Abhayagiri-vasinah ... A subdivision of early Sthavirah school.
Abhayagiri, the Mountain of Fearlessness in Ceylon, where the disciples
dwelled in a monastery.
Agama Sutra ... It is one of the oldest Buddhist scriptures.
These sutras contain the sermons of Shakyamuni Buddha during the first
two to three years after he attained Enlightenment and during the year
proceeding his Nirvana. The sutras consists of four collections:
in Pali (P) in Sanskrit (S) ... 1. Digha-nikaya ... Dirghagama
(Long Sayings)... 2. Mojjhima-nikaya ... Madhyamagama (Middle-length
Sayings) ... 3. Samyutta-nikaya ... Samyuktagama (Kindred Sayings) ...
4. Anguttara-nikaya ... Ekottaragama (Gradual Sayings) ... 5.
Khuddaka-nikaya ... Ksudrakagama (Minor Saying) ...
Khuddaka-nikaya is only included in Pali canon. The five
collections is called Sutta-pitaka.
Akushala Sanskrit word. It means bad Karma.
Alara-Kalama ... Alara-Kalama in Pali, Arada-Kalama in Sanskrit.
A sage under whom Shakyamuni studied meditation. The state reached by
Alara-Kalama was that of a higher formless world where matter no longer
Alaya ... An abbreviation of Alaya-vijanana. Alaya is a sort of
eternal substance or matter, creative and containing all forms; when
considered as a whole, it is non-existent, or contains nothing; when
considered phenomenal, it fills the universe. It seems to be of the
nature of materialism. It is the store or totality of consciousness
both absolute and relative. It is described as the fundamental
mind-consciousness of conscious beings, which lays hold of all the
experience of the individual life, and which stores and holds the germs
of all affairs.
It is the last of Eighth Consciousness from which the Wisdom of
Great Round Mirror is derived.
Almsgiving ... See charity.
Amitabha ... Sanskrit word, literally means boundless light and
boundless life. He is the Buddha in the Land of Ultimate Bliss (Pure
Land), in which all beings enjoy unbounded happiness. Amitabha has
forty-eight great vows to establish and adorn his Pure Land. People
also recite or call upon his name by the time of dying will be born in
the Land of Ultimate Bliss with the reception by Amitabha. Amitabha is
one of the most popular and well-known Buddha in China and Asia.
Amitabha Sutra ... One of the main sutra in Pure Land Sect. It
is said to be the only sutra that Shakyamuni preached without being
asked. For the sake of facilitating the living beings to practice and
cultivate the Buddha way. Shakyamuni revealed and taught us the
simplest way for liberation and enlightenment -- reciting Amitabha
Buddha's name. By reciting the name, one can opt to be born in the Pure
Land of Ultimate Bliss. It is one of the most popular sutra recited by
the Buddhists in China and Asia.
Anagamin ... A Sanskrit word means one who does not return. It
is the certification of the third fruit of Arhatship. After a
Sakrdagamin cuts off the last three categories of his delusions in
thought in the Desire Realm, he certifies to the third fruit, and never
returns. See Four Fruition.
Ananda ... One of the Shakyamuni Buddha's Ten Great Disciples.
He was first in hearing the Buddha's words. As he had excellent memory,
he memorized the Buddha's sermons, which were later recorded as sutras.
He was also the cousin of Shakyamuni Buddha.
Anathapindika ... A name given to Sudatta, meant one who gives
to the needy. He was a wealthy merchant of Savatthi in ancient India
who bought the land from Prince Jeta with as much gold as would cover
the ground for the construction of Jetavanna Grove - one of the great
monastery Bodhimandala of Shakyamuni Buddha.
Annutara-samyak-sambodhi ... Sanskrit word meaning unexcelled
complete enlightenment, which is an attribute of every Buddha. It is
the highest, correct and complete or universal knowledge or awareness,
the perfect wisdom of a Buddha.
Arana ... It means a place of stillness, which is to practice
pure conduct and to cultivate without the attachment of self and the
Arangaka ... One of the four types of Vedic literature in
ancient India, known as the "Forest Treatise", compiled around 600
Arhan ... See Arhat and Four Fruition.
Arhat ... Arhat in Sanskrit, Arahat in Pali. Literally, man of
worth, honourable one. There are two kinds of arhats, namely, the
Sound-hearing arhat (Sravaka) and the Enlightened-to-condition arhat
(Praetyka-Buddha). The former attains the wisdom to understand the Four
Noble Truth, while the latter attains the wisdom to understand the Law
of Dependent Origination or the Twelve Links of Dependent Origination.
They represent two vehicles, who "comprehend for their own sake". As
they pay attention to themselves and not to others, they are incapable
of genuine and equal enlightenment. There are four noble stages of
fruition in the Arhat Path.
Aryasthavirah ... See Sthavirah.
Asamkhyeya ... A Sanskrit words interpreted as innumerable, and
countless. See also kalpas.
Asanga ... Brother of Vasubandhu. Originally trained as a
Hinayanist, but converted his brother Vasubandha to become Mahayanist.
They both established the Yogacara School of Buddhism.
Ashoka ... A Buddhist monarch of 300 B.C., the third emperor of
the Mauryan Dynasty, who unified most of India under his rule and
fostered the dissemination of Buddhism. It is said that the Third
Council was held during his reign. Ashoka set the model for many other
rulers who sought to govern in accordance with Buddhist
Asura ... Ashura in Sanskrit, Asura in Pali. It is a peculiar
path in the Six Paths. They are the enemies of the devas, and are the
mightest of all demons. In terms of material enjoyment and psychic
power, it is similar to Deva. However, in some aspects, it is even
worse than the Human Path. The male Asura is extremely ugly and
furious, and always fight with each other. The female Asura is as
beautiful as an angel. They are proud of themselves, thus reluctant to
learn and practice Buddhism.
Atman ... The individual self or the soul in Brahmanic
Avalokitesvara ... Sanskrit word for the Bodhisattva who Hears
the Sounds of the World. He rescues all beings by hearing their voices
of suffering and cries for help. In Chinese, he is called Guan Shr Yin
or Guan Yin Bodhisattva. As one of the Four Great Bodhisattva, he is
the one with the greatest compassion and mercy, therefore known as
God/Goddess of Mercy.
Guan Yin is one of the triad of Amitabha Buddha, represented on
his left, and being the future Buddha in the Land of Ultimate Bliss
(Pure Land) after Amitabha Buddha.
Guan Yin can transform into many different forms in order to
cross over to the beings. Originally represented as a male, the images
are now generally those of a female figure. Guan Yin is one of the most
popular Bodhisattva in China.
Avarasailah ... One of the Hinayana School, a sub division of
MahasanghikaSchool. The disciples dwelled in the western mountains in
Avatamsaka Sutra ... Sanskrit words, also known as Flower
Adornment Sutra, or Flower Garland Sutra. One of the great sutras in
Buddhism. It was sermoned in heaven by Buddha Shakyamuni soon after his
attainment of Buddhahood. The sutra reveals different causes and ways
of cultivation of many great Bodhisattvas, such as Ten Grades of Faith,
Ten Stages of Wisdom, Ten Activities, Ten Transference of Merits, Ten
Stages of Bodhisattva, Absolute Universal Enlightenment, Wonderful
Enlightenment, etc. It also reveals how to enter Avatamsaka World
(Buddha's world) from Saha World (our world).
Acariya, teacher (Thai: Ajahn) Adhitthana, decision, resolution,
self determination, will ... Akusala, unwholesome, demerit, wrong, bad,
evil ... Anagami, a Non-returner, the third stage in the realization of
Nibbana ... Anapanasati, mindfulness of in and out breathing Anatta,
not self, Egolessness ... Anicca, Impermanence ... Arammana, sense
objects, and object of consciousness (in Thai: mood, temper,
Arahant/Arahat, The worthy one
Ariya, Noble: 1. The Sublime Path of the Hole life. 2. Ariya
atthaangika magga, The Noble Eightfold Path
Ariya Phala, fruition: 1. Sota patti phala, fruition of stream
entry 2. Sakadagamiphala, fruition of once returning 3. Anagami phala,
fruition of non returning 4. Arahatta phala, fruition of the worthy one
or perfected one
Ariya Sacca, Noble Truth ..... Asava, mental intoxication,
defilememt ..... Atta, Self, Ego ..... Avijja Ignorance, nescience, not
knowing better, delusion
Abhidhamma: (1) In the discourses of the Pali Canon, this term
simply means "higher Dhamma," and a systematic attempt to define the
Buddha's teachings and understand their interrelationships. (2) A later
collection of analytical treatises based on lists of categories drawn
from the teachings in the discourses, added to the Canon several
centuries after the Buddha's life.
Abhiñña: Intuitive powers that come from the
practice of concentration: the ability to display psychic powers,
clairvoyance, clairaudience, the ability to know the thoughts of
others, recollection of past lifetimes, and the knowledge which does
away with mental effluents (see asava).
acariya: Teacher; mentor. See kalyanamitta. Adhitthana:
Determination; resolution. One of the ten perfections (paramis).....
Ajaan: (Thai; also "Ajarn", "Ajahn", etc.). Teacher; mentor. Equivalent
to the Pali acariya ..... Akaliko: Timeless; unconditioned by time or
season ..... Akusala: Unwholesome, unskillful, demeritorious. See its
opposite, kusala .....
Anagami: Non-returner. A person who has abandoned the five lower
fetters that bind the mind to the cycle of rebirth (see samyojana), and
who after death will appear in one of the Brahma worlds called the Pure
Abodes, there to attain nibbana, never again to return to this
Anapanasati: Mindfulness of breathing. A meditation practice in
which one maintains one's attention and mindfulness on the sensations
Anatta: Not-self; ownerless ..... Anicca: Inconstant; unsteady;
Anupadisesa-nibbana: Nibbana with no fuel remaining (the analogy
is to an extinguished fire whose embers are cold) -- the nibbana of the
arahant after his passing away.
Anupubbi-katha: Gradual instruction. The Buddha's method of
teaching Dhamma that guides his listeners progressively through
increasingly advanced topics: generosity (see dana), virtue (see sila),
heavens, drawbacks, renunciation, and the four noble truths.
Apaya-bhumi: State of deprivation; the four lower levels of
existence into which one might be reborn as a result of past unskillful
actions (see kamma): rebirth in hell, as a hungry ghost, as an angry
demon (see Asura), or as a common animal. None of these states is
permanent. Compare sugati.
Apaya-mukha: Way to deprivation -- extra-marital sexual
relations; indulgence in intoxicants; indulgence in gambling;
associating with bad people. Performance of these acts paves the way
for rebirth in one of the lower realms (see apaya-bhumi).
Arahant: A "worthy one" or "pure one"; a person whose mind is
free of defilement (see kilesa), who has abandoned all ten of the
fetters that bind the mind to the cycle of rebirth (see samyojana),
whose heart is free of mental effluents (see asava), and who is thus
not destined for further rebirth. A title for the Buddha and the
highest level of his Noble Disciples.
Arammana: Preoccupation; mental object ..... Ariya: Noble,
ideal. Also, a "Noble One" (see ariya-puggala).
Ariyadhana: Noble Wealth; qualities that serve as 'capital' in
the quest for liberation: conviction (see saddha), virtue (see sila),
conscience, fear of evil, erudition, generosity (see dana), and
discernment (see pañña),.
Ariya-puggala: Noble person; enlightened individual. An
individual who has realized at least one of the four noble paths (see
magga) or their fruitions (see phala). Compare puthujjana
Ariya-sacca: Noble Truth. The word "ariya" (noble) can also mean
ideal or standard, and in this context means "objective" or "universal"
truth. There are four: stress, the origin of stress, the disbanding of
stress, and the path of practice leading to the disbanding of
Asava: Mental effluent, pollutant, or fermentation. Four
qualities -- sensuality, views, becoming, and ignorance -- that "flow
out" of the mind and create the flood of the round of death and
Asubha: Unattractiveness, loathsomeness, foulness. The Buddha
recommends contemplation of this aspect of the body as an antidote to
lust and complacency. See also kayagata-sati.
Asura: A race of heavenly beings who, like the Titans of Greek
mythology, fought the devas for sovereignty over the heavens and lost.
Avijja: Unawareness; ignorance; obscured awareness; delusion
about the nature of the mind. See also moha.
Ayatana: Sense medium. The inner sense media are the sense
organs -- eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, and mind. The outer sense
media are their respective objects.
Aeon ... An age (Sanskrit: kalpa), too long to be reckoned by
any ordinary calendar, during which the evolution of a physical
universe takes place. This evolution occurs in four stages: (1) The
antara-kalpa, in which the universe is formed; (2) the
vivartta-siddha-kalpa, in which the universe possesses continued
stability; (3) the samvartta-kalpa , in which the universe is gradually
destroyed; and (4) the sunyakalpa, in which the universe disappears.
After the sunyakalpa, the process of cosmic activity begins again in a
cyclic evolution. There are three kinds of kalpas: (1)A great kalpa of
1,344,000,000 years, (2) a medium kalpa of 336,000,000 years, and (3) a
small kalpa of 1 6, 800,000 years.
Amitayur Dhyana Sutra ... See "Contemplation Sutra."
Anagamin ... One of "four grades of disciples" in the Small
Vehicle school of Buddhism. Anagamin have reached a level at which they
will they will never retrogress to rebirth in this saha world.
Aparimitayur Sutra ... See "Infinite Life Sutra."
Arhatship ... Arhatship is the goal of Small Vehicle practice,
as contrasted with Bodhisattvahood or Buddhahood in Mahayana practice.
Persons in the first three stages of Arhatship are called "learners."
Those in the fourth and final stage of Arhatship are referred to as
"those who are beyond study" or "thoroughly learned ones." See also
"four grades of disciples."
Assures ... Beings that are just above humans in the six states
of existence. Asuras are demigods, or semi-blessed beings, who are
powerful but are also fierce and quarrelsome. Like humans, they are
partly good and partly evil.
Avatamsaka Sutra ... See Flower Adornment Sutra.
Awakening ... The awakening to the realization of the true nature of
oneself and the true ature of the universe and everyone in it.
Abhidjanas ..... Six supernatural occult powers... Divyacaksus –
Clairvoyance... Paracittajnana – Thought reading... Divyasrota –
Clairaudience... Riddhi Sakchatkriya – Divine Speed... Purvanivasanu
Smritidjana – Knowledge of previous existence... Asravakchaya –
Exhaustive knowledge appertaining to the life stream of all sentient
Anasravah ... Deed performed without leakage, i.e., an
altruistic act done without considering returns or retribution for
benefit of oneself
Anuttara Samyak Sambodhi ... Trancendental knowledge and wisdom
Avalokitesvara ... A Boddhisattva who has special affinity with
sentient beings of this world (Sara World)
Bahusrutiyah ... One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of
Mahasanghikah. One of their chief doctrines held Buddha's teaching to
be twofold: transcedent on one hand and mundane on the other.
Bamboo Grove ... Veluvana in Pali, Venuvana in Sanskrit. The
first monastery (Bodhi-mandala) in Buddhism located in Rajagaha. It was
donated by the elder Kalanda and built by King Bimblisara of
Bhadrayaniyah ... One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of
Sthavirandin, developed from Vatsiputriyah.
Bhaisajyaguru ... Sanskrit word, i.e., the Buddha of Medicine
Master, who quells all diseases and lengthens life. He is the Buddha in
the Pure Land of the Paradise of the East, i.e., Pure Land of Lapus
Bhiksu ... Bhiksu in Sanskrit, Bhikkhu in Pali. A monk, who has
left home, is fully ordained to follow the way of the Buddha, and
depends on alms for a living.
Bhiksuni ... Bhiksuni in Sanskrit, Bhikkhuni in Pali. A nun
observing more strict rules than a Bhiksu. See also Bhiksu.
Bodhi ... A term used in both Sanskrit and Pali, meaning perfect
wisdom or enlightenment.
Bodhicitta ... The mind of enlightenment. It is with this
initiative that a Buddhist begins his path to complete, perfect
Bodhidharma ... An Indian missionary monk who came to China in
600 A.D., regarded as the founder of the Chan (Zen) School of Buddhism
in China, i.e. the First Patriarch.
Bodhimandala ... A monastery where Bhiksus (monks) and Bhiksunis
(nuns) practise and teach the Buddhist Dharma.
It also generally refers to a holy place of enlightenment; a
place for teaching and learning the Dharma; a place where a Bodhisattva
appears and where devotees have glimpses of him.
Bodhisattva ... Bodhisattva in Sanskrit, Bodhisatta in Pali. A
Future Buddha who is a being destined to Buddhahood. Bodhi means
Enlightenment and Sattva means Sentient and Conscious. Therefore
Bodhisattva refers to the sentient being of or for the great wisdom and
enlightenment. Bodhisattva's vow/aim is the pursuit of Buddhahood and
the salvation of others and of all. He seeks enlightenment to enlighten
others. He will sacrifice himself to save the others. He is devoid of
egoism and devoted to help the others. The way and discipline of
Bodhisattva is to benefit the self and the others, leading to
Brahma ... One of the three major deities of Hinduism, along
with Visnu (Vishnu) and Siva (Shiva). Adopted as one of the protective
deities of Buddhism.
Brahman ... The highest of the Four Castes in ancient India at
the time of Shakyamuni. They served Brahma, with offerings; the keepers
of the Vedas, i.e. priestly caste.
Brahmana ... One of the four types of Vedic literature in
ancient India. The portion of the Veda that deals with ceremony and
Brahmin ... Name used in the present text for the priestly caste
of Hindus. See Brahman.
Buddha ... Means "the Enlightened One" or "the Awakened
Buddha-ksetra ... That is, Buddhaland. The term is absent from
the Hinayana schools. In Mahayana, it is the spiritual realm acquired
by one who reaches perfect enlightenment, where he instructs all beings
born there, preparing them for enlightenment, e.g. Amitabha in Pure
Land of Ultimate Bliss (Western Paradise), Bhaisajya guru (Medicine
Master Buddha) in Pure Land of Lapus Lazuli Light (Eastern
Buddhata ... Buddha Nature i.e. the potential for attaining
Buddhahood, or enlightenment. In the absolute sense, it is unproduced
and immortal. Every sentient being possesses the Buddha Nature, but it
requires to be cultivated in order to be revealed.
Burning Lamp Buddha ... He was the Buddha that bestowed a
prediction of Buddhahood on Shakyamuni Buddha. He was the one who gave
Shakyamuni a name, saying "In the future, you will become a Buddha
Bhavana ... mental culture, development, the control and
evolution of the mind, meditation
Bodhipakkhiya Dhamma ... the 37 qualities contributing to
Bodhisatta (Pali)/Bodhisattva (Sanskrit)... A Buddha to be, one
who has resolved to attain Enlightenment for the helping of all
Brahma ... (in Hinduism, The Creator, The Universal Self); in
Buddhism, a divine being of the Form Sphere or the Formless Sphere,
Happy and blameless celestial beings, inhabitants of the higher
Buddho ... a recitation of the Buddha, an example of a
Ahutas ... (Sanskrit) Big-bodied ghosts.
