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They came by ship - British Immigrants who arrived 1841

"Perilous voyages to the new land"

Cannon, Michael 1929-, Publisher: Today's Australia, Pub date: 1995, Pages: 238 p. :ISBN: 0646240188
Accounts of immigrant ships to Australia 1840-1850 that reveal often harrowing conditions and experiences, with storms, rickets, disease, irresponsible captains and wild passengers. Chapters also discuss Irish orphan immigration and attempts at reform. With contemporary illustrations, five documentary appendixes, bibliography and index.

"The Somerset years"

: Government assisted emigrants from Somerset and Bristol who arrived in Port Phillip/Victoria 1839-1854, CHUK, Florence. Publisher: Pennard Hill, Pub date: (198-) ISBN: 073160136
The introduction of the Bounty System enabled many people from Ireland, as well as from England and Scotland, to migrate to Australia. During the 1830's and 1840's almost half of all assisted migrants were of Irish origin.
The emigration figures for 1841 show that of the people who arrived in Australia there were 4,563 English, 1,616 Scottish, and 13,400 Irish.

I thought the figures were not supported by passenger lists, and this Port Phillip study is the result of my efforts.
I forgot that Bounty immigrants were also arriving in Adelaide, Hobart and Sydney in 1841

Port Phillip DiedArrivedStaffGentsOthersBounty EnglishIrishScotUnknownBorn GirlsMenCouplesFamiliesSonsDaus
63 Vessels 234 8858190 627 6327452 1527 4833 785 18091 1653 1538 514 752 939 805
22 vessels arrived with paying passengers and cargo instead of Bounty immigrants
The Authorities refused Bounty
for 379 who came on the Ward Chapman (used tinned food) and the 147 rescued by the Grindlay after the India burned.
41 other refusals were usually because the Agent sent more single men, than the number of single women landed

The workforce was increased by 3,263 single people, and by 1306 married men who had to provide for 3087 dependants.


Cargo and Coastal Ships


Many vessels (at least 200), both small and large, arrived in the port of Melbourne in 1841 from places in Australia. Most originated in major Australian colonial ports like Sydney, Hobart, Launceston and Adelaide, and at least some of these would have been carrying cargo which had been transhipped from vessels arriving from overseas. A smaller, but still significant, number of small vessels (usually less than 100 tons) arrived from outlying settlements such as Twofold Bay (NSW), King Island and Flinders Island (Tasmania) as well as Geelong, Western Port, Portland Bay and Corner Inlet (Victoria).

103 vessels recorded in Geelong Advertiser for 1841
Abeona, Adelaide, Adelaide, Agnes and Elizabeth, Agenoria, Alexandrina, Alice, Anne, Aphrasia, Augustus, Australasian Packet, Bandicoot, Blossom, Boujah Maiden, Brazil Packet, Brothers, Caroline, Catherine, Challenger, Charlotte, Christina, Clonmel, Clydesdale, Corsair, Devonshire, Diana, Dusty Miller, Eagle, Eamont, Elizabeth Lloyd, Ellen and Elizabeth, Emma, Essington, Fairlie, Flinders, Flying Squirrel, Foment, Fox, Gem, Gilbert Jamieson, Governor Arthur, Governor La Trobe, Hamilton, Harriett, Harvest Home, Henry, Industry, Isabella, Itana, Jewess, John Pirie, Kilmaurs, Lady Emma, Lady of St Kilda, Lapwing, Lillias, Lively, Lord Hobart, Lorina, Lowestoft, Lucy, Lunar, Maguasha, Maia, Majestic, Margaret, Mary, Mary Jane, Midlothian, Minerva, Naiad, Neptune, Nerio, Nimrod, Orient, Patriot, Paul Pry, Pickwick, Platina, Porter, Rookery, Rovers Bride, Royal Mail, Sarah Bell, Scout, Sea Horse, Shamrock, Singapore, Sir John Franklin, Sisters, Socrates, Sophia Pate, Tamar, Tasman, Thetis, Timbo, Truelove, Truganina, Vesper, Victoria, Will Watch, William Hughes, William Salthouse,

Coastal Shipping newspaper reports sometimes have lists in the arrival notes, but those who overlanded from Sydney or Adelaide are even more difficult to identify.

From Overseas by Ship to Port Phillip

Paid own fares, 300 named and 200 unknown (who travelled Steerage or Intermediate) to PP and listed in the papers of the day A combination of reports by the Port Phillip Herald listing arrival of 63 vessels from United Kingdom, and Shipping lists for Bounty passengers, suggests 42 vessels brought 7452 persons came to Port Phillip in 1841.
The hidden group in Intermediate and Steerage - neither listed in newspaper as arrivals, or ship list as bounty, has at least 491 arrivals, and 87 who went from Port Phillip, during 1841. There are 9081 entries with a surname, 788 paid own fares on Bounty vessels plus 299 on other vessels, plus 177 named staff (Masters, Doctors, Mates).

