguably the greatest of the Italian comic strip heroes, definitely the most famous of them, and his Rogues Gallery totally rocks my world, so I'm going to include him here anyhow. (Do I contradict myself? My gut is vast, I contain contradictory food, etc.)

Tex Willer, tall and lean, is an excellent shot, of course, and is feared across the US by criminals and wrongdoers. He began as an unwilling outlaw, wanted for a crime he did not commit and wandering from place to place, helping the innocent, but after a time he cleared his name and became a Texas Ranger. He marries the beautiful Lilyth and becomes the chief of the Navajo Indians and ruler of the Navajo Reservation (it's the pulps--don't think, just accept). His missions, as a Ranger, take him across the U.S., from Boston to San Franciso's Chinatown to the hell that is Texas. He even goes outside of the U.S., venturing into Canada on a few occasions as well as Mexico, and he even messed with some Lost Race Mayans in the Yucatan Peninsula. He is often helped on his adventures by his friends, Kit Carson (the Kit Carson), Tex's son Kit Willer, and the taciturn Navajo Tiger Jack.

What really makes Willer so cool, for me, are his villains. His arch-enemy is Mefisto. Mefisto began as Steve Dickart, a stage magician and illusionist with some hypnotic ability, but he was eventually taught real magical powers by the Tibetan monk Padma, and thus became quite powerful. Mefisto, over the years, allies himself with the wicked Hualpai tribe and with various voodoo worshipers, but he never is able to beat Tex. He kidnaps the Kits, Willer and Carson, but still can't beat Tex. In the end Mefisto dies in the ruins of his castle in Arizona (!), but before he does he sends his powers to his son Blacky, who takes on the name Yama and devotes himself to hounding Tex. Blacky/Yama is not the man his father was, however, and he is not nearly so challenging to Tex as Mefisto was. There was Proteus, an armed robber who had a mastery of disguise second to none. There was Paco Ordoñez, aka El Muerto, a crack shot whose two brothers were killed by Tex (they were armed robbers) and whose face is disfigured thanks to Tex, and so he hates Tex with a passion. There was Sumankan, a prince from Mali, who lost his wealth and empire thanks to the actions of white men and so came to America and called himself the Tigre Nera and tried to unite Chinese, Blacks, and corrupt/venal whites into a fighting force to overthrow the American government. And, finally, there was Andrew Liddell, also known as the Master. He was a mad scientist who tried to blackmail San Francisco (he had a very poisonous formula he planned to pour into the reservoir) and who tried to loot New Orleans (through voodoo worshipers) and in general was more interested in getting rich than in taking over the world. They, like the cults and monsters and voodoo worshipers Tex fought, all went down to defeat thanks to Tex.

Winoga. Winoga appeared in Winoga, Occhi di Falco (Winoga, Eye of the Hawk). He was an Indian chief, wise and strong, similar to Sitting Bull. Two of his friends were Tom Bartlett and Iron Fist.

Yorga. Yorga was created by Gianluigi Bonelli & Antonio Canale and debuted in 1945. Yorga was orphaned as a small child, his parents, precious stone traders, being killed by vicious rivals. Yorga is then adopted by an Indian yogi, who teaches him the secrets of "oriental asceticism." When he reaches manhood and is in full possession of his paranormal powrs, he begins a mission to fight crime and evil. He has telepathy, telekinesis, mind control, and weather control.

IXE-13. IXE-13, greatest of the Canadian secret agents, was created by Pierre Saurel and appeared in the Quebecois pulp Les Aventures Etranges de L'Agent IXE-13, L'As des Espions Canadiens (The Strange Adventures of Agent IXE-13, the Ace of Canadian Spies) beginning in 1940 and running for at least 27 years and 960 issues. IXE-13 is actually John Thibault. In 1938 he was 25 years old, built like a colossus, handsome as a devil, and one of Canada's best tennis players, but he renounces all of that to pursue his studies. But the following year Canada declares war on Germany and Thibault takes the exams for Canada's spy service. He passes them with flying colors, is given the pseudonym IXE-13, and goes to England, where he begins his first mission. After that came an unending litany of success, fame, and glory for IXE-13, who defeated, during the war, the Germans, Italians, and Germans, and then after the war went on to thrash those Communist (Soviet and Chinese) bounders around the world, on every continent and seemingly in every country. He even gets involved in science fictional adventures, taking on death-ray-wielding mad scientists and even going off-planet. Naturally, in the 1960s he became very Bond-like, but before that he was more on the lines of a typical pulp spy.

IXE-13 is a man of many talents. He eventually becomes a Captain in the Canadian Secret Service, but has great success working for the United Nations. He is the "number one enemy of the Communists." He can speak French, English, Italian, German, Russian, and Chinese. Naturally, he's a crack shot and ace pilot. He's unlucky in love, however, loving and losing any number of women due to accidents and murder. He's got a varied cast, too. There's Marius Lamouche, the hulking Secret Service Captain who is IXE-13's right arm and accompanies him on nearly every mission. There's Roxanne Lamouche, Marius' wife, who is also a member of the Secret Service and who almost always goes with IXE-13 and Marius on their missions. There's Gisele Tuboeuf, a pretty spy who IXE-13 loves and who loves him but who Fate always separates. She's a Frenchwoman who operates as "T-4" for the Deuxieme Bureau in France. There's General Smiley (George???), the head of the Canadian Secret Service and IXE-13's boss; he's a man of superior intelligence who does not easily forgive failure in his agents. There's General Klyne, one of the chiefs of the English Secret Service. He's a harsh, proud man who dislikes IXE-13 (the feeling is mutual). There's Henry Walker, a fight-eager young freelance spy who IXE-13 occasionally uses. There's General Mapoutine, head of the Soviet spy service, who loathes IXE-13. And, finally, there's Taya, the "queen of the Chinese Communists," a very Dragon Lady-like character; she is the sworn enemy of IXE-13 and a very dangerous woman who will use any means to gain her ends, but who secretly likes him.

Ixell, Baron. Baron Ixell was created by Oscar Schisgall and appeared in Clues from 1927 through 1932 and in one collection, Baron Ixell: Crime Breaker (1929). Ixell is in the classical mode of the rich amateur whose genius for investigation and solving crime wows the police. Ixell is the conventional amateur investigator: handsome, well-dressed, strong, very knowledgeable, and independently wealthy, fluent and able at disguise. His stories are not particularly memorable, but his enemies are: Monsieur Satan, the Parisian extortionist; the King of Crime, the Berlin robber and user of gas bombs; and the Circle of Terror, a Brussels-based gang of thieves.

A. The Abbey Girls to Dusty Ayres
B. Bagley to Scott Burton
C. Orhan Cakiroglu to Dr. Theodore Cunliffe
D-E. Dana Girls to Don Everhard
F. Ralph Fairbanks to Miss Fury
G. The Gadget Man to G-8
H-I. Dr. Hackensaw to Baron Ixell
J. Jack, Doc & Reggie to Justice Syndicate
K. Calvin Kane to Kwa of the Jungle
L. Major John T. Lacy to Langhorne Lyte
M. Professor Maboul to Mr. Mystic
N. Lee Nace to Nyoka
O. Fergus O'Breen to Ozar the Aztec
P.  Penny Packer to Judge Pursuivant
Q.  Oliver Quade to Sebastian Quin
R. Ed Race to Captain Rybnikov
S. The Safety First Club to Tom Swift
T-U. Tahara to Godfrey Usher
V. Lieutenant Valcour to Norton Vyse
W. Inspector Wade to Dr. Xavier Wycherley
X-Z. X Bar X Boys to Zorro

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