Bodhimandala ... The posture of a Buddha. "To sit in a
Bodhimandala" is another way of saying, "to become a Buddha."
Bodhi Mind ... The spirit of enlightenment, which has two
parallel aspects: the determination to achieve Buddhahood, and an
aspiration to help all sentient beings become enlightened.
Bodhi Tree ... The tree under which Shakyamuni Buddha,
meditating, attained enlightenment.
Bodhicitta ... See Bodhi Mind.
Bodhimandala ... (Sanskrit) Seat or site of Enlightenment. By
extension, a temple or place of retreat.
Bodhisattva grounds ... See "Ten Grounds."
Bodhisattva path ... See "Great Vehicle."
brahmins ... Members of the highest caste in India (the priestly
Buddha Dharma ... The teachings of Shakyamuni Buddha or other
Buddhas. See also "Dharma."
Buddha-lands ... Lands created by and presided over by
Buddha-nature ... The inherent nature of all sentient beings. In
the Mahayana view, Buddha-nature is the true. immutable, and eternal
nature of all beings. Because all beings possess Buddha-nature, it is
possible for anyone to attain enlightenment and become a Buddha, no
matter what level of existence one occupies. The answer to the question
whether Buddha-nature is immanent in beings is an essential determining
factor for the association of a given school with Theravada or
Mahayana, the two great currents within Buddhism. In Theravada, this
notion of inherent Buddha-nature is unknown, so the potential to become
a buddha is not ascribed to every being. In contrast, the Mahayana
school sees the attainment of Buddhahood as the highest goal; it can be
attained through the inherent Buddha-nature of every being through
appropriate spiritual practice.
Buddhism ... A body of teachings, consisting of the elements of
ethics, science, metaphysics, and the law of universe etc.; taught by
Shakyamuni the Buddha (560-480 B.C.).
Butter lamp ... A lamp with wicks made of cotton or cloth that
has been dipped in butter.
Bahukayani ... Plentiful good actions
Bhadra Kalpa ... The era presently we are in
Buddha ... Appelation for one who has reached the final stage of
Perfect Enlightenment other appelations being::: Tathagata –
Suchness... Arham – Veneration deserving... Samsaksam-Buddha – Full of
universal knowledge... Vidyacarana Sampanah – With full knowledge of
all supernatural power... Sagata – Having completed the pursuance of
the Eight Noble Paths heading for Nirvana... Lakavit – With thorough
knowledge of the world... Anuttarah – Highest order of sentient
beings... Purusadem-yasarathin – Great tamer of men...
Sastadeva-manuchyanam – Teacher of both celestial and human beings...
The World Honored One
Buddha-Rupa ... Body of Buddha
Caityasailah ... See Jetavaniyah.
Catur-Maharaja-Kayika ... The four heavens of the four
Deva-Kings. It is the lowest of the six heavens of the Realm of
Causal Ground ... Fundamental cause; the state of practising the
Buddhism which leads to the resulting Buddhahood.
Cave of the Seven Leaves ... Saptaparna-guha in Sanskrit,
Sattapanna-guba in Pali. The site of the First Buddhist Council, near
Chakra ... A wheel in Yoga, one of the psychic centres of the
Chan ... Also called Zen; see Contemplation and
Chan School ... The Chan School was established in China by
Bodhidharma, the 28th Patriarch who brought the tradition of the
Buddha-mind from India. This school, disregarding ritual and sutras, as
they believe in sudden enlightenment which is beyond any mark,
including speech and writing. They practice meditation with Hua Tou.
This school is said to be for those of superior roots.
Charity ... Or almsgiving, the first Paramita. There are three
kinds of charity in terms of goods, doctrines (Dharma) and courage
(fearlessness). Out of the three, the merits and virtues of doctrines
charity is the most surpassing. Charity done for no reward here and
hereafter is called pure or unsullied, while the sullied charity is
done for the purpose of personal benefits. In Buddhism, the merits and
virtues of pure charity is the best.
Chih Che ... Chih Che (A.D. 538-597) was the Third Patriarch of
the Tien Tai School. He had a deep understanding and insight on the
Lotus Sutra. He wrote many books to explain the doctrines in Lotus
Sutra, which established the fundamental structure in the teaching of
the Tien Tai School.
Chih-Kuan ... A method of cultivation, commonly practised in
Tien Tai Sect in China. It is similar to meditation, looking into the
mind. There are two processes:
1.Chih - a Chinese word which means fixing the mind to meditate
on the ten Dharma realms. 2.Kuan - a Chinese word which means
contemplating and looking into underlying reality of all things.
No priority of cultivation is given to the one or the other, but
should be cultivated simultaneously. Its principle and the aim of
practice is to realize the Three Dogmas and to attain Sudden
Condition ... There is no existing phenomena that is not the
effect of dependent origination. All phenomena arise dependent upon a
number of casual factors called conditions.
Conditioned Dharma ... It refers to all phenomena and law in the
world. The worldly dharma is governed by the Law of Cause and Effect
and Law of Dependent Origination or conditions. In general, there are
three kinds of conditioned dharma, namely
1.form - all material which has form. 2.mental - related to all
mental activities. 3.neither form nor the mental.
Contemplation ... Abstract contemplation. There are four levels
through which the mind frees itself from all subjects and objective
hindrances and reaches a state of absolute indifference and
annihilation of thought, perception, and will. See also
Citta ... Thought, thoughtfulness, active thoughts, mind, a
state of consciousness.
Chan ... A school of Buddhism that emphasizes meditation on a
puzzling concept, or koan, as a method for attaining enlightenment.
(Chan is the Chinese pronunciation of "Zen.")
Chin Kung ... Chin Kung is Venerable Master of Pure Land
Learning Centers in Asia, Australia, and the United States. Author of
Understanding Buddhism and many other works presented on this Web
City of Ten Thousand Buddhas ... The City of Ten Thousand
Buddhas in Talmage, CA, was founded by Venerable Master Hsuan Hua. It
is the U.S. home of the Dharma Realm Buddhist Association and Dharma
Realm Buddhist University.
Circumambulation ... Walking slowly in single file around a
Buddha or an image of a Buddha, usually chanting the Buddha's name. In
Pure Land, this is a type of Buddha recitation that groups of people
Components ... See "five skandas."
Contemplation Sutra ... A Sutra that describes sixteen
contemplations on Amitabha Buddha and his Pure Land. Sometimes called
The Sutra on Observing (or Visualizing) Amitabha (or Amitabha and his
Pure Land). Sanskrit: The Amitayur Dhyana Sutra. One of the five
principle Pure Land Texts.
Conditioned ... A word used to describe all the various
phenomena in the world, which are made up of separate, discrete
elements -- that is "with outflows" -- and have no intrinsic nature of
their own. Merits and virtues with "outflows" are said to be
conditioned; that is, they lead to rebirth within samsara . Conversely,
unconditioned merits and virtues do not have outflows and can therefore
bring about liberation from the cycle of birth and death.
Cosmos ... See " Dharma Realm."
Cycle of birth and death ... The unending cycle of birth, death,
and rebirth that sentient beings experience until they become
enlightened or are reborn in a Buddha-land such as the Pure Land. Pure
Land inhabitants are freed from the cycle of birth and death so they
can focus their full attention upon continuing their progress toward
Dana ... giving, gift, alms-giving, alms, generosity, charity,
benevolence, liberality, donation
Deva ... a shining one, god, deity
Devata ... (Thai: Thevada) a shining one, god, deity
Dhamma (Pali) Dharma (Sanskrit) ... The Dhamma, The Doctrine,
The Teaching of the Buddha, The Law, nature, the Truth, Ultimate
Reality, The Supramundane esp. Nibbana, righteousness, virtue,
Dukkha ... Suffering, misery, woe, pain, ill, sorrow, trouble,
Deer Park ... Migadaya in Pali, Mrgadava in Sanskrit. Deer Park
in Benares, the capital of the ancient kingdom of Kasi. It was a place
of Shakyamuni's first sermon to the Five Bhikhus after his
Devadatta ... A cousin of Shakyamuni. At first, he was a
follower of Shakyamuni, but later left him and even attempted to kill
Devine Eye ... One of the Six Psychic Power and one of the Five
Eyes. Unlimited vision, large and small, distant and near, the destiny
of all beings in future rebirth. It may be obtained by human eyes
through the practice of meditation/Samadhi.
Devotion ... See Vigor.
Dhammapada ... Dhammapada in Pali, Dharmapada in Sanskrit. A
sutra consisting of two sections and 39 chapters, with 423 short verses
of the Buddha, teachings given at various times and places. It is
regarded as the "original" teaching of the Buddha, which can be used
for reference, moral instruction and inspiration. It was composed by
Dharmatrata in 400-300 B.C.
Dharma ... Dharma in Sanskrit, Dhamma in Pali. The universal
norms or laws that govern human existence and is usually regarded as
law, truth, anything Buddhist. It is used in the sense of all things,
visible or invisible. In Buddhist tradition, it is generally referred
to as the teaching of the Buddha.
Dharma-wheel ... See Wheel of Law.
Dharmagupta ... He translated the Lotus Sutra in A.D. 601
jointly with Jnanagupta.
Dharmaguptah ... One of the Hinayana sect, a subdivision of
Sarvastivadah, developed from Mahisasakah and located in northwest
India and Central Asia.
Literally means those who protect (or preserve) the Law. They
were instrumental informing the cult of the stupa, and were expert in
Dharmalaksana School ... Also known as Yogacara. It aims at
discovery of the ultimate entity of cosmic existence in contemplation
throughinvestigation into the specific characteristics of all
existence, and through the realization of the fundamental nature of
"self" in mystic illumination.
Dharmaraksa ... Dharmaraksa (A.D. 223-300) was the Chinese born
descendant of Iranian who had settled in West China generations before.
He had translated the Lotus Sutra in A.D. 286.
Dharmottariyah ... One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of
Sthavirandin developed from Vatsiputriyah. Dharmottara is the Buddhist
logician writing, an important commentary called the Nyayabindu-tika on
Dukkha ... Buddhist word meaning suffering. Broadly speaking, it
means not complete and not perfect.
Dvadashamukha Shastra ... One of the Three Shastra of Madhyamika
School, composed by Nagarjuna, translated by Kumarajiva A.D. 408. There
are several works on it.
Da Shi Zhi ... (English: Great Strength Bodhisattva.) One of
Amitabha Buddha's two great Bodhisattva companions in the Pure Land.
(The other is Guan Yin.) In pictures depicting Amitabha, Great Strength
Bodhisattva often stands to Amitabha's right (our left). He often
carries one or more flowers and is recognizable by the water jar
(jeweled pitcher) adorning his crown.
Degenerate age ... See "Dharma-Ending Age."
Devas ... Celestial beings who are often regarded as gods in
religions other than Buddhism. They rank above humans and Asuras in the
six stages of existence. Many devas have godlike powers and reign over
celestial kingdoms, and most devas live in delightful happiness and
splendor. Devas have lifetimes that are unimaginably long by human
standards, but their lives eventually do come to an end because devas
are not yet free from the cycle of birth and death. That distinction
belongs only to Arhats, Bodhisattvas, and Buddhas. The devas dwell in
celestial regions called the "six heavenly realms."
Dharma Body ... See " Three Bodies of the Buddha."
Dharma Door ... School, method, tradition.
Dharma-Ending Age ... Today's spiritually degenerate era, which
began with the passing of Shakyamuni Buddha and has continued for more
than 2,400 years. The concept that the current era is an age of
spiritual decline, dissension, and is a generally accepted teaching of
Dharma nature ... The intrinsic nature of all things. Used
interchangeably with "emptiness" and "reality."
Dharma Realm ... A term that has several meanings in the Sutras.
It can refer to: (a) the infinite universe, consisting of worlds upon
worlds ad infinitum; (b) the nature or essence of all things; or (c)
the Mind. "To the exhaustion of the Dharma Realm" means forever,
because the Dharma Realm lasts forever. It is never "exhausted"; that
is, it never ends.
Dharma Seals ... Three criteria used to determine the
genuineness of Buddhist teachings: namely, impermanence, suffering, and
no-self. A fourth criterion, emptiness, is also mentioned in the
Sutras. But most scholars agree that according to Shakyamuni Buddha's
teachings, there are three Dharma seals. The first Dharma seal, the
Truth of Impermanence, is particularly important to Buddhism because it
was when the young prince Siddhartha (Shakyamuni Buddha) saw a corpse
that he decided to leave his royal court to become an ascetic.
Dharma wheel ... The doctrine of the Buddhas. To "turn the
Dharma wheel" or to "set in motion the wheel of Dharma" means to
proclaim the doctrine of the Buddhas to the world.
Dharmadhatu ... See "Dharma Realm."
Dharamakara ... (English: "Dharma Store.") A monk, later a
Bodhisattva, who attained Buddhahood and became Amitabha Buddha in a
series of events related in the Infinite Life Sutra. As Bodhisattva
Dharamakara, Amitabha made 48 Great Vows promising to create the Pure
Land and to guarantee rebirth in the Pure Land to anyone who would
recite His name with utmost sincerity, particularly at the time of
death. Dharamakara fulfilled this vow when he attained Buddhahood and
became Amitabha Buddha. See also Dipankara.
Dipankara ... A Buddha who attained Buddhahood many aeons ago.
Fifty-three Buddhas after Dipankara, Amitabha Buddha attained
Dragons ... A word used to refer to nagas, a class of spiritual
beings with great powers. See also "eight groups."
Dust-mote ... A dust-mote (param-anuh) is not literally a fine,
dry particle of earth, but rather an "atom" -- that is, the ultimate
unit of rarified matter in the superphysical planes of beings.
Dust-motes can also be described as waves of vibration of inconceivable
rapidity, used to symbolize numbers or quantities of inconceivable
smallness. Often, the term "dust-mote" is used as a simile to represent
the infinite number of Buddhas: As narrated in "Universal Worthy's
Conduct and Vows," all Buddhas, or World Honored Ones, are as numerous
as as fine motes of dust throughout the ten directions and the three
periods of time to the exhaustion of empty space and the end of the
Dusts ... A metaphor for all the mundane things that can cloud
our bright self-nature. These include sound, scent, taste, touch, and
dharmas (external opinions and views). These "dusts" correspond to the
five senses and the discriminating, everyday mind (the sixth sense, in
Dasabhadra ... Ten worthy deeds
Dasakusala ... Ten vices or evil deeds
Deva-loka ... One of the six divisions of existence or celestial
beings; the other five divisions being: Asuras, Humankind, Hungry
ghosts, Demons in purgatorial hells, and beasts.
Devas, ... Nagas, Yakchas, Gandharvas, Asuras, Ganrudas, Kinaras,
and Mahoragas ... The eight divisions of celestial beings and
Dharma-cakra ... Wheel of Law, its turning or rotation means the
constant dissemination of Dharma
Dhatu ... Line of demarcation
Eight Divisions of Gods and Dragons ... Devas (gods), Nagas
(Dragons) and others of eight divisions (classes): deva, nagas, yakas,
ganharvas, asuras, gaudas, kinaras, mahoragas.
Eight Negations ... The eight negations of Nagarjuna, founder of
Madhyamika, are actually four pairs of neither birth nor death, neither
end nor permanence, neither identity nor difference, neither coming nor
going. This is one of the important concepts of the Middle Way, the
ultimate truth of Buddhism and the reality character of all
The Eight Precepts ... They are: 1.no killing 2.no stealing 3.no
sexual misconduct 4.no false speech 5.no alcoholic drink 6.no cosmetic,
personal adnornments, dancing or music 7.no sleeping on fine beds 8.no
eating after noon
Eight Sufferings ... (1) Suffering of Birth (2) Suffering of Old
Age (3) Suffering of Sickness (4) Suffering of Death (5) Suffering of
being apart from the loved ones (6) Suffering being together with the
despised ones (7) Suffering of not getting what one wants (8) Suffering
of the flourishing of the Five Skandhas
Eight Winds ... Or the Winds of Eight Directions. Most people
are usually moved by the winds of the eight directions: (1) Praise (2)
Ridicule (3) Suffering (4) Happiness (5) Benefit (6) Destruction (7)
Gain (8) Loss
Eighteen Different Characters ... There are eighteen different
characters of a Buddha as compared with all other beings in the Nine
Realms. 1.His perfection of body (or person) 2.His perfection of mouth
(or speech) 3.His perfection of memory 4.His perfection of impartiality
to all 5.Serenity 6.Self-sacrifice 7.Unceasing desire to save
8.Unflagging zeal therein to save 9.Unfailing thought thereto to save
10.Unceasing wisdom to save 11.Powers of deliverance 12.The principle
of the powers of deliverance 13.Revealing perfect wisdom in deed
14.Revealing perfect wisdom in word 15.Revealing perfect wisdom in
thought 16.Perfect knowledge of the past 17.Perfect knowledge of the
future 18.Perfect knowledge of the present
Eighteen Fields ... The Six Consciousness and the Twelve Bases
are together called the Eighteen Fields.
Eighteen Sects of Hinayana ... I.Mahasanghikah is divided into
eight schools::: 1.Ekavyavaharikah 2.Lokottaravadinah 3.Kaukkutikah
(Gokulika) 4.Bahusrutiyah 5.Prajnativadinah 6.Jetavaniyah
(Caityasailah) 7.Avarasailah 8.Uttarasailah II.Sthavirah or
Aryasthavirah is divided into ten schools::: 1.Haimavatah
2.Vatsiputriyah (developed from Sarvastivadah) 3.Dharmottariyah
(developed from Vatsiputriyah) 4.Bhadrayaniyah (developed from
Vatsiputriyah) 5.Sammatiyah (developed from Vatsiputriyah)
6.Sannagarikah (developed from Vatsiputriyah) 7.Mahisasakah
8.Dharmaguptah (developed from Mahisasakah) 9.Kasyapiyah (developed
from Sarvastivadah) 10.Sautrantika (developed from Sarvastivadah) ...
Under (I), the first five are stated as arising two centuries after the
Nirvana of Shakyamuni, and the remaining three a century later, dates
which are unreliable ... Under (II), the Haimavatah and the
Sarvastivadah are dated some 200 years after Nirvana; from the
Sarvastivadah soon arose the Vatsiputriyah, from whom soon arose the
third, fourth, fifth and sixth; then from the Sarvastivadah there arose
the seventh which gave rise to the eighth, and again, near the 400th
year, the Sarvastivadah gave rise to the ninth and soon after the tenth
... In the list of eighteen, the Sarvastivadah was not taken into
account, as it split into all the rest.