Figures based on data of 63 vessels, 21 with no Bounty passengers (there were others but details are vague), bringing 9126 people, 835 are unassisted with 414 dependants, and Bounty souls are 1783 single women, 2944 men aged 18 or more, either married or single, with 3218 wives and children,

January

- Salsette [Jan 2], Ariadne [Jan 9], Helen Thompson [Jan 12], Fergusson [Jan 15], Sir Charles Forbes [Jan 21], Nimrod [Jan 26]
6 vessels, bringing a total of 840 people, 136 unassisted with 51 dependants, and bounty souls are 149 single women, 228 married or single men, 276 wives and children,

February

- Georgiana [Feb 23], York [Feb 24]
2 vessels brought 326 people, 80 unassisted with 54 dependants, 61 men, 101 wives and children, and 30 single women


The census of 21 March 1841 showed a population for the Port Philip District of 11,758 (Melbourne 4,479).
In the whole district, there were 1767 Employers of labour including professions and trades; and 8,926 labourers of every description, a total of 10,693 working and just over 1000 others, some seniors and mostly young children.

In the months March to Dec 1841, almost 8,000 arrived from overseas, as well as those uncounted who overlanded from Adelaide or Sydney, or came by coastal ships. The population doubled, and failing to pay led to many bankrupts.


March

- Argyle [Mar 1], Neptune [Mar 28]
2 vessels brought 536 people, 66 unassisted with 13 dependants, and bounty souls are and 128 single women, 200 men, 129 wives and children,

April

- Fortitude [Apr 3], John Cooper [Apr 4], Bycker [6 Apr], Argyle [Apr 12],
4 vessels brought 348 people, 55 unassisted with 38 dependants, and bounty souls are 53 single women, 72 men, 130 wives and children,

May

- Jupiter [May 5], Lady Raffles [May 30],
2 vessels brought 14 people, 11 unassisted with 3 dependants,

June

- Duchess Of Northumberland [Jun 3], Frankfield [Jun 8], Benares [Jun 9],
3 vessels brought 558 people, 51 unassisted with 11 dependants, and bounty souls are 94 single women, 173 men, 229 wives and children,

July

- England [Jul 17], Royal Saxon [Jul 17], George Fyfe [Jul 23], Brilliant [Jul 26], Stratheden [Jul 26], William Abrams [Jul 26], Westminster [Jul 29]
7 vessels brought 1356 people, 77 unassisted with 57 dependants, and bounty souls are 280 single women, 486 men, 456 wives and children,

August

- (John Campbell [Aug 20], William Metcalfe [Aug 27], Strathfieldsaye [Aug 30]
3 vessels brought 556 people, 64 unassisted with 51 dependants, and bounty souls are 136 single women, 173 men, 132 wives and children,

September

- Tasmania [Sep 14], Forth [Sep 19],
2 vessels brought 259 people, 13 unassisted with 20 dependants, and bounty souls are 70 single women, 83 men, 73 wives and children,

October

- Middlesex [Oct 1], Thomas Arbuthnot [Oct 2], Agricola [Oct 3], Enmore [Oct 4], Intrinsic [Oct 7], Alemena [Oct 17], Brothers [Oct 20], Catherine Jamieson [Oct 22], Grindlay [Oct 22], Lysander [Oct 22]
10 vessels brought 1743 people, 123 unassisted with 55 dependants, and bounty souls are 350 single women, 573 men, 642 wives and children,

November

- Diamond [Nov 4], Wallace [Nov 26], Allan Kerr [Nov 27], Frances [Nov 28], Marquis Of Bute [Nov 30], Mary Nixon [Nov 30]
6 vessels brought 1365 people, 49 unassisted with 20 dependants, and bounty souls are 231 single women, 492 men, 573 wives and children,

December

- Branken Moor [Dec 12], Britannia [Dec 9], Asia [Dec 16], Ward Chapman [Dec 16], William Mitchell [Dec 17], Agostina [Dec 17], Gilmore [Dec 24], Alexander [Dec 24],
8 vessels brought 1196 people, 46 unassisted with 61 dependants, and bounty souls are 206 single women, 406 men, 477 wives and children,

Using percentages, 18% arrived in Jan to March, 10% Apr-June, 23% July-Sep, and 47% arrived in Oct to Dec.

1 Shipwreck - India burned, 20 drowned, 153 rescued by the Roland and came on the Gilmore.
Authorities refused to pay Bounty, as transfer had not been authorised. This was announced after the Gilmore landed it's destitute passengers who lost all in the fire.

