Papilionidae of Pakistan


Tribe: Papilionini

Genus: Papilio


Papilio agestor

Photo © G Waldeck

India, Nepal, Central and South China, Malaysia, Taiwan, Laos, Thailand, Pakistan

1. Papilio agestor (Gray, 1832)
     English: Tawny Mime
Synonyms: Cadugoides agestor (Moore, 1882); Papilio agestor (Rothschild, 1895); Papilio senchalus (Fruhstorfer, 1909); Papilio cresconius (Fruhstorfer, 1909); Chilasa agestor (Evans, 1927); Chilasa agestor (Talbot, 1939); Papilio agestor (Collins & Morris, 1985)

Description: Wingspan is 100-120 mm. Upper side of the body black. Fore wing mostly whitish gray. A slender line exists along the costal margin with elongated 2 broad strips (Pt.7A). There are broad rectangular patches in areas 2, 3, 3, and 6. Hind wing rich chestnut red in colour. Veins on the wing conspicuously paler than the ground colour. The ground colour on the apical area of upper side of forewing dull brown and not black. Six subspecies have been reported in the world. It was reported by Talbot (1939) from Punch district of Kashmir by Mani (1986) from Northwest Himalaya.

Papilio alexanor

Photo © G Waldeck

Europe, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq, Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and Pakistan

2. Papilio alexanor (Esper, 1799)

   English: Baluchi Swallowtail

Description: Wingspan is 75 - 90 mm. It is a Palearctic species. Fore wing with the basal third not entirely black but bordered basely and distally by a broad black band (Pt.7B). These bands are continued across the hind wing. Hind wing with a black bar across end of cell. Six sub species have been reported in the world. Savela (1999) reported it from Asia Minor, West Asia including Baluchistan and LRI (1999) from West Asia.

Papilio arcturus

Photo © G Waldeck

India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Burma, China, Thailand and Pakistan

3. Papilio arcturus (Westwood, 1842)

     English: Blue Peacock

Synonyms: Achillides arcturus (Moor, 1903); Papilio arcturus (Röber, 1927)
Description: Wingspan is 110-130 mm. Male lacks black bars of wooly scent scales on the veins of the forewing. Both sexes have a deeper blue spot on the hind wing. There is a narrow band of golden green scales along the sub marginal area of forewing. Hind wing has a black tonal spot, ringed with violet and mauve. (Pt.8A). The underside is blacker with no green scales on the under fore wing. The under hind wing has 2 tonal spots completely ringed with violet and red, turning to orange on the outer margin. Adult is strong and swift flier. Males occupy small hilltops or bush dotted ridges. Two subspecies have been recorded in the world. It has been reported by Talbot (1939) from Northwest India by Mani (1986) from Northwest Himalaya. It was now collected from Murree, Kaghan and Buner.

Papilio clytia

Photo © G Waldeck

China, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Andamans, Indonesia and Pakistan

4. Papilio clythia (Linnaeus, 1758)

English: Common Mime

Synonyms: Papilio clytia (Linnaeous, 1758a); Papilio dissimiles (Linnaeous, 1758b); Papilio panope (Esper, 1798); Clytia dissimiles (Swainson, 1833); Papilio clytia (Butler, 1869); Papilio casyapa (Moore, 1879); Chilasa casyapa (de Niceville, 1885); Chilasa clytia (Hampson, 1889); Papilio clytia (Puri, 1931); Chilasa clytia (Talbot, 1939); Papilio clytia (Collins & Morris, 1985); Chilasa clytia (Mani, 1986)
Description: Wingspan is 90-100 mm. It is pale yellowish green with each vein broadly margined in black. (Pt.8B). The upper side of forewing at the base of the cell yellow, dividing into 3-4 separate streaks and the yellow areas between vein 2, 3, 4, 5 are spotted into 2-3 arrow shaped spots. The upper hind wing cell is wholly yellow. The hind wings are paler, almost whole wing with a series of orange yellow spots between the veins along the hind wing margin. Seven subspecies have been described in the world. It has been reported by Talbot (1939) from Northwest Himalaya by Puri (1931) and Ahsan and Iqbal (1975) from Lahore and by Mani (1986) through out the Himalaya range.

Papilio demoleus

Photo © G Waldeck

Oman, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Afghanistan Iran, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Burma, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, China, Kampuchea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Japan, Papa New Guniea, Australia, Pakistan

5. Papilio demoleus (Linnaeus 1758)
    English: Lemon Butterfly
Synonyms: Papilio erithonius (Cramer, 1780); Orpheides epius (Hubner, 1816); Papilio epius (Donovan, 1842); Papilio demoleus (Donovan, 1842); Papilio erithonius (Wallace, 1865); Papilio demoleus (Butler, 1869); Orpheides erithonius (Moore, 1881); Orpheides demoleus (Moore, 1901-03); Papilio demoleus (Bingham, 1907)
Description: Wingspan is 80-100 mm. There is no tail on the hind wing. Upper fore wing is largely black and outer wing margin with a series of irregular yellow spots in a discal band. There are two yellow spots at the upper end of the cell and several scattered yellow spots in the apical region (Pt.9A). Upper hind wing has a red tornal spot and the discal black band is not interrupted with yellow spots but is dusted with yellow scales. Under side is paler yellow with the black areas more heavily dusted with yellow. It can be seen on wing in any month but is more abundant after monsoon. Six subspecies have been described from the world. It was reported by Swinhoe (1887) and Malik (1973) from Karachi, by Malik (1973) from Sakrand (Sind) by Leslie and Evans (1903) from Chitral by Rhe-philipe (1917) by Puri (1931) Ahsan and Iqbal (1975) from Lahore by Ahsan and Iqbal (1975), Hasan (1994 & 1997) and Rafi et al., (1999) from Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Hasan (1979) also from Gilgit. It was now collected from Buner, Swat, and Kohat also.