Eightfold Path ... The eight right ways for the Arhat leading to
Nirvana. The eight are: (1) Right View (2) Right Thought (3) Right
Speech (4) Right Action (5) Right Livelihood (6) Right Effort (7) Right
Remembrance (8) Right Concentration
Ekavyavaharika ... Ekavyavaharika in Sanskrit, Ekabyohara in
Pali. One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of Mahasanghikah, which
considered things as nominal, i.e. just names without any underlying
reality. They held that the mind is by its nature pure and radiant,
inaccessible to defilement.
Emptiness ... The Sanskrit word is Sunya. One of the key
concepts in Buddhism. Emptiness is an abstract idea representing
impermanence, unreality, instability, transience and relativity in the
nature of all existence. The doctrine states that all phenomena and the
ego have no reality, but are composed of a certain number of Skandhas
or elements, which disintegrate. The doctrine also states that
everything is unstable, possessing no self-essence or self-nature,
i.e., its own existence dependent or caused by the conditions of
others' existence. Emptiness is not nothing, but it is the condition of
existence of everything. It permeates all phenomena making possible
Enlightenment ... "Enlightenment" sometimes refers to the
attainment of Buddhahood, as the "Enlightened One" means Buddha. If one
is enlightened, one has a complete and perfect understanding of the
reality character of everything.
Evil World of Five Turbidities ... It refers to the world on
Earth. The Five Turbidities are 1.the Kalpa Turbidity the age of people
decreases and all kinds of diseases afflict people; 2.the View
Turbidity people's views start to degenerate; 3.the Affliction
Turbidity passions, delusions, desire, anger, stupidity, pride and
doubt prevail; 4.the Living Beings Turbidity human miseries increase
and happiness decreases; 5.the Life Turbidity the human lifespan
gradually diminishes to ten years.
Extinction ... It means having put the Two Obstacles, i.e. the
obstacle of afflictions and the obstacle of what is known, to an end.
It also means that the beings have transcended the Two Deaths, i.e.
glare-sectioned birth and death and changed birth and death.
Earth Store Bodhisattva ... Earth Store Bodhisattva (Sanskrit:
Kshitigarbha) is considered one of the Four Great Bodhisattvas because
he is foremost in the strength of vows.
Eight adversities ... Eight conditions under which it is
difficult to meet Buddhas and Bodhisattvas or hear the Dharma: (1)
rebirth in the hells, (2) rebirth as a hungry ghost (3) rebirth as an
animal, (4) rebirth in Uttarakuru (a world where life is so pleasant
that people have no motivation to practice the Dharma) (5) rebirth in
any long-life heaven (where one is also not motivated to seek the
Dharma), (6) rebirth with impaired faculties, (7) rebirth as an
intelligent, educated person in the mundane sense (such an individual
often looks down on religion and on the Dharma), and (8) rebirth in the
intermediate period between a Buddha and his successor (such our
current era). Note that even rebirth under "favorable" circumstances
(under the fourth and seventh conditions, for example) can be an
"adversity" with respect to the Buddha Dharma.
Eight consciousnesses ... Eight kinds of perception or
discernment that occur when our sense organs make contact with objects
in our environment. The eight consciousnesses are: (1) sight
consciousness, (2) hearing consciousness, (3) scent consciousness, (4)
taste consciousness, (5) touch consciousness, (6) mind consciousness,
(7) Mano consciousness (defiled mind), and (8) Alaya consciousness. The
first five consciousnesses correspond to the five senses. The sixth
consciousness (i.e.,our ordinary mind) "integrates the perceptions of
the five senses into coherent images and makes judgments about the
external world. The seventh consciousness [afflicted or defiled mind]
is said to be the active center of reasoning, calculation, and
construction or fabrication of individual objects. Buddhist scholars
have said that it is the source of clinging and craving, and thus the
origin of the sense of self or ego and the cause of all illusion that
arises from assuming the apparent to be real.
Eight groups ... Eight levels of powerful spiritual beings: (1)
The devas (heavenly beings whose bodies radiate light and who dwell in
the six heavenly realms); (2) the nagas; (3) the yakas , or flying
deities. (4) The gandharvas, who live only on perfumes and are the
musicians of the Indra, the Hindu god of heaven; (5) the Asuras , or
beings who rank just above humans in the six states of existence; (6)
the ganrudas, or golden-winged birds (the length between their wings is
more than three million miles, and they eat dragons); (7) the kinaras,
a horn-headed, semi-human species who are singers for Indra; and (8)
the maharajas, a category of naga deities with large abdomens. All
eight groups of beings in this list are invisible to humans.
Eight sufferings ... Birth, (2) old age, (3) disease, (4) death,
(5) separation from loved ones, (6) meeting uncongenial persons, (7)
unfulfilled wishes, and (8) the suffering associated with the five
Enlightenment ... The realization of the true nature of oneself
and the true nature of the universe and everyone in it. There are three
different kinds of enlightenment: (1) self-enlightenment, (2) the
ability to enlighten others, and (3) the ability to attain
self-enlightenment as well as to enlighten others. For more details,
see the first chapter of "Understanding Buddhism" by Master Chin Kung.
See also "Great Enlightenment."
Enlightenment ... A state in which one realizes one's own
Buddha-nature, or becomes self-realized. See also three kinds of
Enlightenment of Great Strength Bodhisattva ... See " Shurangama
Equal Enlightenment ... See "Ten Grounds."
Evil deeds ... See "ten evil acts."
Evil paths ... See "three evil paths."
Exalted powers ... (Sanskrit: abhidjnas, abhijina). Supernatural
powers attained by enlightened beings. They are: the heavenly step ,
which is a power of transmutable body that can travel through all space
without impediment; the heavenly eye, which can see without limitations
of time or space; the heavenly ear, which can hear all sounds and
understand all languages and voices; the knowledge of previous
existences of oneself and other beings; and asravakchaya, the knowledge
of the stream of life and exhaustion of worldly passions.
Externalists ... Adherents to non-Buddhist religions.
Ekajati-pratyekabuddas ... A Buddha-elect or a Bodhisattva who
is well on the path to go through the various stages to become a
Fa Yun ... Fa Yun (A.D. 467-529) was a great Dharma master of
the Satyasiddhi School, also a scholar of the Nirvana School. He wrote
a commentary on Lotus Sutra, which is generally accepted by Japanese
First Council ... Also known as 500 Council, Theravada Council",
The First Compilation, etc. The assembly of 500 leading Bhikhus
gathered for 3 months after the Buddha's death to compile the Buddhist
sutras. It was held at Cave of the Seven Leaves near Rajagaha..... In
the assembly, Ananda recited the Sutta-pitaka, Upali recited the Rules
of Disciplines of the Order, i.e., Vinaya-pitaka, and Kassapa recited
the Abhidhamma. Thus, the Tripitaka was adopted as a unity of doctrines
and opinions within the religious order, and also an orthodox teaching
for the Buddhists to follow.
Five Basic Afflications ... The five fundamental conditions of
the passions and delusions::: 1.wrong view, which are common to the
Trailokya 2.clinging or attachment in the Desire Realm 3.clinging or
attachment in the Form Realm 4.clinging or attachment in the Formless
Realm 5.the state of unenlightenment or ignorance in Trailokya, which
is the root-cause of all distressful delusion.
Five Bhikshus ... The first five of Buddha's converts::: in Pali
(P). in Sanskrit (S). Ajnata-Kaundinya. Ajnata-Kondanna... Bhadrika
Bhaddiya... Asvajit Assagi... Vaspa Vappa... Mahanaman Mahanama... They
followed Shakyamuni to practice asceticism, but left him when he
abandoned such practices. Later, when Shakyamuni attained Buddhahood,
his first sermon was preached in Deer Park to these men, who became his
Five Categories of Untranslated Terms ... Chinese T"ang Dynasty
Master of the Tripitaka Hsuan-Tsang established five categories of
words which should be left untranslated 1.the esoteric 2.words having
multiple meanings 3.words for things not existing in China 4.words not
translated in accord with already established precedent 5.words left
untranslated in order to give rise to wholesomeness and respect
Five Commandments ... See Five Precepts.
Five Eyes ... There are five kinds of eyes or vision
1.human eye - it is our flesh eye, an organ to see an object
with limitation, for instance, in darkness, with obstruction. 2.devine
eye - it can see in darkness and in distance, attainable by men in
dhyana (concentration/meditation). 3.wisdom eye - the eye of Arhat and
Two Vehicles i.e. the sound-hearers (Sravaka) and the Enlightened to
Conditions (Praetyka-Buddha). It can see the false and empty nature of
all phenomena. 4.dharma eye - the eye of Bodhisattva. It can see all
the dharmas in the world and beyond the world. 5.buddha eye - the eye
of Buddha or omniscience. It can see all that four previous eyes can
Five Forms of Decaying ... When the devas are dying, there are
five symptoms: 1. the flowers around the crown 2. the clothes being
dirty 3. having unpleasant smell in the body 4. sweating in armpit 5.
Being unhappy in seat
Five Messengers ... They are five messengers of Manjusri: 1.
Kesini 2. Upakesini 3. Citra 4. Vasumati 5. Akarsani
Five Offences ... The five rebellious acts or deadly sins: (1)
parricide, i.e., killing father (2) matricide, i.e., killing mother (3)
killing an arhat (4) shedding the blood of a Buddha (5) destroying the
harmony of the sangha, or fraternity.
Five Precepts ... Or Five Commandments for layman (1) No killing
(2) No stealing (3) No sexual misconduct/adultery (4) No lying (5) No
intoxicant ... It is essential for the rebirth in human realms.
Five Skandhas ... Or Five Aggregates, that is, the five
components of an intelligent beings, or psychological analysis of the
mind: 1.Matter or Form (rupa) - the physical form responded to the five
organs of senses, i.e., eye, ear, nose, tongue and body 2.Sensation or
Feeling (vedana) - the feeling in reception of physical things by the
senses through the mind 3.Recognition or Conception (sanjna) - the
functioning of mind in distinguishing and formulating the concept
4.Volition or Mental Formation (samskara) - habitual action, i.e., a
conditioned response to the object of experience, whether it is good or
evil, you like or dislike 5.Consciousness (vijnana) - the mental
faculty in regard to perception, cognition and experience
Five Vehicles ... Pancayana in Sanskrit. The Five Vehicles
conveying the karma-reward which differs according to the vehicle:
1.Human Vehicle - rebirth among human conveyed by observing the Five
Commandments (Five Precepts) 2.Deva Vehicle - among the devas by the
Ten Forms of Good Actions (Ten Wholesomeness) 3."Sound-Hearing" Arhat -
among the sravakas by the Four Noble Truths 4."Enlightened by
Conditions" Arhat - among the pratyeka-buddhas by the Twelve Nidanas
5.Bodhisattva - among the Bodhisattvas by the Six Paramita
Five Wisdoms ... 1.Wisdom of the Embodied Nature of Dharma Realm
- derived from amala-vijanana, i.e. pure ccconsciousness (or mind).
2.Wisdom of the Great Round Mirror - derived from alaya-vijanana, (8th
consciousness) reflecting all things. 3.Wisdom in regard to all things
equally and universally - derived from manovijanana (7th
consciousness). 4.Wisdom of profound insight, or discrimination, for
exposition and doubt - destruction - derived from the mind
consciousness (6th consciousness). 5.Wisdom of perfecting the double
work of self welfare and the welfare of others - derived from the five
senses (1st to 5th consciousness).
Flower Adornment Sutra ... One of the most important sutra in
Buddhism, particularly Mahayana Buddhism. There are many volumes in the
Sutra. It describes the entire Buddha Realm which is, of course, not
easy to visualize. See also Avatamsaka Sutra.
Foremost Paramita ... It refers to the perfect principle of
Middle Way. It is neither birth nor death, without dwelling in Nirvana.
It is the substance of everything beyond words and conceptual
Four Aspects (of Buddhist Dharma) ... (1) the teaching (2) the
principle (3) the practice (4) the fruit/reward/result
Four Castes ... The class system in ancient India: 1.Brahman -
the highest caste, 2.Kshatriyas (royal families) - the warrior,
3.Vaishyas (ordinary citizen), 4.Sudras (slaves).
Four Fearlessness ... There are four kinds of fearlessness, of
which there are two groups: A.Buddha's fearlessness arises from 1.his
omniscience 2.perfection of character 3.overcoming opposition 4.ending
of suffering. B.Bodhisattva's fearlessness arises from 1.powers of
memory 2.power of moral diagnosis and application of the remedy 3.power
of ratiocination 4.power of solving doubts
Four Fruition ... Also called the "Four Fruits", the "Four
Rewards", or the "Four Phala". These are four grades of arhatship,
namely: 1.Srota-apanna (Srota-apanna in Sanskrit, Sota-panna in Pali) :
has entered the stream of holy living; the first stage of the arhat,
that of a Sravaka 2.Sakrdagamin (Sakrdagamin in Sanskrit, Sakadagamin
in Pali) : comes to be born once more; the second grade of arhatship
involving only one birth 3.Anagamin: will not be reborn in this world
(i.e. Six Paths), but in the Form Realm or Formless Realm, where he
will attain to Nirvana 4.Arhat: enters Nirvana. All Karma of
reincarnation is destroyed. He also reaches a state of no longer
learning. He is the highest Saint in Hinayana in contrast with the
Bodhisattva as the Saint in Mahayana
Four Great Bodhisattva ... They represent the four major
characters of Bodhisattva: 1.Manjusri - Universal Great Wisdom
Bodhisattva 2.Samantabhadra - Universal Worthy Great Conduct
Bodhisattva 3.Ksitigarbha - Earth Treasury King Great Vow Bodhisattva
4.Avalokitesvara - Guan Shr Yin Great Compassion Bodhisattva
Four Great Elements ... All matters are formed and are composed
by four conditioned causes : (1) earth, which is characterized by
solidity and durability (2) water, which is characterized by
liquid/fluid and moisture (3) fire, which is characterized by energy
and warmth (4) wind, which is characterized by gas/air movement
Four Great Vows ... 1.Vow to take across the numberless living
beings. 2.Vow to cut off the endless afflictions. 3.Vow to study the
countless Dharma doors. 4.Vow to realize the supreme Buddha Way.
Four Holy Realms ... They are Sravaka, Praetyka-Buddha,
Bodhisattva, and Buddha.
Four Immeasurable Minds ... See Four Unlimited Minds.
Four Marks ... A mark is a notion of form. In Diamond Sutra, it
states that people attach to the Four Marks which hinder them from
Buddhahood. Conversely, those who see all marks as no mark are Buddhas.
The Four Marks are 1.a mark of self 2.a mark of others 3.a mark of
sentient being 4.a mark of life
Four Noble Truths ... It is the primary and fundamental
doctrines of Shakyamuni 1.Doctrine of Suffering - suffering is a
necessary attribute of sentient existence (Effect of Suffering)
2.Doctrine of Accumulation - accumulation of suffering is caused by
passions (Cause of Suffering) 3.Doctrine of Extinction - extinction of
passion (Effect of Happiness) 4.Doctrine of Path - Path leading to the
extinction of passion (Cause of Happiness); i.e. Eightfold Path. The
first two are considered to be related to this life, and the last two
to the life outside and beyond this world. The Four Noble Truths were
first preached to Shakyamuni's five former ascetic companions.
Four Phala ... See Four Fruition.
Four Reliance (to learning Buddhist Dharma) ... The four
standards of Right Dharma which buddhist should rely on or abide by:
1.to abide by the Dharma, not the person 2.to abide by the sutras of
ultimate truth, not the sutras of incomplete truth 3.to abide by the
meaning, not the word 4.to abide by the wisdom, not the
Four Seals ... They are: 1.All phenomena are impermanent. 2.All
Dharma are not-self. 3.The eternity is Nirvana. 4.All sensations are
Four Sects of Hinayana ... From the time of Ashoka, there were
four principal schools out of the Eighteen sects of Hinayana, namely
Mahasanghika, Sthavirah, Mulasarvastivadah and Sammatiyah.
Four Unlimited Mind ... The mind of Bodhisattva: 1. Kindness 2.
Compassion 3. Delight 4. Renunciation
Four Virtues ... The four Nirvana virtues: (1) Eternity or
permanence (2) Joy (3) Personality (4) Purity ... These four important
virtues are affirmed by the sutra in the transcendental or
Four Ways (of learning Buddhist Dharma) ... (1) Belief/faith (2)
Interpretation/discernment (3) Practice/performance (4)
Verification/assurance ... These are the cyclic process in learning a
Fourfold Assembly ... Or the Four Varga (groups) are bhiksu,
bhiksuni, upasaka and upasika, i.e. monks, nuns, male and female
Fundamental Face ... Also known as Fundamentally Unborn. A
common term used in Chan practice.
It is actually the fundamental mind, considered to be the
Buddha's Dharma Body. It is the form of the fundamental truth, so
called True Suchness or Bhutaththata.
Five grave offenses ... Offenses that cause rebirth in the
Uninterrupted Hell. They are: (1) killing one's father, (2) killing
one's mother, (3) killing an Arhat, (4) causing dissension within the
Sangha, and (5) causing the Buddhas to bleed.
Five Precepts ... 1.No Killing 2.No Stealing 3.No Sexual
Misconduct 4.No Lying 5.No Taking of Intoxicants.
Five raging skandas ... See "five skandas."
Five skandas ... Five "components," or "aggregates," that
represent the body and the mind. The five skandas are (1) form, (2)
feeling, (3) conception, (4) impulse, and (5) consciousness. In the
physical sense, form is the physical body and consciousness is the
faculty of awareness. The best known reference to the five skandas is
found in the Heart Sutra, which says that by realizing that the skandas
are intrinsically empty, Bodhisattva Guan Yin escaped all suffering.
Only by internalizing the Truth of emptiness can the cultivator escape
Five turbidities ... The five turbidities are: corruptions,
defilements, depravities, filths, and impurities. More specifically,
they are: (1) the defilement of views (when incorrect, perverse
thoughts and ideas are predominant); (2) the defilement of passions
(when all kinds of transgressions are exalted); (3) the defilement of
the human condition (when people are usually dissatisfied and unhappy),
(4) the defilement of the lifespan, when the human life-span as a whole
decreases; and (5) the defilement of the world age, when war and
natural disasters are rife. These wretched conditions, viewed from a
Buddhist perspective, can actually constitute aids to enlightenment, as
they can spur practitioners to more earnest cultivation.
Flower Adornment Assembly ... The assembly of sages who were
present when Shakyamuni Buddha spoke the Flower Adornment Sutra.
Flower Adornment Sutra ... The basic text of the Avatamsaka
School. The Flower Adornment Sutra, one of the longest Sutras, was
spoken by Shakyamuni immediately after he attained enlightenment. It is
traditionally believed that Buddha spoke the Sutra to an assembly of
Bodhisattvas and other high spiritual beings while he was in deep
samadhi. The Flower Adornment Sutra (Sanskrit: Avatamsaka Sutra) has
been described as the epitome of Buddhist thought, Buddhist sentiment
and Buddhist experience. It is studied by cultivators in all schools of
Mahayana Buddhism -- in particular, Pure Land and Chan.