Came with goods and passengers -
Asia, Benares, Britannia, Brothers, Bycker, Caroline, Catherine, Clonmel, Eagle, Edina, Fortitude, Hamilton, Helen Thompson, Indus, John Campbell, Jupiter, Lady Raffles, Mary Hay, Nimrod, Platina, Rookery, Salus, Stratheden, Tasmania, Thomas Crisp, William, William Hughes,

Bounty Vessels

Fortitude had 5, Asia had 6 and Brilliant had 17 Bounty souls, Ward Chapman with 344, England with 337 and Frankfield with 312 were the most crowded.
Agostina,space Agricola,space Alexander,space Allan Ker,space Argyle in March,space Argyle in April,space Ariadne,space Branken Moor,space Brilliant,space Catherine Jamieson,space Diamond,space Duchess of Northumberland,space England,space Enmore,space Ferguson,space Forth,space Frances,space Frankfield,space George Fyffe,space Georgiana,space Gilmore,space Grindlay,space Intrinsic,space John Cooper,space Lysander,space Marquis of Bute,space Mary Nixon,space Middlesex,space Neptune,space Royal Saxon,space Salsette,space Sir Charles Forbes,space Strathfieldsaye,space Thomas Arbuthnot,space Wallace,space Ward Chapman,space Westminster,space William Abrams,space William Metcalf,space William Mitchell,space York,

A Barque Staff are consistently shown as 5 - the Master, Surgeon-Superintendent, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Mate,
because these 5 are paid, so names are on Ship Disposal Certificate (Victorian lists).
The lists of Crew members, and registration of the vessel are held at Kew Public Records Office, UK
The Crew payments were based on the number of Bounty souls landed, so infants were counted here -
Doctor received 10/6, Master 3/-, 1st Mate 1/6 and 2nd and 3rd Mates received 1/- a head.


The numbers of sons and daughters does not balance that of children, because some are aged over 14, so counted among the single males and single females. Some family age ranges suggest three generations have come together, an older parent, adult children and infants

Other includes paying passengers when either their names, or the number, is known. Included in this group are those who were refused Bounty status on arrival.

Bounty passengers are counted as number of couples, adults with children, sons and daughters, boys under 18 and girls under 15, husbands, wives, single males and single females. There appears to be a number of couples whose ages suggest a second marriage with step children.
Bounty in pounds (20/-) was paid per individual at 19 for each adult, 15 for males aged 15-18, 10 for children aged 7-15, and 5 for children aged 1-7. Infants were not included. Girls over 14 are included as Single females costing 19 each.

The web page featuring 'Wreck of the William Salthouse, 1841' shows a clear picture of Port Phillip. The 251 ton vessel William Salthouse, was the only trading vessel to try to come from Canada to Port Phillip and it floundered and the loss is reported in The Port Phillip Herald for Tuesday, November 30, 1841.


Customs Regulations 1841

Comment Column 2 Page 2, Geelong Advertiser 6 Dec 1841 - on the relaxation requiring vessels to use Williams Town as Port of Entry, where the Captains presented their papers on arrival, although it is not the Port of Discharge

The census of 21 March 1841

showed a population for the Port Philip District of 11,758 (Melbourne 4,479).
Bounty 4632 family members, 1686 girls, 2414 men (despite rule that number of men must be less than that of single women, to receive Bounty allowance).

Geelong Advertiser for 17 July 1841 reports I have NOT corrected the additions
Population of Melbourne 4,479; of county Bourke 3,241; of district of Western Port 1,391; of Geelong 454; of county Grant 336; of Portland 597, and of county Normanby 1,260, total 11,728.
Houses - In Melbourne 769, county Bourke including Newtown and Williams Town 432 besides 67 huts; district of Western Port 110; Geelong 81, county and district of Portland Bay 100 total 1,559
Condition - Convicts employed by Government, in Melbourne 64, in county Bourke 34, district of Western Port 5, Geelong 20, county Grant 17, in Portland 2, district and county of Portland Bay 4, total 146. Convicts in private assignment - in Melbourne 10, county of Bourke 70, district of Western Port 122, Geelong 6, county of Grant 0, county and district of Portland Bay 23, total 213. Total of convicts in the district 359 (exclusive of two women).
Of the male free population, there are 215 colonial born, 6,500 arrived free, 104 emancipists, 124 holding tickets-of-leave. Of the female population there are 347 born in the colony, 2,908 arrived free, 104 emancipists, 2 holding tickets-of-leave.
Religion - Church of England 6,194, Church of Sctland 2,045, Wesleyan Methodists 651, other Protestant Dissenters 353, Roman Catholics 1,441, Jews 59, Mahomedans and Pagans 10
Station in Life - Employers of labour including professions and trades 1,767; labourers of every description 8,926, Total 10,693


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