Papilio machaon

Photo © G Waldeck

A common Palaearctic species occurs through out almost all Europe, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, India, China, Nepal, Bhotan, Taiwan, Japan, Canada, USA , Pakistan


6. Papilio machaon (Linnaeus, 1758)

 English: Old World Swallowtail

Synonyms: Papilio asiatica (Moore, 1882); Papilio machaon (Jordan, 1909).
Description: wingspan is 75-90 mm. It is yellow from above with base of both wings black, dusted with yellow scales. There is a broad black bar mid-cell and a second bar curving around the disco cellular region (Pt.9B). Fore wing is marginal black and contains a row of yellow spots inside. There is a sub marginal band of black scalloped along its inner edge and thickly dusted with blue and green scales. The hind wing at vein 4 is produced to a slender tail and is scalloped along the margin. There is larger red tonal spot. Inner margin of the hind wing is also narrowly black. The under side is paler creamy yellow and there are russet red spots between vein 2, 3 and 4 as well as a black ringed tornal spot of red. Thirty-seven subspecies have been reported in the world. It was reported by Leslie and Evans (1903) from Chitral, by Talbot (1939) from Baluchistan, Chitral and Kashmir by Collins and Morris (1985) fom Pakistan by Mani (1986) from Baluchistan and North west Himalaya and Hasan ( 1997) from Kaghan Valley, Neelum valley and Shogran. It was now collected from Rawalakot (Azad Kashmir).

Papilio polyctor

Photo © G Waldeck

Afghanistan, C. Asia, Pakistan, N. India, Kashmir, Tibet, W.ChinaDistribution: Afghanistan, India, Nepal, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos and Pakistan.

7.  Papilio polyctor (Boisduval,1836)

     English: Common Peacock

Synonyms: Sarbaria polyctor (Moore, 1882); Papilio polyctor (Rothschild, 1895); Sarbaria peeroza (Moore, 1882); Papilio polyctor (Rothschild, 1895)
Description: Wingspan is 90-120 mm. There are iridescent blue patches on the wing with bands of golden green dusting on black background (Pt.10A). Male has a broad black strip of whorl of scent scales on the vein of the forewing and with a blue patch on the hind wing. Fore wing costa in both sexes is arched and outer margin is slightly concave. Hind wing with a long spatulate tail producing from vein 3 and a series of purplish red lunule encircling the top of black spots along the wing margin. Underside of hind wing bears prominent violet and red bundles along the entire wing margin. The body is black with a scattering of green scales on the dorsal surface of abdomen. Six subspecies have been described in the world. Leslie and Evans (1903) reported this species from Lahore, Talbot (1939) from Chitral and Maneshra, Malik (1973) from Peshawar, Iqbal (1978), Hasan (1974) and Rafi et al., (1999) from Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Collins and Morris (1985) from Pakistan. Mani (1986) from Northwest Himalaya, Hasan (1997) from Muree hills, Azad Kashmir. It was now collected from Hazara, Malakand Agency, Buner and Swat.

Papilio polytes romulus

Photo © G Waldeck

Pakistan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka,Burma, Thailand, China, Japan, Guam, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Nicobar Isl, Andamans, Eastern and Paninsular Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia

8. Papilio polytes (Linneaus, 1758)

    English: Common Mormon
Synonyms: Papilio pammon (Linneaus, 1758); Papilio romulus (Cramer, 1775); Papilio pammon (Fabricius, 1775); Papilio cyrus (Fabricius, 1793); Papilio sakontala (Hewitson, 1864); Papilio pammon (Wallace, 1865); Papilio polytes (Butler, 1869); Laertias romulus (Moore, 1881); Papilio ceylanicus (C. & R. Felder, 1864); Papilio walkeri (Jonson, 1879); Papilio polytes (Leech, 1893); Laertias pammon (Moore, 1903); Papilio polytes (Talbot, 1939) Seventeen subspecies. The Pakistan form belongs to the subspecies romulus as shown above. This specimen was caught by G Waldeck in Karachi 1984.
Description: Wingspan is 90-100 mm. It has prominent tail on the hind wing. Its colour is black with elongated white spots on the hind wing (Pt.10B). Males and some females have extensive discal band of white spots on hind wing and extended to vein 7. Male palpi white laterally and fore wing with white marginal spots, which are broader proximally; the hind wing with a whole post discal band consisting of spots of about equal size. Adult flies in open woods and in gardens at lower elevation. It prefers shelter of bushes, thick places in the forest and hedges. The flight of male is swift. Adults are strong fliers. Seventeen subspecies have been reported in the world. Rhe-Philipe (1917), Puri (1931), Ahsan and Iqbal (1975) reported it from Lahore, Menesse (1950) and Malik (1973) from Karachi. Iqbal (1978), Hasan (1994) and Rafi et at., (1999) from Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Hasan (1997) from Muree hills, Kaghan valley and Shogran, and Saleva (1999) from North India and Himalaya.

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