Forty-Eight Great Vows ... A set of vows made by Bodhisattva
Dharamakara, who later attained Buddhahood and became Amitabha Buddha.
In the 48 Great Vows, Dharamakara pledged that once he became a Buddha,
he would create the Western Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss and would
guarantee rebirth there to anyone who would recite his name with utmost
sincerity, particularly at the time of death. Dharamakara fulfilled
this vow when he attained Buddhahood and became Amitabha Buddha. See
also Dipankara, Dharamakara. Dharamakara's 48 Great Vows are listed and
described on the page that summarizes "The Infinite Life Sutra."
Four constituents ... Earth, water, wind, and fire.
Four fruits ... Four levels of enlightenment, culminating in
Arhatship. Arhats are no longer subject to rebirth in samsara.
Four grades of disciples ... A term that refers to four levels
of disciples in the Small Vehicle school of Buddhism. These levels are,
starting with the lowest: (1) the Srotapana, who lives in this saha
world but has reversed the cycle of birth and death and will never have
to be reborn here; (2) Sakridagamin, who is destined to have only one
more rebirth in this world before attaining nirvana; (3) the Anagamin ,
who has advanced beyond this world and has been freed from the cycle of
birth and death, and (4) the Arhat, who is free from all attachment to
existence and can attain nirvana whenever he chooses to pass from this
Four Grand Vows ... Four great vows taken by Bodhisattvas. For
details, see the section titled "The First Practice" in Part 3 of the
Chin Kung commentary titled "The Three Conditions."
Four Great Bodhisattvas ... There are four great Bodhisattvas:
Manjushri Bodhisattva, who is foremost in wisdom; Guan Yin (Sanskrit:
Avalokiteshvara), who is foremost in great compassion; Earth Store
(Sanskrit: Kshitigarbha) , who is foremost in the strength of vows; and
Universal Worthy (Sanskrit: Samatrabhadra), who is foremost in
Four great debts ... Debts to (1) one's parents, (2) the Three
Treasures (Buddha, Dharma, Sangha), (3) the founders of the
nation/enlightened temporal leaders and (4) all sentient beings ("all
men were my fathers, all women my mothers" in past lives).
Four kinds of birth ... Four ways in which sentient beings are
born: (1) from the womb, (2) from eggs, (3) from heat and moisture, and
(4) by metamorphosis. four oral evils Lying, erotic language, evil talk
(impolite, scornful, or hostile language), and two-tongued talk (using
language to divide other people's friendship and mutual trust).
Fourfold assembly ... The great assembly of monks, nuns, laymen,
Gatha ... Ancient Indian verse.
Giving ... See charity.
Gokulika ... See Kaukkutikah.
Good Roots ... There are eleven kinds of good roots: 1.faith
2.shame 3.remorse 4.absence of greed 5.absence of hatred 6.absence of
stupidity 7.vigor 8.transquility 9.non-laxity 10.non-harming
11.renunciation ... These are eleven good Dharmas of the fifty one
Dharmas belonging to the heart.
Gotama ... Gotama in Pali, Gautama in Sanskrit. The surname of
the Shakya clan into which Shakyamuni was born. Another name for
Gui Ji ... Gui Ji (A.D. 632-682) was a great Dharma master of
the Dharmalaksana School. His writing on the Lotus Sutra was so
remarkable that was generally accepted and interpreted by other great
Gave up ineffably ineffable numbers of bodies and lives ...
(Said of Shakyamuni Buddha in Chapter 40 of the Flower Adornment
Sutra.) It means that he renounced his body and life and gave them up
to help others countless times during countless lifetimes.
Good knowing advisors ... Dharma Masters who lecture on the
Good Wealth ... The main protagonist in the Chapter 40 of the
Flower Adornment Sutra, "The Chapter on Entering the Inconceivable
State of Liberation Through the Practices and Vows Of Universal Worthy
Bodhisattva." Seeking enlightenment, Good Wealth (Sanskrit: Sudhana)
visited and studied with 53 spiritual advisors, and attained Buddhahood
in one lifetime. The name "Good Wealth" is derived from the fact that
when Sudhana was born, myriad treasures appeared in his father's home.
See also "Sudhana."
Great Means Expansive Buddha Flower Adornment Sutra ... See
"Flower Adornment Sutra."
Great Enlightenment ... The highest of all enlightenments. It is
the combination of three different kinds of enlightenment:
self-enlightenment, the ability to enlighten others, and the ability to
attain self-enlightenment as well as to enlighten others. See also
Chapter 1 of "Understanding Buddhism."
Great Mind ... See "Bodhi Mind."
Great Strength Bodhisattva ... (Chinese: "Da Shi Zhi.") One of
Amitabha Buddha's two great Bodhisattva companions in the Pure Land.
(The other is Guan Yin.) In pictures depicting Amitabha Buddha, Great
Strength Bodhisattva often stands to Amitabha's right (our left). He
often carries one or more flowers and is recognizable by the water jar
(jeweled pitcher) adorning his crown.
Great Vehicle ... A term used to describe what is known in Pure
Land study as the Bodhisattva path. As Master Chin Kung explains in
Part 3 of his commentary titled The Three Conditions,. "The Buddha's
'Great Vehicle' teachings are those that encourage not only
self-realization, but also the cultivation of compassion to help all
suffering beings.The Buddha also expounded some 'Small Vehicle'
teachings, which 'carry' fewer people to Buddhahood because they solely
stress self-realization." See also "Mahayana."
Grounds ... See "Ten Grounds."
Guan Yin ... The Bodhisattva of Compassion, often referred to as
"Great Compassion Bodhisattva." One of Amitabha Buddha's two greatest
Bodhisattva companions in the Pure Land. Guan Yin stands to Amitabha
Buddha's left (our right) in many pictures and statues. (The
Bodhisattva who stands on the other side of Amitabha is is Da Shi Zhi,
or "Great Strength Bodhisattva.") Guan Yin is often recognizable by the
small Buddha adorning Her crown.
Guatama Buddha ... See "Shakyamuni Buddha."
Gatha ... Stanza or the versified part of a discourse
Gatis ... Evil realms
Haimavatah ... One of the Hinayana School, a subdivision of
Sthaviradin. It was a school of the snow mountains, a schismatic
Hau Tou ... Intense concentration on a question-word which
defies any answer and allows no answer at all. Literally, it refers to
the source of word before it is uttered. It is a method used in Ch'an
Sect to arouse the doubt. The practitioner meditates on questions as
who is reciting the Buddha's name?. He does not rely on experience or
reasoning. Sometimes, it is also known as Kung-an.
Heavenly Eye ... See Devine Eye.
Hetavadinah ... Another name of Sarvastivadah.
Hinayana ... Also called Small Vehicle or Liberated Vehicle,
which refers to Sravaka and Praetyka-Buddha. It is a school of
Buddhism, popular in Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, hence also known as
Southern Buddhism, in contrast with Northern Buddhism or Mahayana, the
form mainly prevalent from Nepal to Japan.
Hinayana is sometimes described as self-benefiting, and Mahayana
as self-benefiting for the benefit of others. Another difference is
that Pali is the general literary language in Hinayana while Sanskrit
of Mahayana. See also Theravada.
Hsu Yun ... A great Ch'an master in China. He died in 1959 at
the age of 120.
Hua-yen School ... It is based on the Avatamsaka Sutra and was
founded by Tu Shun in China.
Hui Neng ... The Sixth Patriarch of Zen (Ch'an) Sect in
Heavenly realms ... Realms where devas dwell. They are:
thekama-heavens, or heavens of desire (spheres where lust still
exists); the rupadhatu-heavens, or four heavens of ethereal form (where
sexual desires and desires for delicious food exist but where material
beauty and magnificent surroundings do and where inhabitants enjoy
states of mental ecstasy; and the arupadhatu-heavens, or formless
heavens (worlds of pure abstract thought and nothing has material form.
The inhabitants of this realm have no bodies, just feelings. The devas
who dwell in the six heavenly realms are extremely high and blessed
beings; however, they can have not escaped the cycle of birth and
death, and can backslide into the lower realms when their merits are
exhausted, unless they reach the ultimate goal of Buddhahood.
Heroic Gate Sutra ... See "Shurangama Sutra."
Hinayana Buddhism ... See "Small Vehicle."
Hsuan Hua ... The Venerable Master Hsuan Hua, a renowned teacher
of both Pure Land and Chan Buddhism, was the founder of the Dharma
Realm Buddhist Association, the Dharma Realm Buddhist University, the
City of Ten Thousand Buddhas in Talmage, CA, and the Buddhist Text
Translation Society, the publisher of several of the books presented,
excerpted, or summarized on this Web site.
Hungry ghosts ... Sprits, or demons, who are always hungry
because they have pinpoint mouths and ravenous appetites. One of the
three evil realms is the realm of hungry ghosts.
Ignorance ... Sanskrit word is Avidya. Literally, it means
darkness without illumination. Actually it refers to illusion without
englightenment, i.e., the illusory phenomena for realities. Avidya is
the first or the last of the Twelve Nidanas. Ignorance, karma and
desire are the three forces that cause reincarnation.
Infinite Life Sutra ... One of the three most important Sutras
in Pure Land Study. (The other two primary Pure Land Sutras are the
Amitabha Sutra and the Contemplation Sutra.) In the Infinite Life
Sutra, Shakyamuni Buddha explains how Amitabha Buddha created the Pure
Land and made 48 Great Vows promising that anyone who repeated his name
with a sincere desire to be reborn in the Pure Land would be reborn
there. The Sutra is summarized on the page titled "The Contemplation
Jainism ... A religion founded by Nataputta, who was a royal
clan of the Nata tribe in ancient India at the time of Shakyamuni.
Similar to Buddhism, its basic doctrine is non-materialistic
Jataka ... The sutra to narrate the birth stories of Shakyamuni
in present life, past lives, and effects related to the past lives and
the present lives.
Jetavaniyah ... Or Jetiyasailah, school of the dwellers on Mount
Jeta, which is a sub division of the Sthavirah, one of the Hinayana
Also known as Caitya-vandana, who paid reverence to or worship a
stupa. Caitya is a religious monument or stupa in which the relics of
the Buddha or other reverend sages are placed. This sect held that the
Buddha's discourse was transcendent, his enlightenment was already
determined when he was born, that he could violate the natural laws,
and could be reborn wherever he wished (in his previous lives as a
Jetavanna Grove ... A famous monastery Bodhimandala of
Shakyamuni Buddha, where he spoke of many sutras. It was located in
Savatthi, the capital of savatthi. The land was bought by a wealthy
merchant Anathapindika with as much gold as would cover the ground, and
the houses were built by Prince Jeta for the Buddha and his
Ji Zang ... Ji Zang (A.D. 549-623) was a great Dharma master of
Madhyamika, who wrote five books regarding the Lotus Sutra.
Jie Huan ... He was a great Dharma master in Sung Dynasty.
Practicing in Chan School, he used the concept of Chan to interpret the
Jnanagupta ... He translated the Lotus Sutra in A.D. 601,
jointly with Dharmagupta.
Kalpa ... Kalpa in Sanskrit, Kappa in Pali. It is a fabulous
period of four hundred and thirty two million years of mortals,
measuring the duration of world. It is the period of time between other
creation and recreation of a world or universe.
The four kalpas of formation, existence, destruction and
emptiness as a complete period, is called maha kalpa or great kalpas.
Each great kalpa is subdivided into four asamkhyeya-kalpas or kalpas.
Each of the four kalpas is subdivided into twenty antara-kalpas, or
small kalpas. There are different distinctions and illustrations of
kalpas. In general, a small kalpa is represented as 16,800,000 years, a
kalpa as 336,000,000 years and a mahakalpa is 1,334,000,000
Kapilavatsu ... The capital of Shakya kingdom. The king of
Kapilavatsu was Suddhodana, who was the father of Shakyamuni. The
present-day Kapilavatsu is in Nepal.
Karma ... Karman in Sanskrit, Kamma in Pali. It means action,
deed, moral duty, effect. Karma is moral action which causes future
retribution, and either good or evil transmigration. It is also moral
kernal in each being which survive death for further rebirth.
Kasyapiya ... One of the Hinayana sect, a subdivision of
Kaukkutikah (Gokulika) ... One of the Hinayana sect. A branch of
Mahasanghikah. They held that there is no hapiness whatsoever in the
world, just suffering.
King Bimblisara ... The king of Magadha, one of the four great
kingdoms in ancient India. He was devoted in Buddhism, and was
converted to the follower of Shakyamuni Buddha. He was the one who
built Bamboo Grove Park in Rajagaha, the first Bodhi mandala in
Koan ... A Japanese term taken from the Chinese Kung-an.
Koliya ... The royal clan to which the mother of Shakyamuni,
Maya belonged. The kings of the Koliya and Shakya were brothers, and
the families were inter-married. Indeed, Yasodhara, the wife of
Shakyamuni, was also a princess of Koliya royal house.
Kosala ... Kosala in Pali, Kausala in Sanskrit. One of the four
great states (i.e., Kosala, Magadha, Vansa & Avanti) in ancient
India. The Shakya tribe to which Shakyamuni belonged was under the
power and influence of Kosala. The capital of Kosala was Savatthi where
the famous monastery (Bodhi-mandala) Jetavanna Grove was located.
Ksatriya ... Ksatriya in Sanskrit, Khattiya in Pali. The second
of the four Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni, they were the
royal caste, the noble landlord, the warriors and the ruling
Ksitigarbha ... Earth Store Bodhisattva. He is now the guardian
of the earth. Depicted with the alarum staff with its six rings, he is
accredited with power over the hells and is devoted to the saving of
all creatures between the Nirvana of Shakyamuni and the advent of
Maitreya. He vows that while the hell is not empty, he will not attain
Buddhahood. As his vow is the greatest, he is also known as The Great
Kung-an ... In Zen, it is a word, or a phrase, or a story
couched in irrational language which cannot be solved by intellectual
processes, but whose meaning must burst on the mind directly. Kung-an
is used as an exercise in breaking the false thoughts, developing the
deep intuition, and achieving a state of awareness.
Kushala ... Sanskrit word. It means good Karma.
Kusinara ... Kusinara in Pali, Kusinagara in Sanskrit. The
village where Shakyamuni died, and the capital of the ancient kingdom
Kala ... (Sanskrit) An inconceivably large number.
Karma ... The law of cause and effect. The existence of
favorable or unfavorable karma depends on whether past deeds were good
or evil. Most people have both good and bad karma because they have
performed both good and bad deeds in the past. So most people's lives
are a mixture of misery and happiness. Karma is not limited to actions
taken during one's present life, but can extend back into the infinite
past and forward into the infinite future.Thus, it is karma that forms
the connecting link between one's consecutive lives. Karma applies
mostly to the acts of individuals, but it may also be the overall
result of actions by many people acting as a group, such as groups of
persons, family groups, groups of nations, and the like -- in other
words, there are such things as group karma, family karma and even
national karma. Buddhas teach us how to break the fetters of karma,
escape from the cycle of birth and death, and attain
Koti ... Sanskrit for "ten million."
Ksana ... The shortest measure of time; it is said that sixty
ksana equal one finger-snap,ninety ksana elapse during the duration of
a thought; and 4,500 ksanas equal a minute.
Kshatriyas ... The warrior caste; the second highest-ranking
social class in India. (The highest is the brahmin caste.)
Kumbhandas ... Barrel-shaped ghosts. Also called winter-melon
ghosts because of their shape. Kumbhandas are nightmare ghosts that
frighten sleeping people and have the power to prevent their victims
from moving or screaming; the victim wants to scream but cannot, wants
to squirm away but cannot, because the kumbhanda sits on the victim.
Then the victim cannot do anything.
Law ... Ruling principle, universal basis, essential element,
i.e. fundamental law.
Law of Causal Condition ... The fundamental doctrine of Buddhism
that all phenomena in the universe are produced by causation. Since all
phenomena result from the complicated causes and effects, all existing
things in the universe are inter-dependent, i.e., no self nature or
existence on its own. Moreover, all phenomena and things are
impermanent (i.e. changing constantly). It was to this law that
Shakyamuni was awakened when he attained enlightenment.
Law of Cause and Effect ... The Law of Cause and Effect treats
of the Law of Causal condition as it relates to an individual.
Law of Dependent Origination ... It states that all phenomenon
arise depending upon a number of casual factors. In other word, it
exists in condition that the other exist; it has in condition that
others have; it extinguishes in condition that others extinguish; it
has not in condition that others have not. For existence, there are
twelve links in the chain: Ignorance is the condition for karmic
activity; Karmic activity is the condition for consciousness;
Consciousness is the condition for the name and form; Name and form is
the condition for the six sense organs; Six sense organs are the
condition for contact; Contact is the condition for feeling; Feeling is
the condition for emotional love/craving; Emotional love/craving is the
condition for grasping; Grasping is the condition for existing;
Existing is the condition for birth; Birth is the condition for old age
and death; Old age and death is the condition for ignorance; and so
Law of Karma ... The results of actions, which produce effect
that may be either good or bad. It is derived from the Law of Causal
Condition (Law of Cause and Effect).
Lokottaravadinah ... One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of
Mahasanghikah, which held the view that all in the world is merely
phenomenal and that reality exists outside it. They held that the body
of the Buddha was transcendental from the time of his birth to the time
of his death. Consequently, his behaviour as a human was merely a
Lotus Sutra ... Short name of the Sutra of the Lotus Flower of
the Wonderful Law, or Saddharma-pundarik-sutra in Sanskrit. It consists
of a series of sermons delivered by Shakyamuni towards the end of his
preaching ministry. It is one of the most important sutras of Manayana
Buddhism. Basically, it states that all sentient beings can attain
Buddhahood, and nothing less than this is the appropriate final goal of
all Buddhists. It also states that the Buddha is eternal, and the
supreme form of Buddhist practice is the way of the Bodhisattva. Lotus
flower is used to describe the brightness and pureness of the One
Lumbini Park ... The birthplace of Shakyamuni Buddha, which lay
between the state of the Shakyas and the Koliyas.
Lamps of the Worlds ... Past, present, and future Buddhas
Land of Ultimate Bliss ... See "Pure Land."
Lee Ping-Nan ... See Li Ping-Nan.
Left-home people ... See "Sangha."
Li Ping-Nan ... Master Chin Kung's Dharma teacher. Professor
Professor Li's Dharma teacher was Patriarch Yin Guang. Some of
Professor Li's are presented on the page titled "Enlightenment in One
Lifetime ." Also see Professor Li's entry in the Bibliography.
Lions among Men ... Buddhas.
Lokesvararaja ... (English: "World-Sovereign-King"). A Buddha
who taught the Dharma to Amitabha Buddha before Amitabha attained
Buddhahood. At that time, Amitabha was living in the saha world as a
monk named Dharamakara.
Longer Amitabha Sutra ... See "Infinite Life Sutra."
Lotus grades ... The nine possible degrees of rebirth in the
Western Pure Land. (Pure Land inhabitants are born from lotus
blossoms.) The more merits and virtues the cultivator accumulates while
on earth, the higher the cultivator's lotus grade, and the less time
the cultivator has to spend inside a lotus blossom before rebirth
occurs. (For more details, see the fourteenth through sixteenth
contemplations that are spoken of in "The Contemplation Sutra.")
Magadha ... One of the four great kingdoms (i.e. Magadha,
Kosala, Vansa, and Avanti) in ancient India. The capital of Magadha was
Rajagaha. The king of Magadha, Bimblisara, became the follower of
Mahakasyapa ... Mahakassapa in Pali, Mahakasyapa in Sanskrit. He
was a Brahman in Magadha, who became one of the Ten Great Disciples of
Shakyamuni Buddha. He was the foremost in ascetism. He is regarded as
the First Patriarch because he responded with a smile when Shakyamuni
Buddha held up a golden flower in a sermon. This is known to be the
transmission of heart-seal. After the death of Shakyamuni, he was the
leader of the disciples. He convened the First Council to compile the
Buddhist canon, i.e. Tripitika. Mahakassapa is supposed to be living in
Kukkutapada (Cock Foot Mountain) in Magadha, on which he enters into
Mahamaya ... The mother of Shakyamuni. She was the Koliyan
Princess and married to Suddhodana. She died seven days after giving
birth to Shakyamuni.
Mahapajapati ... She was the sister of Mahamaya, the mother of
Shakyamuni. They both married King Suddhodana. Maya died seven days
after the birth of Shakyamuni. Mahapajapati then became the step/foster
mother of Shakyamuni, and treated Shakyamuni so kind as her son, Nanda.
Nanda was one of the Ten Great Disciples of Shakyamuni. After the death
of King Suddhodana, Mahapajapati was ordained to be the first woman
admitted in Buddhist order.
Maha-Parinibbana-Sutta ... Maha-Parinibbana-Sutta in Pali and
Maha-Parinirvana-Sutra in Sanskrit. Also known as the Sutra of the
Great Nirvana/Decease, recording the final sermon, the death and the
funeral of Shakyamuni.
Maha-prajna-paramita-sutra ... The Sutra was delivered by
Shakyamuni in four places at sixteen assemblies. It consists of 600
volumes as translated by Hsuan-tsang. It is the fundamental
philosophical work of the Mahayana Buddhism, the formulation of wisdom,
which is the sixth paramita.
Mahasanghika ... Literally means the Member of the Great Order,
During the First Council, when the Sthavira or elder disciples
assembled in the cave after the Buddha's death, and the other disciples
(called to be Mahasanghika) assembled outside the cave. Both compiled
the Tripitaka. However, the former emphasized on the rules of
disciplines in the monastic community, while the latter concerned the
spread of the spirit of Buddhism in lay community. As sects, the
principal division took place in the Second Council.
Mahasanghika and Sthavira are known as two earliest sects in
Hinayana. Mahasanghika is said to be the basis of the development of
the Mahayana Buddhism, while Sthavira of the Theravada Buddhism.
Mahasattva ... There are seven meanings of Mahasattva: 1.He has
perfected great roots. 2.He has great wisdom. 3.He believes the great
Dharma. 4.He understands the great principle. 5.He cultivates the great
conduct. 6.He passes through great kalpas. 7.He seeks the great
Mahaviharavasinah ... A subdivision of the Sthavirah school,
which opposed to the Mahayana system.
Mahayana ... Also called Great Vehicle or Bodhisattva Vehicle.
It is a school of Buddhism prevalent in China, Korea, Japan, Mongolia,
Tibet and other places in the Far East. It is also called Northern
Mahayana is described as seeking Buddhahood and transforming
beings, thus self-benefiting for the benefits of the others.
Mahisasakah ... One of the Hinayana school, a branch of
Sarvastivadah founded 300 years after the Nirvana, but the doctrines of
the school are said to be similar to those of the Mahasanghika.
Literally means a ruler who converted or rectified his land or people.
The school denied reality to past and future, but maintained the
reality of the present. Similarly, the school rejected the doctrine of
the void and the non-ego, the production of taint by the Five
consciousness, the theory of nine kinds of non-activity, and so on.
They held that enlightenment came suddenly rathern than
Maitreya ... Sanskrit word, literally means friendly and
benevolent. He will be the next Buddha in our world. He is now
preaching in Tusita Heaven. He is usually represented as the fat
Mandala ... A diagrammatic circular picture used as an aid in
meditation or ritual, sometimes a symbol of the universe, or a
representation of a deed of merit. Sometimes, it represents a place of
enlightenment, where Buddhas and Bodhisattvas are existent. Mandalas
also reveal the direct retribution of each of the ten worlds of beings
(see Ten Realms). Each world has its mandala which represents the
originating principle that brings it to completion. It is one of the
three mystics in Tantric Buddhism.
Manjusri Bodhisattva ... As one of the Four Great Bodhisattva,
he is the one with the greatest wisdom. Manjusri is said to have:
wonderful head, universal head, glossy head, revered head, wonderful
virtue and wonderfully auspicious. Manjusri, the guardian of wisdom, is
often placed on the left of Shakyamuni, while Visvabhadra, the guardian
of law, is on the right. Manjusri always rides on a lion. He is
described as the ninth predecessor or Buddha-ancestor of Shakyamuni. In
the past lives, he is also described as being the parent of many
Buddhas and have assisted the Buddha into existence. He is the Chief of
the Bodhisattva, and the chief disciple of the Buddha. He is the object
for the pilgrimages visiting the Wu Tai Shan of Shansi Province in
Mantra ... Sanskrit words signifying a sacred word, verse or
syllable which embodies in sound of some specific deity or supernatural
power. It is one of the three mystics in Tantric Buddhism.
Mara ... Literally, "murderer". The Evil One who "takes" away
the wisdom-life of all living beings.
Mark ... Lakana in Sanskrit word. It is a notion of form. In
Diamond Sutra, it says "All with marks is empty and false. If you can
see all marks as no marks then you see the Tathagata." See also Four
Matter ... Or Form or Thing. The Sanskrit word is Rupa. It is
defined as that which has resistence, or which changes and disappear,
i.e., the phenomenal. There are inner and outer forms representing the
organs and objects of sense respectively. Rupa is one of the Six
Bahya-ayatanna or Six Gunas and also one of the Five Skandhas.
Maudgalyayana ... See Ten Great Disciples of Shakyamuni.
Meditation ... The fifth Paramita. There are numerous methods
and subjects of meditation. See also Contemplation.
Middle Path ... See Middle Way.
Middle Way ... It denotes the mean between two extremes,
particularly between realism and nihilism, eternal substantial
existence and annihilation. This doctrine opposes the rigid categories
of existence and non-existence in the interest of a middle way. This is
the utlimate truth of Buddhism, and the reality character of all
Buddha. See also Eight Negations.
Migadaya ... See Deer Park.
Morality ... The second Paramita, to take precepts and to keep
the moral laws
Mrgadava ... See Deer Park.
Mudra ... One of the three mystics in Tantric Buddhism, which is
the symbolic gesture of hand fingers.
Mulasarvastivada ... It was a branch of the Sarvastivadin sect,
which asserted the doctrine of the reality of things. It held that all
is produced by causative action, and everything is dynamic, not static.
Mulasavastivada is a school of reality of all phenomena, one of the
early Hinayana sects, said to have been formed, about 300 years after
the Nirvana of Shakyamuni. Later it subdivided into five:
Mulasarvastivadah Dharmaguptah Kasyapiyah Mahisasakah Vatsiputriyah
Nagarjuna ... A Bodhisattva in South India, born into a Brahman
family about 800 years after the Nirvana of Shakyamuni, i.e., 200 AD.
He was the founder of Madhyamika (Middle Way) and Sunya (emptiness). He
had plenty of writings in Buddhism. He was one of the chief
philosophers of Mahayana Buddhism.
Nataputta ... The founder of Jain religion, i.e. Jainism.
Nayutas ... A Sanskrit word interpreted as a numeral, 100,000 or
one million or ten million.
Nine Realms ... The nine realms of error, or subjection to
i.e. all the realms of the living except the tenth and highest, the
Buddha-realm. The nine realms are: the hell, the hungry ghost, the
animal, the man, the Asura, the gods, the Arhat (sound hearer), the
Arhat (enlightened to condition), and the Bodhisattra.
Nine Stages of Lotus Flowers ... Or Nine Grades, Classes of
Flowers, i.e. upper superior, middle superior, lower superior, upper
medium, middle medium, lower medium, upper inferior, middle inferior
and lower inferior, which represent ninefold future life into Pure
Land. The nine grades, or rewards, of the Pure Land, corresponding to
the nine grades of development in the previous life, upon which
depends, in the next life, one's distance from Amitabha, the consequent
aeons that are required to approach Amitabha, and whether one's lotus
will open early or late.
Nirvana ... Nirvana is a Sanskrit word which is originally
as "perfect stillness". It has many other meanings, such as liberation,
eternal bliss, tranquil extinction, extinction of individual existence,
unconditioned, no rebirth, calm joy, etc. It is usually described as
transmigration to "extinction", but the meaning given to "extinction"
varies... There are four kinds of Nirvana: 1.Nirvana of pure, clear
self-nature 2.Nirvana with residue 3.Nirvana without residue 4.Nirvana
of no dwelling
Nirvana of pure, clear self-nature ... It is commonly possessed
all individual sentient beings. It is not subject to birth and death,
nor increase and decrease. Nirvana with residue... The cause, but not
all the effect (Karma) of reincarnation is cut off and removal of the
obstacle of affliction, but not that of what is known (Dharma), thus
the body which remains is subject to birth and death. Those beings are
Arhats. Nirvana without residue... Both the cause and effect of
reincarnation are extinguished, both afflictions and what is known
(Dharma) are extinguished. All kinds of suffering are externally in
stillness. There is no further residue. Those beings are Bodhisattva.
Nirvana of no dwelling... With the aid of interactive wisdom and
compassion, those who do not dwell in birth and death, nor in Nirvana,
but continue to cross living beings over forever.
No Strife Samadhi ... Strife means debating and fighting. It is
kind of Samadhi, i.e. right concentration/meditation. To cultivate and
attain this Samadhi, one will not argue or angry with others as one has
no differentiation between self and others.
Nagas ... (Literally, dragons.) A class of deities with great
Nayuta ... (Sanskrit) A very large number.
Nine realms ... The entire universe.
Nirvana ... (1) Enlightenment. (2) The point in time at which a
Buddha or other enlightened being leaves our world and moves on to the
Buddha-realms. See also "Parinirvana."
Nine Realms ... All realms in the cosmos, with the exception of
the Buddha realms.
Om ... The most simple, yet sacred mantra in Buddhism, also used
in other Indian religions.
One Buddha Vehicle ... Also known as Supreme Vehicle. In
the Five Vehicles are established to facilitate us to understand the
reality of Buddhahood. The teachings of One Buddha Vehicle is the
ultimate, perfect and complete truth of Buddha, which is unconceivable
and beyond words, as stated in the Lotus Sutra.
On the causal ground, I used mindfulness of the Buddha to gain
patience with the non-production of Dharmas. This is a passage that
occurs near the end of the section of the Shurangama Sutra titled
"Chapter on the Foremost Attainment of Great Strength Bodhisattva
through Buddha Recitation" (one of the five principle Sutras used in
Pure Land Study). The passage means that when Great Strength
Bodhisattva first resolved to attain enlightenment, during periods when
he felt he was making no progress on his quest, he cultivated patience
using the Pure Land technique of mindfulness of the Buddha.
Subsequently, by continuing to practice this technique, he attained
Ou Yang Jing Wu ... A Buddhist scholar who founded the Zhi Na
school in Nanjing. In 1945, Ou Yang delivered a lecture titled
"Buddhism Is Not a Religion and Not a Philosophy, but Is Essential in
This Age." Master Chin Kung quotes from this book in Chapters 1 and 3
of his book, "Understanding Buddhism."
Outflow ... A characteristic that is common to all the various
phenomena in the world, which are made up of separate, discrete
elements -- that is, "with outflows," or with no intrinsic nature of
their own. Merits and virtues with "outflows" are said to be
conditioned -- that is, they lead to rebirth within samsara.
Conversely, unconditioned merits and virtues do not have outflows and
can therefore bring about liberation from the cycle of birth and
Pali ... The language of the Theravada (Hinayana) Buddhist
Canon, alleged to be the language used by the Buddha.
Paramita ... It means to cross over from this shore of births
deaths to the other shore which is the Nirvana... The Six Paramita or
means of so doings are (1) dana - charity/giving (2) sila -
moral/conduct/taking precepts (3) ksanti - patience (4) virya -
vigor/devotion/energy (5) dhyana - contemplation/meditation (6) prajna
- wisdom... The Ten Paramita are the aboveee plus (7) upaya - use of
expedient or proper means (8) pranidhana - vow of bodhi and helpfulness
(9) bala - strength (10) intelligence
Childers gives the list of ten as the perfect exercise of
charity/almsgiving, morality, renunciation, wisdom, energy/effort,
patience, truth, resolution/determination, kindness/universal love and
resignation/equanimity. Each of the ten is divided into ordinary,
superior and unlimited perfection, making up to thirty in total.
Parinirvana ... Not death, but perfect rest, i.e. the perfection
all virtues and the elimination of all evils.. Also a release from the
suffering of transmigration and an entry to a state of fullest
Patience ... Endurance, the third Paramita. There are groups of
three, four, five, six, ten and fourteen, indicating various forms of
patience, equanimity, repression, forbearance, both in mundane and
spiritual things. Patience refers to bearing insult and distress
Pratyeka-Buddha ... The second stage in Hinayana, the first or
initial being that of Sravaka. He is enlightened to the conditions,
i.e. the Law of Dependent Origination. He seeks enlightenment for
himself and understands deeply Nidanas. He attains his enlightenment
alone, independently, or a teacher, and with the object of attaining
Nirvana and his own salvation rather than that of others.
Prajna ... There are three kinds of Prajna: (1) Prajna of
(2) Prajna of contemplative illumination (3) prajna of the
characteristics of actuality... The last one is the ultimate wisdom,
which is the wisdom of Buddha. Also see wisdom.
Prajnativadinah ... One of the Hinayana School, a branch of the
Mahasanghikah, which held the view that there was a distinction between
mere concepts and real entities (referred to in Buddha's teaching) i.e.
phenomenality and reality, based on Prajatisastra.
Pure Land ... Generally refers to the Paradise of the West,
over by Amitabha. Also known as the Land of Ultimate Bliss. Other
Buddhas have their own Pure Lands, all of which are the adornment of
merits and virtues in moral or spiritual cultivation. The Pure-Land
Sect whose chief tenet is salvation by faith in Amitabha; it is the
popular cult in China and Japan.
Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss ... This is the Buddha Land of
Buddha. In Amitabha Sutra, there is full description about this Pure
Land. This is the world of utmost joy without suffering. With the
spiritual power of Amitabha Buddha, all beings in this world
willnderstand Buddhism easily and practise diligently, and attain
enlightenment eventually. Therefore by reciting Amitabha Buddha's name,
Buddhist followers hope that they will be born in this Pure Land after
their lives on earth. See also Nine Stages of Lotus Flowers.
Pure Land of Vairocana ... The Lotus world, also the Pure Land
Buddhas in their Sambhogakaya or Reward Body/Enjoyment Body. Above the
wind or air circle is a sea of fragrant water, in which is the
thousand-pedal lotus with its infinite variety of worlds. Hence, the
meaning is the Lotus which contains a store of myriads of worlds.
Paramitas ... Six stages of study and practice followed by the
Bodhisattvas in their progress to Buddhahood. They are (1) charity, or
alms-giving; (2) discipline, or observance of precepts; (3)
forbearance, or patient resignation; (4) energy; (5) concentration; and
(6) wisdom. Although, there are usually said to be six paramitas,
sometimes their number is expanded to ten (with the addition of
expedients, vows, power, and knowledge).
Parinirvana ... The great Nirvana (enlightenment) of the
also "nirvana ." peeled off his skin for paper, split his bones to
fashion brushes, [and] drew blood for ink (Said of Shakyamuni Buddha in
Chapter 40 of the Flower Adornment Sutra.) In his most ancient lives,
during prehistoric times, there were no such things as paper, brushes,
or ink, so he wrote out countless Sutras on his own peeled-off skin
using splinters of bone for brushes and blood for ink.
Perfect Penetration ... Complete penetration of the knots of the
senses, which frees one of attachments to sense-objects, resulting in
release from the cycle of birth and death and the attainment of
Pishachas... Ghosts that eat the vitality of things. They eat
people's essential energies, as well as the essential energies of
pi zhi fo ... See Pratyka Buddhas.
Pishachas ... Ghosts that eat the vitality of things. They eat
people's essential energies, as well as the essential energies of
Practices and Vows of the Bodhisattva Samantabhadra ... See
"Universal Worthy's Conduct and Vows."
Prajna ... (Sanskrit) transcendental wisdom, divine intuition;
one of the six paramitas.
Pratyeka-Buddha ... pi zhi fo, a Buddha who has attained
using techniques taught in the Small Vehicle school of Buddhism.
Pratyeka-Buddhas attain enlightenment through the intellect and
self-discipline. They lack the loving compassion and self-sacrifice of
the Bodhisattvas. Pratyeka-Buddhas can also be defined as Buddhas who
are enlightened to "conditions ."
Precepts ... See "Five Precepts."
Pure Land ... A Buddha-lland created by Amitabha Buddha for
cultivators who chant his name with single-minded wish to be reborn in
his land. The Pure Land is an ideal place for cultivation, abounding in
adornments and spiritual delights, where inhabits can continue their
progress toward enlightenment without ever again being subject to
retrogression (rebirth on earth or other lower realms). For more
details, see "The Pure Land" and "The Amitabha Sutra" pages on this Web
Pure Land School ... A school of Buddhism that focuses on Buddha
recitation and Pure Land study. The Pure Land School was founded in
China by Master Hui Yuan (334-416), the first Pure Land Patriarch, who
taught that faith in the Buddha Amitabha and recitation of his name
will ensure rebirth in Amitabha's Western Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss.
Shakyamuni Buddha put special stress upon the Pure Land method in many
Sutras. See also "Pure Land."
Pure Land Study ... The study of the Pure Land form of
Pure Mind ... In Pure Land Study, the attainment of mental
purity through Buddha recitation.
Pusa ... The Chinese word for Bodhisattva..
Rahula ... He was one of the Ten Great Disciples of Shakyamuni.
was the first in esoteric practices and in desire for instruction in
the Law. He was also the son of Shakyamuni.
Rajagaha ... Rajagaha in Pali, Rajagrha in Sanskrit. The capital
the ancient kingdom of Magadha in India, which was the centres of
culture at the time of Shakyamuni. The first Bodhi mandala of Buddhism
called Bamboo Grove Park was built by the elder Kalanda and King
Bimblisara of Magadha in Rajagaha.
Raksa ... Living in the Ghost Path. Like Yaksa, they are evil
and violent, but inferior to Yaksa.
Realm of Form ... See Three Realms... Realm of Formlessness ...
Three Realms... Realm of Sensuous Desire ... See Three Realms.
Recognition ... Or Conception or Thinking. The Sanskirt word is
Sanjna. It is the function of mind. It may lead to desire. One of the
Renunciation ... One of the Four Unlimited Mind. As one of the
Buddhist virtues, renunciation leads to a state of "undifferent without
pleasure or pain". It is also an equality in mind with no distinction
of self and others.
Right Action ... The fourth of the Eightfold Path; respect for
(do not kill), property (do not steal) and personal relationship (no
sexual misconduct) so as to purify one's mind and body... Right
Concentration ... Right abstraction, the eighth of the Eightfold Path;
meditation, focusing the mind without distraction, preparing the mind
to attain wisdom... Right Effort ... Right zeal or progress,
unintermitting perseverance, suppressing the rising of evil states and
stimulating good states, and to perfect those which have come to
beings... Right Livelihood ... The fifth of the Eightfold Path; right
life, abstaining from any of the forbidden modes of living. Five kinds
of livelihood are discouraged : trading in animals for slaughter,
dealing in weapons, dealing in slaves, dealing in poison and dealing in
intoxicants... Right Remembrance ... Right memory, right mindfulness;
the seventh of the Eightfold Path, avoiding distracted and clouded
state of mind, awareness and self-possessed... Right Speech ... The
third of Eightfold Path, abstaining from lying, slander/back biting,
abuse/harsh words and idle talk... Right Thought ... Right thought and
intent; avoiding desire and ill-will; the second of the Eightfold
Path... Right Understanding ... See Right View... Right View ...
Understanding the Four Noble Truths; the first of the Eightfold
Rupa ... See Matter or Five Skandhas.
Raging skandas ... See "five skandas."
Rakshasa ... A fearsome ghost.
Realm of Reality ... See "Dharma Realm." Realm of Truth ... See
Reckoning ... " not . . . one part by reckoning, one part by
calculation, one part that can be demonstrated by comparison, or one
part in an Upanishad ." (Flower Adornment Sutra, Chapter 40.) No matter
how you figure or calculate it, a very small number.
Refuge, Taking ... See "Triple Jewels."
Retrogression ... Rebirth on earth or other lower realms during
cycle of birth and death. Rebirth in the Pure Land ends the cycle of
birth and death; Pure Land inhabitants, freed from the cycle of birth
and death, are said to be beyond retrogression.
Reward body ... See "Three Bodies of the Buddha ."
Roots ... The kind of accumulated karma that an individual has
birth. Persons whose accumulated karma is good are said to have "good
Saddharmapundarika Sutra ... The Wonderful Dharma Lotus Flower
in Sanskrit. "Sad" means wonderful, and "Pundarika" means white lotus
Sagely Wheel-turning King ... He is referred to a Buddha as
spiritual king with all kinds of good marks and appearance, or a god
over a universe, or a preacher of the supreme doctrine. The wheel is
probably a symbol of the sun with its myraid rays.
Saha Land ... Also called the Saha World. It refers to the land
Earth. Saha interprets as bearing and enduring. Saha Land is contrary
to Pure Land. It is a place of good and evil. A universe where all are
subjected to transmigration and in which a Buddha transforms.
Sakrdagamin ... A Sanskrit word means one who returns once. It
certification of the second fruit of Arhatship. Being a Sakrdagamin, he
returns once - once to heaven and once among men before he cuts off the
last three categories of his delusions in thought in the Desire
Samadhi ... Sanskrit word for meditation. See Meditation and
Samana ... A Pali word, Sramana in Sanskrit. One who practices
austerities; an ascetic.
Samantabhadra Bodhisattva ... Also called Visvabhadra
Universally Worthy Bodhisattva. Being one of the Four Great
Bodhisattvas, he is the Bodhisattva of Great Conduct, representing the
Law. He has Ten Great King Vows, which are the guidelines in practising
Buddhism, and cultivating the Buddhist Way.
Samhita ... One of four types of Vedic literature in ancient
It consists of four sections, including poems, songs, rituals, mandra,
etc... 1.Rg-veda - life & health; 2.Sama-veda - ritual &
worship; 3.Yajur-veda - war study; 4.Atharva-veda - mandra &
poems... The four is know as Four Vedas.
Sammatiyah ... One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of
developed from Vatsiputriyah. It is a school of correct measures, or
correct evaluation, formed about 300 years after the Nirvana of
Shakyamuni. It was classified in the Pudgalavadin category, thus often
linked with Vatsiputriyah.
Samsara ... Sanskrit word meaning turning of the wheel or
It refers to the ransmigration in the Six Directions of Reincarnation,
the realm of birth and death.
Samskara ... See Volition or Five Skandhas.
Sangha ... The Buddhist monastic order. The corporate assembly
least 3 monks under a chairman, empowered to hear confession, grant
absolution and ordain. In general terms, it refers to any community
practising the Buddhist Way.
Sanjna ... See Recognition or Five Skandhas... Sankrantivada ...
Sannagarikah ... One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of
Sthavirandin, developed from Vatsiputriyah.
Sanskrit ... Brahma letters. The classical Aryan language of
India, systematized by scholars. With the exception of a few ancient
translations probably from Pali versions, most of the original texts in
Buddhism used in China were Sanskrit.
Sariputra ... Sariputra in Sanskrit, Sariputta in Pali. He was
in a Brahman family near Rajagaha. At the age of 17, he mastered all
Vedic doctrines. In seeking a good teacher, he studied under one of the
six great non-Buddhist teachers called Sanjaya. He met Shakyamuni with
the aid of Assaji, one of the Five Bhiksus. He then became one of the
Ten Great Disciples of Shakyamuni, noted for his wisdom and learning.
He was also the right-hand attendant on Shakyamuni. He died before
Shakyamuni entered Nirvana. He figures prominently in certain sutras.
He is represented as standing with Maudgalyayana by the Buddha when
entering Nirvana. He is to reappear as Padmaprabha Buddha.
Sarvastivadah ... One of the early Hinayana sects, said to be
about 200-300 years after the Nirvana of Shakyamuni. A branch of the
Vaibhasika claiming Rahula as founder. A school of reality of all
phenomena asserting the doctrine that all things are real... The
subdivision of Sarvastivadah was complicated and doubtful. In the list
of the Eighteen Sects of Hinayana, the Sarvastivadah was not taken into
account to be one sect, as it split into all the remaining sects...
Also known as Hetavadinah.
Satyasiddhi School ... One of the Ten Schools of Chinese
Founded on the Satyasiddhi Shastra by Harivarman... Satyasiddhi Shastra
... Written by Harivarman and translated by Kumarajiva, on which the
Satyasiddhi Sect bases its doctrine. It was a Hinayana variation of the
Sunya (emptiness) doctrine. The term is defined as perfectly
establishing the real meaning of the Sutras.
Sautrantika ... Sutravada in Sanskrit, Suttavada in Pali.
means reliance upon sutras, the original Buddhist texts, therefore
emphasized the efficacy and authority of the sutras. Also called
Sankrantivada as it held the view that the Skandhas transmigrate from
the former world to the later world. It is one of the Hinayana sect, a
branch of Sthaviradin developed from Sarvastivadah. Vasubandhu's
arguments in the Abhidharmakosa criticize the Vaibhasikas from a
Sautrantika viewpoint. The ideas influenced Mahayana doctrines to form
Savatthi ... Savatthi in Pali, Sravasti in Sanskrit. The capital
the ancient Kingdom of Kosala, where the famous monastery
(Bodhimandala) Jetavanna Grove was located.
Sensation ... Or Feeling. The Sanskrit word is Vedana. One of
the Five Skandhas. See Five Skandhas.
Seven Gems ... They are gold, silver, lapis lazuli, crystal,
mother-of-pearl, red pearls and carnelian.
Seven Title Classification ... Sutra titles fall into seven
accordingly to their reference to person, Dharma and analogy... A.Three
Single... 1.Solely by reference to people e.g. the Amitabha Sutra
2.Solely by reference to Dharma e.g. the Mahaparinirvana Sutra 3.Solely
by analogy e.g. The Brahma Net Sutra... B.Three Paired... 4.By
reference to a person and a Dharma e.g. The Sutra of the Questions of
Manjushri 5.By reference to a person and an analogy e.g. The Sutra of
the Lion's Roar of the Thus Come One 6.By reference to a Dharma and an
analogy. e.g. The Wonderful Dharma Lotus Flower Sutra...
C.Three-in-one... 7.By reference to person, Dharma and analogy together
e.g. The Great Universal Buddha Flower Adornment Sutra
Shakya ... Sakiya in Pali and Sakya in Sanskrit. The tribe to
which Shakyamuni belonged.
Shakyamuni ... Sakayamuni in Sanskrit, Shakyamuni in Pali. The
founder of Buddhism. He was born as the Prince of Sakyans, and was
called Siddhartha Goutama. At the age of 35, he attained the supreme
Enlightenment and became the Buddha and was the called Shakyamuni. The
word means "capability and kindness".
Shatika Shastra ... One of the Three Shastra of Madhyamika
called because of its 100 verses, each of 32 words. It was written in
Sanskrit by Vasubandhu and translated by Kumarajiva, but the versions
Siddhartha ... Siddhartha in Sanskrit, Siddhattha in Pali. The
name of Shakyamuni when he was born to the Prince Suddhodana. The name
means "wish fulfilled".
Singalovada Sutra ... A short sutra about ethics and
Six Directions of Reincarnation ... (1) Naraka, i.e. Hell (2)
i.e. Hungry Ghost (3) Tiryagyoni, i.e. Animal (4) Asura, i.e.
Malevolent nature spirits (5) Manusya, i.e. Human Existence (6) Deva,
i.e. Heavenly Existence
Six Dusts ... See Six Gunas... Six Entrances ... see Six Places
Six Indriyas... Six External Bases ... See Six Gunas... Six Fields of
Senses ... See Six Gunas.
Six Fulfilment ... The six requirements indicating that the
a true record of teachings given directly by the Buddha. They are the
fulfilment of meeting the requirement... 1.on belief 2.on hearing 3.on
time 4.on of the host 5.on place 6.on audiences
Six Gunas ... Or Six External Bases, or Six Dusts. They are
sound, scent/smell, taste, tangibles/touch and dharma/idea. They are
the qualities produced by the objects and organs of sense.
Six Heavens of Desire ... See Three Realms... Six Indriyas ...
Internal Bases, or Six Sense-organs, or Six Places. They are eye, ear,
nose, tongue, body and mind... Six Internal Bases ... See Six
Indriyas... Six Paramita ... See Paramita... Six Paths ... See Six
Directions of Reincarnation... Six Periods of Day and Night ... Six
periods in a day, three for day and three for night, i.e. morning,
noon, evening, night, midnight, dawn... Six Places ... Sanskrit word is
Sadayatana. See Six Indriyas.
Six Psychic Power ... (1) the phychic power of the heavenly eye
the psychic power of the heavenly ear (3) phychic power with regard to
post lives (4) phychic power with regard to the minds (5) the
spiritually based psychic powers (6) the psychic power of the
extinction of outflows
Six Roots ... Or Six Sense-organs, see Six Indriyas... Six
Sense-organs ... See Six Indriyas... Six States of Existence ... See
Six Directions of Reincarnation... Sixteen Contemplations ... See
Vipasyana Sukhavativyha Sutra.
Sixteen Hearts ... There are eight hearts within the Desire
1.Patience regarding the Dharma involved in Suffering 2.Wisdom
regarding the Dharma involved in Suffering 3.Patience regarding the
Dharma involving in Acculumation 4.Wisdom regarding the Dharma involved
in Acculumation 5.Patience regarding the Dharma involved in Extinction
6.Wisdom regarding the Dharma involved in Extinction 7.Patience
regarding the Dharma involved in Way 8.Wisdom regarding the Dharma
involved in Way... Note that the Truths of Suffering, Acculumation,
Extinction and Way are the Four Noble Truths, which is the fundamental
doctrine in Buddhism, particularly Hinayana.... There are the other
eight hearts within the Form Realm and the Formless Realm: 1.Subsequent
Patience regarding Suffering 2.Subsequent Wisdom regarding Suffering
3.Subsequent Patience regarding Acculumation 4.Subsequent Wisdom
regarding Acculumation 5.Subsequent Patience regarding Extinction
6.Subsequent Wisdom regarding Extinction 7.Subsequent Patience
regarding Way 8.Subsequent Wisdom regarding Way
Sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception ... The highest
the four heavens in the Realm of Formlessness, or called the sphere of
no-thing... Sphere of no-thing ... The heavens without form,
immaterial, consisting only of the mind in contemplation, being four in
number of which the "sphere of neither-perception-nor-nonperception" is
Spiritual Ghost ... Living in the Ghost Path. They are kind
in the nature, e.g. trees, mountain and sea protecting the
Sramanera ... Literally, it means the one who ceases from evil
does works of mercy or lives altruistically. He is a devoted and
zealous man who has taken a vow to obey the ten commandments in
Buddhist orders: 1.not to kill. 2.not to steal. 3.not to lie or speak
evil. 4.not to have sexual misconduct. 5.not to use perfumes or
decorate oneself with flowers. 6.not to occupy high beds. 7.not to sing
or dance. 8.not to possess wealth. 9.not to eat out of regulation
hours. 10.not to drink wine.
Sramaneraka ... Sramenera in female gender obeying the ten
commandments of Sramanera too.
Sravaka ... The first or initial stage in Hinayana, the second
that of Praetyka-Buddha. Sravaka, a Sanskrit word, means a hearer. It
generally relates to Hinayana disciple who understands the Four Noble
Truth in entering Nirvana.
Srotaapanna ... A Sanskrit word means one who has entered the
Sota-panna in Pali. He opposes the flow of common people's six dusts
and enters the flow of the Sage's Dharma-nature... It is the
certification of the first fruit of Arhatship, which is within the
Hinayana (small vehicle). It comes when the eighty-eight categories of
delusions of view are smashed and cut off by means of sixteen hearts.
It is called a Way of Liberation, for at that point, delusion is
completely severed and liberation is obtained. One who has certified to
Srotaapanna has seven more births and deaths to undergo. He will be
born seven times in the heavens and seven times among men.
Sruti ... The bibles of Brahmans, which are absolute truths
originated from holy gods. They dictated the philosophical and
religious thoughts in ancient India.
Sthavirah ... Also known as Sthaviranikaya or Aryasthavirah.
Sthavirah and Mahasanghikah are the two earliest sects in Buddhism. At
first, they were not considered to be different. Sthavirah merely
represented the intimate and older disciples of Shakyamuni, while
Mahasanghika being the rest. It is said that a century later, a
difference of opinion arose on certain doctrines. Three divisions were
named as a result (all in Ceylon): 1.Mahaviharavasinah 2.Jetavaniyah
3.Abhayagiri-vasinah... In the course, the eighteen Hinayana sects were
developed... From the time of Ashoka, four principal school are
regarded as prevailing: 1.Mahasanghika 2.Sthavira 3.Mulasarvastivada
4.Sammatiyah... As far as Sthavira is concerned, there are eleven sects
reckoned... The Sthaviravadins were reputed as nearest to early
Buddhism in its tenets, though it is said to have changed the basis of
Buddhism from an agonostic system to a realist philosophy.
Sthaviranikaya ... See Sthavirah.
Stupa ... Sanskrit word means burial mound, which contains the
or relics of an enlightened being. In China, it appears as pagoda,
representing the place where Buddha "lives".
Subhadra ... Subhadra in Sanskrit, Subhadda in Pali. A Brahman
120, who became Shakyamuni's disciple shortly before Shakyamuni's death
and is therefore known as the last disciple.
Sudatta ... See Anathapindika.
Sudden Enlightenment ... Enlightened all of a sudden by hearing
or studying Dharma, usually for those who practices Ch'an.
Suddhodana ... Pure Rice Prince, the father of Shakyamuni, ruled
over the Sakyans at Kapilaratthu on the Nepalese border.
Sudra ... Sudra in Sanskrit, Sudda in Pali. The lowest of the
Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni. They were peasants, slaves and
Sukhavativyuha Sutra ... It is one of the main Sutras for Pure
Sect. It stipulates the Forty-eight Vows of Amitabha Buddha, which give
rise to the characteristic of the Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss in the
Sumeru ... Sanskrit words. It means wonderful high mountain. It
composed of gold. silver, lapis lazuli and crystal, therefore it is so
wonderful. It is eighty four thousand Yugamdhara high and eighty found
thousand Yugamdhara wide, which is the greatest mountain amongst
Sutra ... Sutra in Sanskrit, Sutta in Pali. It is a "path"
necessarily passed through in the cultivation of the Way.
Saha ... (Sanskrit) Suffering... Saha world ... This world;
world of suffering. (See " saha.")
Samantabhadra ... Sanskrit name for Universal Worthy
Samanta means "general or universal;" bhadra means "sage;" and
Samantabhadra, which is derived from these words, means "the principle
of universal love or compassion." Samantabhadra is also referred to as
the Bodhisattva of Great Activity. See "Universal Worthy
Samsara ... Cycle of birth and death; realms of Birth and
San Gui ... The Triple Jewels; the ceremony of taking refuge in
Triple Jewels. The San Gui ceremony is described in detail on the page
titled "Taking Refuge in the Triple Jewels."
Sanskrit ... An ancient classical Indian languages in which many
Buddhist and Hindu scriptures are written. The earliest Buddhist books
were written in Prakrit; later translated into Pali; and still later
translated into Sanskrit. Most Chinese, Japanese, and Tibetan Buddhist
scriptures are translated from Sanskrit.
Sariputra ... Major disciple of Shakyamuni Buddha, foremost in
wisdom among Arhats.
Sarasvati ... (Sanskrit) The Goddess of Letters and
Seven treasures ... Gold, silver, lapis lazuli, crystal, agate,
pearl, and carnelian. They represent the seven powers of faith,
perseverance, "shame," avoidance of wrongdoing, mindfulness,
concentration and wisdom.
Shan Dao ... Shan Tao (613-81) was one of the first patriarchs
of the Pure Land school.
Sharira ... Solid relics found in the cremated remains of
saints after they leave this world and move on to the Buddha-realms.
Sharira that have the forms of pearls and precious jewels are often
found in the material remains of Buddhas. Sharira that are left behind
in the bodies of lesser beings often resemble white or colored pieces
Shorter Amitabha Sutra ... See Amitabha Sutra.
Shurangama Sutra ... The Sutra that gives the most detailed
explanation of the Buddha's teachings regarding the mind. It includes
an analysis of where the mind is located, an explanation of the origin
of the cosmos, a discussion of the specific workings of karma , a
description of all the realms of existence, and an exposition on fifty
kinds of deviant samadhi-concentrations that can delude us in our
search for awakening. Also, in a chapter of particular importance to
Pure Land practitioners, twenty-five enlightened beings explain the
methods they used to become enlightened. One of those beings is Great
Strength Bodhisattva (Chinese: Da Shi Zhi), who tells how attained
enlightenment using Buddha recitation. This section of the Sutra,
titled "The Foremost Attainment of Great Strength Bodhisattva through
Buddha Recitation," is presented in "The Enlightenment of Great
Strength Bodhisattva ."
Six directions ... North, south, east, west, above and below;
all directions. In the Flower Adornment Sutra, the six directions are
expanded to include the points of the compass that lie between the
major directions, (northeast, southwest, etc.) and are referred to as
the ten directions
Six dusts ... See "dusts." Six paramitas ... See "paramitas."
Six paths ... See "six states of existence."
Six states of existence ... The six states in which beings live
within the realm of birth and death. Within these states, the lowest
three are called the three evil paths, or three bad states. They are
the states of (1) people in hells, (2) hungry ghosts, and (3) animals.
Above these three states are the states of (4) humans, (5) Asuras, and
Six Principles of Living in Harmony ... The principles of (1)
(2) equality, (3) honesty, (4) freedom, (5) compassion, and (6) true
happiness. Taking refuge in the Triple Jewels helps us live by these
principles by restoring the complete wisdom and abilities of our
Six senses ... In Buddhism, the five senses plus mind... Six
sense organs ... The five sense organs plus the mind.
Sound-hearers ... (Sanskrit: Sravakas). One of the four grades
disciples in the Small Vehicle school. Sound-hearers attain liberation
through a meritorious life but lack the intellectual power of the
Pratyeka-Buddhas or the active compassion of the Bodhisattvas.
Small Vehicle ... A term used to describe Hinayana Buddhism,
said to "carry" fewer people to Buddhahood than Mahayana "Great
Vehicle" teachings can because -- as Master Chin Kung puts it -- Small
Vehicle teachings "solely stress self-realization." For more details,
see "Great Vehicle."
Sudhana ... Kumera Sudhana, also known as "Good Wealth" or "The
Celestial Youth of the Treasure of Merit," consecrated his life to the
attainment of Buddhahood and visited 53 saints in pursuit of that goal.
Finally, he met Universal Worthy Bodhisattva (Sanskrit: Samantabhadra),
who advised him to follow Ten Great Practices and to make Ten Great
Vows in order to be reborn in the Western Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss.
Sudhana's story is related in "The Flower Adornment Sutra, Chapter 40."
See also "Good Wealth."
Sukhavati ... Sanskrit name for the Western Pure Land, or Land
of Ultimate Bliss.
Sukhavati-Vyuha ... See "Amitabha Sutra."
Sumeru ... A mountain of inconceivable height.
Sutra ... Buddhist scripture... Sutra of the Heroic One ... See
"Shurangama Sutra." Sutra on Observing Amitabha (and His Pure Land) ...
See "Contemplation Sutra ." Sutra on Visualizing Amitabha (and His Pure
Land) See "Contemplation Sutra."
Taking Precepts ... see Morality.
Tantrayana ... Also called Vajrayana. A school of esoteric
Buddhism. It emphsizes not only meditation but also the use of symbolic
rites, gestures, postures, breathing, incantation, and other secret
Ten Dharma Realms ... also known as ten states of existence,
are: 1.Hell 2.Ghost 3.Animal 4.Asura 5.Man 6.Deva 7.Sravaka
(Sound-Hearer Arhat) 8.Praetyka-Buddha 9.Bodhisattva 10.Buddha... Each
Dharma realm has its own characteristics, and its existence is
attributed to the retribution of the beings. The lowest six realms
(1-6) are known as the Six Paths or Six Realms. These six states of
existence are subjected to birth and death,and then rebirth for many
lives. The upper four realms are known as the Four Holy Realms. These
four states of existence are beyond birth and death and liberated from
Ten Directions ... The eight points of the compass, in addition
to the nadir and the zenith.
Ten Good Deeds ... The Ten Forms of Good Actions for layman, or
Wholesomeness. 1.No killing 2.No stealing 3.No adultery 4.No lying 5.No
slandering 6.No harsh speech 7.No idle talks 8.No greed 9.No hatred
10.No illusion... It is essential for the rebirth in Deva realm.
Ten Great Disciples of Skakyamuni Buddha ... They are:
in Sanskrit, Mahakassapa in Pali. first in ascetism. 2.Ananda first in
having heard the words of Buddha. 3.Sariputra in Sanskrit, Sariputta in
Pali. first in wisdom. 4.Subhuti first in expressing emptiness. 5.Purna
first in explaining good law. 6.Maudgalyayana in Sanskrit, Moggallana
in Pali. first in supernatural power. 7.Katyayana first in preaching.
8.Aniruddha in Sanskrit, Anuruddha in Pali. first in the sharpness of
his divine eyes. 9.Upali first in taking precepts. 10.Rahula first in
esoteric practices and in desire for instruction in the law.
Ten Great King Vows ... The vows of Visvabhadra Bodhisattva:
worship and respect all Buddhas. 2.To praise the Thus Come One. 3.To
practise offerings. 4.To repent all karmic hindrance. 5.To rejoice and
follow merits and virtue. 6.To request that the Dharma wheel be turned.
7.To request that the Buddha remain in the world. 8.To follow the
Buddha's teachings. 9.To live in accord with all living beings. 10.To
spread all merits and virtue.
Ten Meritorious Deeds ... The Ten Meritorious Deeds allow people
gain a happy and peaceful life as well as to develop knowledge and
understanding. They are: 1.Charity 2.Morality / Taking Precepts
3.Mental cultivation / Meditation 4.Reverence or respect 5.Services in
helping others 6.Transference of merits 7.Rejoicing in the merits of
others 8.Preaching and teaching Dharma 9.Listening the Dharma
10.Straightening one's own views
Ten Offerings ... For the material there are ten kinds of
in Buddhism: 1.incense 2.flower 3.lamp 4.necklace 5.jeweled parasols
6.banners and canopies 7.clothes 8.fruit and food 9.music 10.joined
Ten Paramita ... see Paramita.
Ten Powers ... The Ten Powers of Buddha or Bodhisattva are the
complete knowledge of: 1.what is right or wrong in every condition
2.what is the karma of every being, past, present and future 3.all
stages of dhyana liberation and samadhi 4.the powers and faculties of
all beings 5.the desires or moral directions of every being 6.the
actual condition of every individual 7.the direction and consequence of
all laws 8.all causes of mortality and of good and evil in their
reality 9.the end of all beings and Nirvana 10.the destruction of all
illusion of every kind
Ten Schools of Chinese Buddhism ... 1.Kosa 2.Satyasiddhi
4.Tien Tai 5.Hua Yen 6.Dharmalaksana 7.Vinaya 8.Chan 9.Esoteric 10.Pure
Ten Stages of Bodhisattva ... These are the ten stages of
of Bodhisattva depending on their merits and virtues: 1.Pramudita (joy)
- job at having overcome the difficulties and sufferings, now entering
on the path to Buddhahood 2.Vimala (purity) - freedom from all possible
defilement 3.Prabhakari (enlightenment) - stage of further
enlightenment 4.Arcismati (widsom) - stage of glowing wisdom
5.Sudurjaya (no difficulty) - stage of mastering the utmost
difficulties 6.Abhimukhi (open way) - the open way of wisdom above
definitions of impurity and purity 7.Duramgama (proceeding afar) -
getting above ideas of self in order to save others 8.Acala
(unperturbed) - attainment of being unperturbed 9.Sadhumati
(discriminatory wisdom) - the finest discriminatory wisdom, knowing
where and how to save, and possessing the Ten Powers 10.Dharma megha
(law cloud) - attainment of the fertilizing powers of law cloud
Ten Titles of Buddha ... represent the characteristics of
1.Tathagata - the Thus Come Ones 2.Arhat - worthy of offerings
3.Samyak-sambuddha - of proper and universal knowledge
4.Vidyacarna-sampauna - perfect in understanding and conduct 5.Sugata -
skilful in leaving the world through liberation 6.Lokavid - perfect and
complete understanding of all worldly Dharma 7.Anuttara - unsurpassed
knights 8.Purusa-damya-sarathi - taming heroes 9.Sasta deramanusyanam -
teachers of gods and people 10.Buddha-lokanatha or Bhagaran - Buddha,
the World Honored Ones
Ten Vehicles of Meditation ... Vehicles is the means to take
beings across from suffering to Nirvana. Though there are ten vehicles,
there is only one teaching (Dharma), i.e., Inconceivable Virtues of the
Self-mind, and the other nine are supplementary. According to Tien Tai
Sect, the ten vehicles are: 1.Meditation of Inconceivable Virtue of the
Self-mind - highest order for superior roots 2.Meditation of Real
Bodhicitta 3.Meditation of Expedient Dwelling of Mind 4.Meditation of
Breaking Universal Dharma 5.Meditation of Penetrating through
Obstructed Consciousness 6.Meditation of Commissioning all Chapters of
Paths 7.Meditation of Confronting Delusion and Advocating Enlightenment
8.Meditation of Understanding the Stages of Fruition 9.Meditation of
Calmness and Endurance 10.Meditation of Non-attachment of Dharma
Ten Wholesomeness ... see Ten Good Deeds.
Theravada ... Thera, an elder; a fully ordained monk who has
rainy seasons. Theravada is the doctrine of the Theras, i.e. the
teaching of Southern Buddhism. It is one of the traditional 18 sects of
Hinayana Buddhism. This form of Buddhism emerged out of Mahinda's
mission to Sri Lanka (Ceylon) during Ashoka's region. They are
apparently very closely related to the orthodox Vibhajyavada doctrine
of Ashoka's time and represent the sole remaining Hinayanist sect
today... It is the form of Buddhism prevalent in S.E. Asian countries,
e.g. Thailand, Sri Lanka, etc. (see Mahayana).
Thirty-two Forms ... These are the physical marks of a Buddha:
1.Level feet 2.thousand-spoke wheel-sign on feet 3.long slender fingers
4.pliant hands and feet 5.toes and fingers finely webbed 6.full-sized
heels 7.arched insteps 8.thigh like a royal stag 9.hands reaching below
the knees 10.well-retracted male organ 11.height and stretch of arms
equal 12.every hair-root dark coloured 13.body hair graceful and curly
14.golden-hued body 15.a ten-foot halo around him 16.soft smooth skin
17.two soles, two palms, two shoulders and crown well rounded 18.below
the armpits well-filled 19.lion-shaped body 20.erect 21.full shoulders
22.forty teeth 23.teeth white even and close 24.the four canine teeth
pure white 25.lion-jawed 26.salvia improving the taste of all food
27.tongue long and broad 28.voice deep and resonant 29.eye deep blue
30.eye lashes like a royal bull 31.a white urna or curl between the
eyebrows emitting light 32.an usnisa or fleshy protuberance on the
Three Classifications ... Buddha shows that a person is nothing
than a combination of various elements which come together under
suitable conditions. They are: 1.the Five Skandhas 2.the Twelve Bases
3.the Eighteen Fields
Three Delusions ... In Tien Tai, three doubts in the mind of
Bodhisattva, producing three delusions, i.e., 1.through things seen and
thought 2.through the immense variety of duties in saving humans
Three Dogmas ... They are the Dogma of Void, Unreal and Mean.
See also Three Meditations of One Mind.
Three Enlightenments ... the three kinds of Enlightenment:
1.Enlightenment for self 2.Enlightenment for others 3.Perfect
enlightenment and accomplishment The first is Arhat. The second is
Bodhisattva. When all the three have been attained, the being becomes a
Three Evil Paths ... They are the three lowest realms of the
Nine Realms: hell, hungry ghost and animal.
Three Good Paths ... They are Man, Asura and Deva Paths.
Three Jewels ... Or the Three Precious Ones, i.e. the Buddha,
Dharma, and the Sangha, which are the three essential components of
Buddhism. They are the objects of veneration. Buddhists take refuge in
them by pronouncing the threefold refuge formula,thus acknowledging
themselves to be Buddhists.
Three Meditations of One Mind ... Also known as Three
Meditations, which is one of the practices in Tien Tai Sect in China.
According to Tien Tai, all existence in the universe consists of Three
Dogmas (Truths), namely, Void, Unreal and Mean. These three Dogmas are
co-existent and interactive, integrated and interrelated. If one can
meditate this concept with the whole mind, it is call Three Meditations
of One mind, or Inconceivable Profound Meditation.
Three Obstacles ... See Three Obstructions.
Three Obstructions ... Also called Three Obstacles. They are the
obstructions that hinder the attainment of Buddhahood. When the Three
Obstructions are cleared, the Three Virtues will be perfected. The
Three Obstructions are: 1.Affliction obstruction - e.g. due to Three
Poisons, i.e. greed, hatred and stupidity. 2.Karma obstruction - e.g.
due to Five Offenses, and Ten Unwholesome Deeds, i.e. the Karma in the
past. 3.Retribution obstruction - e.g. the suffering retribution in
Three Evil Paths.
Three Periods of Time ... That is the past, the present and the
Three Poisons ... or Three Roots... 1.Greed or wrong desire
or anger 3.Illusion or stupidity or ignorance These are the source of
all the passions and delusions.
Three Realms ... Sanskrit word is Triloka. It is Buddhist
metaphysical equivalence for the triple world of earth, atmosphere and
heaven... 1.Realm of Sensusous Desire (Sanskrit word is Kamadhatu) of
sex and food. It includes the Six Heavens of Desire, the Human World
and the Hells. 2.Realm of Form (Sanskrit word is Rupaadhatu) of matter
which is substantial and resistant. It is a semi-material conception.
It is above the lust world and contains bodies, places and things, all
mystic and wonderful. It consists of 18 heavens, including the Heavens
of Four Zen (Sanskrit word is Brahmalokas). 3.Realm of Formlessness
(Sanskrit word is Arupadhatu) of pure spirit, where there are no bodies
and matters to which human terms would apply, but where the mind dwells
in mystic contemplation; its extent is indefinable, but it is conceived
of in Four Stages/Places of Emptiness in the immaterial world. It has
four heavens, in which the Sphere/heaven of
neither-perception-nor-non-perception is the highest.
Three Roots ... The three (evil) roots, i.e. desire, hate and
stupidity. Another group is the three grades of good "roots" or
abilities, i.e. superior, medium and inferior.
Three Seals ... Also known as Three Universal Truths. 1.All
are impermanent. 2.All Dharma are not-self. 3.The eternity is
Nirvana... It is called the seal because it is to certify whether it is
the Buddha's teaching or not. Also see Four Seals.
Three Shastra ... They are: 1.Madhyamaka Shastra 2.Dvadashamukha
Shastra 3.Shatika Shastra... All three were translated by Kumarajiva,
on which the Three Shastra Sect bases its doctrines.
Three Studies ... or Three Vehicles of Learning... 1.Sila, i.e.
taking Precepts 2.Dhyana, i.e. concentration and meditation 3.Prajna,
i.e. wisdom It is practiced by the Arhats.
Three Sufferings ... 1.Feeling of suffering 2.Feeling of
suffering of decay 3.Feeling of neither suffering nor happiness -
suffering of the activity of the Five Skandhas.
Three Universal Characteristics ... The Three Universal
Characteristics are connected with the existence. They are: 1.All
phenomena are impermanent. 2.All Dharma are not-self. 3.All sensations
Three Universal Truths ... Also known as the Three Seals. Three
Universal Truths are the basic teaching of Buddha, so that they are
commonly used to attest Buddhism.
The Three Universal Truths are: 1.All phenomena are impermanent,
(i.e., Anicca in Sanskrit). 2.All dharmas are non-self, (i.e., Anatta
in Sanskrit). 3.The eternity is Nirvana and stillness.
Three Vehicles ... They are the Two Vehicles, plus the
Vehicle, i.e. the Vehicles for Sravaka, Pratyeka Buddha, and the
Bodhisattva are called the Three Vehicles.
Three Virtues ... The three virtues of power, 1.the virtue, or
potency of the Buddha's eternal, spiritual body, i.e., the Dharmakaya
2.the virtue of his Prajna, knowing all things in their reality 3.the
virtue of his freedom from all attachments and his sovereign
Three Wisdom ... There are three kinds of wisdom: 1.Sravaka and
Praetyka-Buddha knowledge that all the Dharmas or laws are void and
unreal 2.Bodhisattva knowledge of all things in proper discrimination
3.Buddha knowledge or perfect knowledge of all things in their every
aspect and relationship past, present and future... In Tien Tai Sect of
China, the Three Wisdom is associated with the Three Dogmas of Void,
Unreal and Mean.
Threefold Body of a Buddha ... They are: 1.Dharma body, i.e.
Dharmakaya - its own essential nature, common to all Buddhas.
2.Retribution body, i.e. Sambhogakaya - a body of bliss, which he
receives for his own use and enjoyment. 3.Response and transformation
body, i.e. Nirmanatkaya - he can appear in any form whenever and
wherever necessary for the sake of crossing over others.
Tien Tai Sect ... One of the Ten Great Sect in Chinese Buddhism.
was initiated by Hui Man in the dynasty of Bei-Chai, and was promoted
by Chi-Hai in Tsui Dynasty. Mainly based on Lotus Sutra, Tien Tai Sect
explains all universal phenomena with Three Dogmas. For the practices,
it emphasizes cutting off Three Delusions, thus establishes the method
of Three Meditations of One Mind.
Triloka ... see Three Realms.
Trinity of Western Paradise ... They are the Buddhas and the
Bodhisattvas in Western Paradise (Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss):
1.Amitabha 2.Avalokitesvara (Kuan Yin) 3.Mahasthamaprapta
Tripitaka ... Tripitaka in Sanskrit, Tipitaka in Pali. The three
parts of Pali canon, consisting of: 1.Sutra-Pitika (Sanskrit) or
Sutta-Pitaka (Pali), or the Sutra Basket - containing the entire , the
sermons attributed to the Shakyamuni Buddha. 2.Vinaya-Pitika (both
Sanskrit and Pali), or the Ordinance Basket - containing the rules of
monastic life. 3.Abhidharma-Pitika (Sanskrit) or Abhidhamma-Pitaka
(Pali), or Shastras, or the Treatise Basket - containing the doctrinal
commentaries, philosophical and technical works, such as discourses,
discussions, or treatises on the dogma, doctrines, etc.
True Suchness ... Bhutatathata in Sanskrit word. Bhuta means
substance that exists; tathata means suchness, thusness, i.e. such is
its nature. It is regarded as the absolute, ultimate source and
character of all phenomena. It is the eternal, imperson, unchangeable
reality behind all phenomena. Simply speaking, it is ALL... There are
many other terms to describe it, e.g. Buddha-nature, Self-nature Pure
Mind, Dharmakaya (Dharma Body), Tathagata-garbha (Buddha-treasury),
Reality (real mark), Dharma Realm, Dharma Nature, the Complete and
Perfect real nature, etc.
Tusita Heaven ... The fourth devaloka in the Realm of Desire.
inner department is the Pure Land of Maitreya who like Shakyamuni and
all Buddhas, is reborn there before descending to earth as the next
Buddha in our world.
Twelve Bases ... The Six Internal Bases and the Six External
are together called the Twelve Bases. Base implies the meaning of
germinating and nourishing. All mental activities are germinated and
nourished from these Twelve Bases.
Twelve Links of Dependent Origination ... see the Law of
Twelve Nidanas ... see the Twelve Links of Dependent
Twelve Places ... see the Twelve Bases.
Twenty Sects of Hinayana ... See the Eighteen Sects of Hinayana,
the two originals, i.e. Mahasanghikah and Sthavirah called the Twenty
Sects of Hinayana.
Two Deaths ... Two Deaths refer to 1.share-sectioned birth and
death 2.changed birth and death
Two Forms of Death ... 1.Natural death of the life 2.Death form
external cause and conditions
Two Obstacles ... Two Obstacles refer to: 1.the obstacle of
afflictions 2.the obstacle of what is known
Two Sects of Hinayana ... It refers to the Sthaviravadin and
Two Vehicles ... Two Vehicles generally refer to Sravaka and
Tathagata ... (English: Thus Come One . Chinese: ru lai ) A
used to refer to Buddhas -- either Shakyamuni Buddha or the Buddhas in
general.. Tathagata is a Sanskrit word that means "one who has attained
full realization of 'such-ness'" -- that is, one who has become one
with the absolute "Body of Law" (Dharma-Kaya) in such a way that he or
she neither "comes from anywhere" (na-agamana) nor "goes to anywhere" (
Ten directions ... The ten directions, or ten quarters, are:
south, east, west, north-east, south-east, north-west, south-west, the
nadir, and the zenith. See also "six directions."
Ten Esoteric Doors ... See " Ten Mysterious Gates."
Ten evil acts ... The acts of (1) killing, (2) stealing, (3)
indulging in sexual misconduct, (4) lying, (5) committing slander, (6)
using coarse language, (7) indulging in empty chatter, (8) harboring
covetousness, (9) using angry speech, and (10) holding wrong views.
Opposite of the ten kind deeds.
Ten evil deeds ... See "ten evil acts."
Ten Great Vows (of Universal Worthy Bodhisattva) ... Ten vows
Universal Worthy Bodhisattva (Samantabhadra) in the Flower Adornment
Sutra. The essence of Mahayana practice is contained in these Ten Great
Vows. The chapter in the Flower Adornment Sutra in which Universal
Worthy Bodhisattva makes his Ten Great Vows is presented on the page
titled "Flower Adornment Sutra, Chapter 40."
Ten Grounds ... According to the Mahayana sutras, there are a
of 52 levels of attainment before a cultivator achieves Buddhahood. The
41st to 50th levels constitute the level known as the Ten Grounds.
Above these stages are the levels of Equal Enlightenment, Wonderful
Enlightenment, and Buddhahood.
Ten Kind Deeds ... (1) No killing. (2) No stealing. (3) No
misconduct. (4) No lying. (5) No seductive speech. (6) No speech that
would cause discord and hatred. (7) No harsh speech. (8) No greed. (9)
No anger or hatred. (10) Refraining from ignorance.
Ten Mysteries ... See "Ten Mysterious Gates."
Ten Mysterious Gates ... Ten aspects of the interrelationship of
phenomena, as seen from the enlightened point of view. To explain such
relationship and harmony, the Avatamsaka (Flower Adornment) School
advances the Ten Profound Propositions: (1) All things are co-existent,
corresponding to one another. (2) The intension and extension of one
thing involve those of others without any obstacle. (3) The One and the
Many are mutually inclusive. (4) All things are identical with one
another. (5) The hidden and the manifested mutually perfect each other.
(6) All minute and abstruse things mutually penetrate one another. (7)
All things reflect one another. (8) Truth is manifested in facts and
facts are the source of enlightenment. (9) The past, present and future
are inter-penetrating. (10) All things are manifestations and
transformations of the mind."
Ten Precepts ... See "Ten Kind Deeds."
Ten Profound Propositions ... See " Ten Mysterious Gates."
Ten quarters ... The ten directions.
Ten Recitation Method ... A technique of Buddha recitation
in the Contemplation Sutra and presented on the Web site on the page
titled "The Ten Recitation Method." It is an ideal recitation method
for people who are busy with mundane activities but want to practice
Buddha recitation so they can achieve rebirth in the Pure Land.
Ten sins ... See "ten evil acts."
Ten Stages ... See "Ten Grounds."
Ten thousand conducts ... All the countless activities and
cultivation practices of the Bodhisattvas.
Thoroughly learned ones ... Saints who have reached the fourth
final stage of Arhatship. Persons in the first three stages of
Arhatship are called "learners." See also "four grades of
Those beyond learning ... See "thoroughly learned ones."
Those enlightened to conditions ... See
Those who are beyond study ... See "thoroughly learned
Three Bodies of the Buddha ... According to Mahayana teachings,
Buddha has three bodies: a Dharma Body (Sanskrit: Dharmakaya, the Body
of Reality); (2) A Reward Body (Sanskrit: Sambhogakaya, Noumenal Body,
or, Celestial Body); and (3) a Transformation Body (Sanskrti:
Nirmanakaya, Phenomenal Body, Manifested Body, or Incarnate Body). In
the Dharma Body , a Buddha is the personification of Suchness,
Emptiness, the Truth (e.g., Vairocana Buddha). A Buddha's Reward Body
is a body that is obtained as a reward of completing Bodhisattva
practice and understanding the Buddha-wisdom, which is transcendent and
imperceptible to common mortals (e.g., Amitabha Buddha). In the
Transformation Body, a Buddha is manifested in the ordinary world of
samsara (e.g., Shakyamuni Buddha).
Three evil paths ... See "three evil realms."
Three evil realms ... The realms of (1) people in hells, (2)
hungry ghosts, and (3) animals.
Three karmas ... Karmas accumulated as a result of actions by
the body, mouth, and mind.
Three kinds of enlightment ... There are three different kinds
enlightenment: self-enlightenment, the ability to enlighten others, and
the ability to attain self-enlightenment as well as to enlighten
others. See also Chapter 1 of "Understanding Buddhism."
Three periods of time ... The past, present, and future.
Three poisons ... Greed, anger, and ignorance.
Three Realms ... See "Triple Realm."
Three Sages of the World of Ultimate Bliss ... Amitabha Buddha,
Guan Yin Bodhisattva, and Great Strength Bodhisattva.
Three Studies ... Self-discipline, concentration, and
Three Treasures ... See "Triple Jewels."
Thus Come One ... A name for a Buddha. Hsuan Hua explains that
world "Thus" connotes stillness, while the word "Come" connotes action.
When combined, these two words connote stillness within action, or
action within stillness: i.e., the Buddha. See also "Tathagata."
Transference of merit ... The practice of transferring, or
one's own merits and virtues with others. For an example of a
recitation for transferring merit, see the page titled "Dedication of
Tongue of subtle and wonderful eloquence ... The tongue of one
who never tires of speaking the Buddha-dharma.
Transformation body ... See "Three Bodies of the Buddha."
Trikaya ... See "Three Bodies of the Buddha."
Triple Jewels ... The Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sanga. These
Sanskrit words for three good qualities we should all strive for:
"Awareness and Understanding," "Right Understanding and Views," and
"Purity and Harmony." Pure Land students who want to declare their
intention to deepen their cultivation can participate in a ceremony
called Taking Refuge in the Triple Jewels -- or, in Chinese, San
Triple Realm ... The realms of desire (our world), form (realms
the lesser dieties), and formlessness (realms of the higher dieties).
The Pure Land is outside the Triple realm, beyond samsara and
Triple Saints of the Flower Adornment Sutra ... The Triple
the Flower Adornment (Avatamsaka) Sutra are Universal Worthy
Bodhisattva; (Samantabhadra); Manjushri Bodhisattva, and the Tathagata
(or Dhyani Buddha) Vairocana.
True Dharma Realm ... The state of being in which enlightement
and the object of wisdom and enlightenment are one, not two.
Uddaka-Ramaputta ... Uddaka-ramaputta in Pali, Udraka-Ramaputra
Sanskrit. A sage under whom Shakyamuni studied meditation. The state
reached by Uddaka-Ramaputta was that at which neither thought nor
Udumbara Flower ... Udumbara flower blooms once every three
years, so it is rare and wonderful. It is used to describe how rare the
Unconditioned dharma ... Also known as Asamskrta dharma, which
anything not subject to the principle of cause and effect, nor law of
dependent origination, i.e. conditions. It is the dharma beyond the
Upanichads ... One of the four types of Vedic literature in
India, which are basically Brahmanic philosophical texts. It is a
sophisticated exposition of Indian philosophy and metaphysics about man
Uruvela ... A town in Magadha where Shakyamuni attained his
enlightenment and Buddhahood in the woods along Nairanjana river.
Uttarasailah ... One of the Hinayana School, a branch of
Mahasanghika. It was established in the third century, after the
Nirvana, whose seat is described as north of Jetavana.
Unconditioned merits and virtues ... Merits and virtues that do
have outflows and can therefore bring about liberation from the cycle
of birth and death.
Understanding Buddhism ... A book on basic Buddhism by the
Master Chin Kung. It is currently being translated into English.
Universal Worthy Bodhisattva ... A major Bodhisattva who
the transcendental practices and vows of the Buddhas (as compared to
the Bodhisattva Manjushri, who represents transcendental wisdom). Often
depicted seated on an elephant with six tusks representing the six
paramitas. Achieved enlightenment by by doing "Ten Great Practices" and
taking "Ten Great Vows," as related on the page titled "Flower
Adornment Sutra, Chapter 40."
Universal Worthy's Conduct and Vows ... Chapter 40 of the Flower
Adornment Sutra, in which Universal Worthy Bodhisattva made Ten Great
Vows which contain the essence of the Mahayana. See the page titled
"Flower Adornment Sutra, Chapter 40."
Upanishad ... (1) (Sanskrit) Dust-motes; thus, an inconceivably
number. (2) One of a set of Hindu scriptures called the Upanishads. (3)
The name of a Bhodisattva who, before becoming a Bodhisattva, was
plagued by an attachment to the female human form. To free himself of
this attachment, Upanishad contemplated unpleasant features of dead and
living human bodies, including bodies suffering the revolting effects
of boils, wounds, and diseases. Once he was freed from his bondage to
his to the flesh, he attained enlightenment. Upanishad relates this
experience in the same chapter of the Shurangama Sutra in which Great
Strength Bodhisattva explains how he became enlightened (see "The
Enlightenment of Great Strength Bodhisattva ").
Vaibhasika ... A Hinayana school of the reality of all
It is said that there were four branches of the Vaibhasika school, so
called after the Vaibhasika Shastra. 1.Sthavirah 2.Sarvastivadah
3.Vatsiputriyah 4.Mahasanghika... The school adhered primarily to two
Sarvastivadin texts, the Jnanaprasthana and
Vaisya ... Vaisya in Sanskrit, Vaishya in Pali. The third of the
Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni. They were merchant,
entrepreneurs, traders, farmers, manufacturers, etc., but not
Vajrayana ... Also called Tantrayana.
Vast and Long Tongue ... one of the thirty-two monks of Buddha,
enough to cover his face; it is also one of the "marvels" in the Lotus
Vasubandhu ... Buddhist philosopher of 500 A.D. The 21st
patriach of Mahayana Buddhism. He was great Buddhist commentator in
Hinayana, but was converted to Yogacara by his brother Asanga.
Vatsiputriyas ... Vatsiputriyas in Sanskrit, Vajjiputtakas in
Hinayanist sect often linked with Sammatiyah, which broke from the
orothodox Sarvastivada. The founder was Vatsa. They may be classified
as Pudgalavadins, accepting the pudgala transmigrated, and rejecting
the theory of the Five Skandhas (the Five Aggregates comprising
personality). They were considered schismatics through their insistence
on the reality of the self. That individual self is neither the same
nor different from the Five Skandhas. The doctrine challenged the
Dharma exposition by the Sarvastivadah. The school was later dividied
into four: Dharmottariyah Bhadrayaniyah Sammatiyah Sannagarikah
Vedana ... see Sensation or Five Skandhas.
Vedas ... Literally, it means knowledge. They are basic
Hinduism in India, composed between 2000 and 500 B.C. They consist of
Rg-veda, Sama-veda, Yajur-veda and Atharva-veda. The collection is also
known as the Vedic Samhita. Apart from Samhita, the Vedic literature
regarded as Sruti were Brahmana, Aranyaka and Upanisads.
Vibhajyavada ... Literally means Distinctionist or Holders of
Doctrine of Distinctions. A sect of Ashoka's Council at Pataliputra
(i.e. the Third Council). They were called as they made a distinction
of phenomena in time into two categories; those that exist and those
that do no... The meaning of the term, not necessarily limited to this
sect, is the method of particularization in dealing with questions in
debate. It is said that this school was established to harmonize the
difference between the Sthaviras and Mahasanghikas... The Abhidhamma
Pitaka was the definite work of this school, thus they gained supremacy
over the Sarvastivadins in the Third Council.
Vigor ... the fourth Paramita, pure and unadulterated progress,
zealous and courageous progressing in the good, and eliminating the
Vimalakirti-Nivdesa Sutra ... Vimalakirti, a Sanskrit word,
undefiled and pure reputation. Vimalakirti was said to be a native of
Vaisali, and an upasaka (not a monk) to assist Shakyamuni to preach and
cross over the human beings. The Sutra is the record of interesting
conversation between Vimalakirti and Manjusri Bodhisattva regarding the
understanding of One Buddha Vehicle.
Vinaya School ... Emphasizes the monastic discipline founded by
Tao Hsuan of the Tang Dynasty in China.
Vipasyana Sukhavativyuha Sutra ... It is one of the main sutra
Pure Land Sect. The Sutra indicates that the Pure Land of Amitabha
Buddha is one of the Buddha Lands. It also describes how to be born in
the Pure Land through the Sixteen Contemplations. Therefore, the Sutra
is also called "Sixteen Contemplations Sutra".
Visvabhadra Bodhisattva ... As one of the Four Great
is the one with the highest conduct. Visvabhadra, also known as
Samantabhadra, means universal worthy. He is the lord of the
fundamental law, the dhyana ( taking precepts) and the practice of all
Buddhas. Visvabhadra, the guardian of law, is often placed on the right
of Shakyamuni, while Manjusri, the guardian of wisdom, is the left. He
always rides on a white elephant, is the patron of the Lotus Sutra, and
its devotees, and has close connection with Hua-yen Sutra. He has Ten
Great King Vows, which give an excellent guideline to all Buddhists to
practice and cultivate the Buddha Way.
Volition ... or mental formation, or action, or conduct, or
usually done through the body, mouth or mind. The Sanskrit word is
Vasubandhu Bodhisattva's Commentary on the Way to Reaching Pure
... A commentary by Vasubandhu Bodhisattva on the Infinite Life Sutra.
In twenty-four stanzas, Vasubandhu explains how to attain birth in the
Pure Land and praises the wonders Pure Land.
Vairochana ... A Sanskrit name for Shakyamuni Buddha, the Thus
One of this saha world. In Sanskrit, the name Vairochana means
"pervading everywhere." It refers to the Dharma body of Shakyamuni
Way ... Generally, it refers to the Way of Bodhi or
leading to Nirvana through spiritual stages, and even to Buddhahood
through Bodhisattva's practices. Sometimes, it is also called the Path,
the Road, the Truth, the Reason, the Logos, Cosmic Energy, etc.,
depending on different circumstances.
Wheel of Law ... The Buddha-truth which is able to crush all
and which rolls on from man to man, place to place and age to age. To
turn the wheel means to preach Buddha-truth.
Wheel-rolling King ... Cakkavatti-raja in Pali, Cakravarti-raja
Sanskrit. Also known as Sagely Wheel-turning King. There are four such
kings, each with a precious wheel of gold, silver, copper, and iron.
The kings reign over the four areas in north, south, east and west. It
is believed that the Gold-Wheel King is to come in perfection and unify
the world. In Indian mythology, he is the ideal ruler.
Wisdom ... the highest of Paramita; the virtue of wisdom as the
principal means of attaining Nirvana. It connotes a knowledge of the
illusory character of everything earthly, and destroys error,
ignorance, prejudice and heresy.
World Honoured One ... One of the titles of the Buddha. In
this is the respected title of Shakyamuni Buddha. See also Ten Titles
Western Pure Land ... See "Pure Land."
Wheel of Dharma ... See " Dharma wheel."
Wheel-turning kings ... (Sanskrit: chakra-varti-rajas, "holy
who turn the wheel.") Great kings who rule various worlds but are not
as high as Buddhas or great Bodhisattvas.
World Honored Ones ... Buddhas.
Worldly dusts ... See "dusts."
Wonderful Enlightenment ... See "Ten Grounds."
Yaksa ... The demons in the lower realm, like the Ghost Realm.
are evil, malignant and violent. They live on earth or in air.
Yana ... a Sanskrit word means vehicle. A term applied to
a means by which a practitioner cultivates on the path to
enlightenment. The different vehicles correspond to views of spiritual
path, that differ as to the basic attitude of the practitioner and the
means of making progress on the way. There are categories of one, two,
three and five vehicles.
Yasodhara ... the wife of Siddhartha Goutama. She later became a
Yogacara ... See Dharmalaksana School.
Yakshas ... Demons who can move very fast.
Yin Guang ... Master Chin Kung's Dharma Teacher was Professor
Ping-Nan Lee. Professor Lee's Teacher was Master Yin Guang.
Yin Kuang ... See "Yin Guang."
Zeal ... see Vigor.
Zen ... also called Chan; see Contemplation and
Zen ... A Japanese school of Buddhism, which is much like the
school of Buddhism known as Chan. "Zen" is the Japanese pronunciation
of the Chinese character "Chan" (or "Ch'an").